CLIM-FO-L Electronic Journal and Newsletter May/2009
I. In THE PRESS
Poor countries already suffering from the impact of climate change urgently need up to $2 billion to help adjust and cope, a new report submitted to the United Nations said on Thursday.
An official with China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) said rich nations must commit to cutting emissions by between 25 percent and 40 percent by 2020, as well as ramp up funding for developing countries.
As environmentalists and politicians rally around the inclusion of avoided deforestation projects in an international climate change agreement, some big questions about forest and land ownership loom unanswered.
The Japanese government will loan Peru $120 million to protect 55 million hectares (212,000 square miles) of Amazon rainforest over the next ten years, reports El Comercio.
Indonesia has finalised some of the rules to govern carbon market payments for forest preservation, the first country to do so. Up to 20 REDD projects are thought to be in the pipeline in Indonesia, all eyeing the voluntary carbon market.
Agro-forestry study may open carbon market to poor
International researchers launched a $12 million study on Monday intended to help many of the world's poorest farmers benefit from multi-billion dollar schemes to limit emissions of greenhouse gases.
Indonesia's forestry minister signed the rules last Friday, making Indonesia the first nation to formally enact regulations governing a U.N.-backed scheme called reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD).
After an all-night session on the last day of the session, delegates adopted a resolution on forests in a changing environment, enhanced cooperation and cross-sectoral policy and programme coordination, and regional and subregional inputs. Delegates did not agree on a decision on financing for SFM.
Fourty percent or more of the Amazon rainforest will be "decimated" by the middle of the next century even if we cut all CO2 emissions by 2050, said the UK Met Office.
Fire accounts for roughly half of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and about twenty percent of total emissions from human activities, report researchers writing in the journal Science.
Efforts to create an international climate framework - including a carbon financing mechanism for forest conservation - must involve forest people, said indigenous leaders attending the Indigenous Peoples Global Summit on Climate Change meeting this week in Anchorage, Alaska.
A new book written by members of indigenous communities across Indonesia argues that traditional forest management practices can provide important lessons in the effort to slow climate change.
91 percent of companies rated avoided deforestation as the most desirable forestry projects for carbon offsets, reports a survey by EcoSecurities, Conservation International, The Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance and ClimateBiz.
Sustainable forest management policy is crucial at a time when climate change, the financial crisis and unsustainable development are posing severe risks to this invaluable global resource, United Nations officials said today.
II. The Road to Copenhagen - UNFCCC negotiations
The Bonn Climate Change Talks - June 2009
1 - 12 June 2009
Bonn, Germany. The meetings include the thirtieth sessions of the UNFCCC Convention subsidiary bodies - SBSTA and SBI, sixth session of the AWG-LCA and the eighth session of the AWG-KP. Negotiations under AWG-KP will focus on i) further emission reduction commitments for Annex I Parties and on ii) other related issues -- including land use, land use change and forestry; emissions trading and the project-based mechanisms; and other issues. Negotiations on a common vision, adaptation, mitigation, and finance and technology will continue under AWG-LCA. "Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation" will be discussed under the mitigation agenda item. More information on the meetings.
21-23 April 2009
The session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change focused mainly on the scoping process for the Fifth Assessment Report with a view to providing guidance to the climate change experts who will outline the Fifth Assessment Report. The draft for the final outline is expected during the meeting in Venice, Italy, from 13-17 July 2009.
The outline of the Fifth Assessment Report is expected to focus on the mitigation and adaptation policies required. The report is expected to spotlight the regional and local scales and focus on the needs an understanding of the economic and social implications of climate change. A shift of focus from science to towards policy is thereby expected.
The 8th Meeting of the Asia Forest Partnership and AFP Dialogue REDD and Combating Illegal Logging
May 27-29, 2009
Melia Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia. The AFP dialogue will provide an opportunity for tropical forest stakeholders to share information, to establish partnerships and to propose recommendations to policymakers. The Asia Forest Partnership (AFP) Dialogue will examine links between mechanisms to compensate countries for reducing deforestation and forest degradation, and efforts to combat illegal logging and the associated timber trade. The two-day event will provide an opportunity for the many stakeholders in tropical forests to share information, to establish partnerships and to propose recommendations to policymakers. More.
World Environment Day, commemorated each year on 5 June, is one of the principal vehicles through which the United Nations stimulates worldwide awareness of the environment and enhances political attention and action. More.
June 6, 2009
On Saturday, 6 June 2009 at Gustav Stresemann Institut, Bonn, Germany, the UNCCD Secretariat is convening a one-day event for climate change negotiators to consider in depth the linkages between climate change and desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD). It will explore the salience of sustainable soils/land management for climate change adaptation. More.
June 17 - 19, 2009
Based on its strong experience in designing of projects, analysis of feasibility, implementation in various countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, France...) ONF International wishes to make share this know-how. This latter is strengthened by a fine knowledge of the international negotiations as regards fight against the climate changes, of the specific tools for afforestation/reforestation within the framework of the Protocol of Kyoto or the voluntary labels (VCS, CCB,...) and of the procedures leading to the production and the marketing of carbon credits. More.
July 27 - August 7 2009
The International Carbon Action Partnership will convene the first ICAP Summer School for emerging and developing countries in Berlin, Germany. Addressed to policy makers and stakeholders, it will convey an in-depth understanding of emissions trading as an instrument to mitigate greenhouse gases, and build capacity on the technical design and implementation of carbon trading systems. Participants will have ample networking opportunities with each other and with the teaching faculty, composed of representatives from ICAP members and other recognized experts in the field. Use of communication technologies will help promote active discussions among participants beyond the duration of the Summer School.
August 31 - September 4
WMO hosts the conference with the overarching theme of "Climate prediction and information for decision-making: focusing on scientific advances in seasonal to inter-annual time-scales, taking into account multi-decadal prediction". It includes the application of climate prediction and information to societal problems enabling adaptation to climate variability and change in various sectors such as agriculture and food security, forestry, energy, water, health, urban and rural settlements, infrastructure, tourism, wildlife, trade and transport that contribute to sustainable socio-economic development. More.
September 28 - 30
Hosted by The University of Oxford, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and the Met Office. The aim of this conference is to: (i) assess the consequences of a change in global temperature above 4°C for a range of systems and sectors, and (ii) explore the options that are open for avoiding climate changes of this magnitude. The results of the conference will form an important background to the COP 15 United Nations Climate Change Conference, in Copenhagen, December 2009, and the inevitable negotiations that will follow COP 15. More.
August 23 - 28 2009.
Nairobi, Kenya. The overall Congress theme is "Agroforestry - The Future of Global Land Use". Plenary, symposia, concurrent sessions, and poster sessions will be organized around different major topics, based on the following: markets as opportunities and drivers of agroforestry land use; tree-based rehabilitation of degraded lands and watersheds; climate change adaptation and mitigation; agroforestry's contribution to a multifunctional agriculture combining productivity with environmental sustainability; and policy options and institutional innovations for agroforestry land use. More.
REDD - finance mechanism of the future?
Scholl, J.; Scheliha, S. von;
Rural 21. 2009. 43: 1, 21-24
'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation' (REDD) is the new buzzword in international forest conservation. The basic idea is this: the industrialized countries will pay the developing countries compensation to reduce deforestation, which in turn will cut greenhouse gas emission. This paper describes the implementation of REDD programme in Brazil and Indonesia.
Blennow, K.; Persson, J.;
Global Environmental Change. 2009. 19: 1, 100-104. 30 ref.
We tested two consequences of a currently influential theory based on the notion of seeing adaptations to climate change as local adjustments to deal with changing conditions within the constraints of the broader economic-social-political arrangements. The notion leaves no explicit role for the strength of personal beliefs in climate change and adaptive capacity. The consequences were: (i) adaptive action to climate change taken by an individual who is exposed to and sensitive to climate change is not influenced to a considerable degree by their strength of belief in climate change and (ii) adaptive action to climate change taken by an individual who is exposed to and sensitive to climate change is not influenced to a considerable degree by their strength of belief in an adaptive capacity. Data from a 2004 questionnaire of 1950 Swedish private individual forest owners, who were assumed exposed to and sensitive to climate change, were used. Strength of belief in climate change and adaptive capacities were found to be crucial factors for explaining observed differences in adaptation among Swedish forest owners.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Reclaimed Forest and Grassland Soils
Shrestha, Raj K. Lal, Rattan Penrose, Chris
Journal of environmental quality. 2009 Mar-Apr. 38(2) p. 426-436
Received for publication June 19, 2008. Although greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils are important, reclaimed mine soil (RMS) ecosystems are not widely assessed. Postreclamation land uses (forest, hay, and pasture) were investigated to: (i) monitor the magnitude of GHG fluxes, (ii) estimate their global warming potential (GWP), (iii) identify the relationship between GHG fluxes and soil properties, and (iv) develop a soil quality index by principal component analysis (PCA). The GHG fluxes were measured for 1 yr cycle and simultaneous measurements were also made for soil moisture and temperature. The RMS-forest, -hay, and -pasture land uses had weighted average fluxes of 1.16, 1.66, and 3.06 g CO2-C m-2 d-1; 0.33, 0.48 and 1.1 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1; and 0.33, 0.70, and 1.06 mg N2O-N m-2 d-1, respectively. The CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes were consistently high in the RMS-pasture and low in the RMS-forest. The GWP (CO2-C equivalent) of the postreclamation land uses was in the order of RMS-forest (4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1) = RMS-hay (6.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1) < RMS-pasture (12.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1). The PCA showed that four PCs with eigenvalues > 1 explained 88.8% of the total variance in the soil properties. The first PC is mostly characterized by soil physical properties and the second by chemical properties. Soil and air temperatures were positively correlated with CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes. The results suggest that GWP from RMS can be minimized by establishing forest land use.
Production, carbon and economical profitability of Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus grandis in silvipastoris system in south Brazil.
Oliveira, E. B. de; Ribaski, J.; Zanetti, E. A.; Penteado Junior, J. F.;
Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira. 2008. 57, 45-56. 15 ref.
A study was conducted to estimate wood production, CO2 stocks and economic profitability including carbon credits sale from pasture associated eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis) and pine (Pinus elliottii) plantations. For each species, two experimental plots were used, all installed at natural pasture land in Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Experimental plots were submitted to three treatments: two of them with silvipasture systems at triple tree lines, with both species at 3.0 m x 1.5 m intervals, the first of which with a 14 m corridor (between triple lines) for animal feeding and, the second with a 34 m corridor; the third treatment consisted of isolated cultivation of both tree species, with 3.0x3.0 m intervals. Thinning and 21-year final cutting were simulated for all treatments. Trees showed positive economic returns at all tested systems, with profitability after the 7 years of thinning operation. Carbon credits sales can increase forest component attractiveness, especially when income generation is considered since the beginning of the project.
Amiro, B.D. Cantin, A. Flannigan, M.D. De Groot, W.J.
Canadian journal of forest research. 2009 Feb. 39(2) p. 383-395
New estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian forest fires were calculated based on a revised model for fuel consumption, using both the fire fuel load and the Drought Code of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. This model was applied to future climate scenarios of 2xCO2 and 3xCO2 environments using the Canadian Global Climate Model. Total forest floor fuel consumption for six boreal ecozones was estimated at 60, 80, and 117 Tg dry biomass for the 1xCO2, 2xCO2, and 3xCO2 scenarios, respectively. These ecozones cover the boreal and taiga regions and account for about 86% of the total fire consumption for Canada. Almost all of the increase in fuel consumption for future climates is caused by an increase in the area burned. The effect of more severe fuel consumption density (kilograms of fuel consumed per square metre) is relatively small, ranging from 0% to 18%, depending on the ecozone. The emissions of greenhouse gases from all Canadian fires are estimated to increase from about 162 Tgp"year-1 of CO2 equivalent in the 1xCO2 scenario to 313 Tgp"year-1 of CO2 equivalent in the 3xCO2 scenario, including contributions from CO2, CH4, and N2O.
Trainor, S. F.; Calef, M.; Natcher, D.; Chapin, F. S., III; McGuire, A. D.; Huntington, O.; Duffy, P.; Rupp, T. S.; DeWilde, L.; Kwart, M.; Fresco, N.; Lovecraft, A. L.
Polar Research. 2009. 28: 1, 100-118
This paper explores whether fundamental differences exist between urban and rural vulnerability to climate-induced changes in the fire regime of interior Alaska. We further examine how communities and fire managers have responded to these changes and what additional adaptations could be put in place. We engage a variety of social science methods, including demographic analysis, semi-structured interviews, surveys, workshops and observations of public meetings. This work is part of an interdisciplinary study of feedback and interactions between climate, vegetation, fire and human components of the Boreal forest social-ecological system of interior Alaska. We have learned that although urban and rural communities in interior Alaska face similar increased exposure to wildfire as a result of climate change, important differences exist in their sensitivity to these biophysical, climate-induced changes. In particular, reliance on wild foods, delayed suppression response, financial resources and institutional connections vary between urban and rural communities. These differences depend largely on social, economic and institutional factors, and are not necessarily related to biophysical climate impacts per se. Fire management and suppression action motivated by political, economic or other pressures can serve as unintentional or indirect adaptation to climate change. However, this indirect response alone may not sufficiently reduce vulnerability to a changing fire regime. More deliberate and strategic responses may be required, given the magnitude of the expected climate change and the likelihood of an intensification of the fire regime in interior Alaska.
Responding to the Kyoto Protocol through forestry: A comparison of opportunities for several countries in Europe
Nijnik, Maria Bizikova, Livia
Forest policy and economics. 2008 Feb. 10(4) p. 257-269.
Climate change has become an important environmental policy issue. Numerous carbon sequestration policy initiatives, potential benefits of which in environmental, economic and social terms could be substantial, are directed toward both woodland expansion and using of wood as a substitute for fossil fuels. There is a great deal of uncertainty, however, on how to define sustainability of such policies in a broadly acceptable and efficient way; how to translate sustainability requirements into policy guidelines; how to overcome market limitations and where to place biomass production in the general context of land use where contemporary agricultural change will likely be influential. On the basis of several countries from Europe (the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Slovakia, and Ukraine) this paper highlights social and economic problems of moderating carbon emissions through afforestation. It provides an indication of whether forestry can offer a socially acceptable and a low-cost opportunity for carbon uptake. The conclusion is that along with carbon sequestration potential, the level of land use integration and the stage of institutional development play important roles for effective implementation of climate policies. The necessity is then to link these policies with regional developments, and to back them up with adequate economic incentives, appropriate institutions and with public engagement in environmental decision-making.
Rural 21. 2009. 43: 1, 25-28.
This paper describes the concept of avoided deforestation (AD) process adopted by the inhabitants of Manu, Peru. AD is a social, ecological, political, economic, territorial and technical process that seeks to prevent or mitigate the loss of forests within a specific territory and reduce greenhouse gases that cause global warming. Social actors, the men and women who inhabit the rain forest and its surroundings, are aware of the circumstances and are the only people able to halt deforestation.
V. New Publications and other media
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
This report aims to take the debate forward by identifying: a typology of tenure regimes in rainforest countries and some of the challenges they present for REDD; the nature of tenure and usage rights regimes within key rainforest countries; and the issues revealed by exploration of these regimes that will need to be engaged with if REDD and related strategies are to have sustainable impact. The Report.
The forest carbon offsetting survey 2009
Find out what 120 global, multinational and regional organisations attitudes are to forest carbon projects in general. In addition the report also examines the motivating factors behind corporate decisions to purchase forest carbon offsets and the perceptions which organisations have regarding the additional community and biodiversity benefits that many forestry projects often provide. The report.
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia. Forest Perspectives No. 5. 86p.
This report presents the case for adaptation for forests (reducing the impacts of climate change on forests and their ecosystem services) and forests for adaptation (using forests to help local people and society in general to adapt to inevitable changes). Linking adaptation and tropical forests are a new frontier: adaptation is a new arena for tropical foresters, and tropical forests are a new arena for adaptation specialists. The report.
IIED, Natural Resource Issues 15
As new mechanisms for 'reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation' (REDD) are being negotiated in international climate change talks, resource tenure must be given greater attention. Drawing on experience from seven rainforest countries (Brazil, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guyana, Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea), the report develops a typology of tenure regimes across countries, explores tenure issues in each country, and identifies key challenges to be addressed if REDD is to have equitable and sustainable impact. The report.
Tucked away in a tangle of Brazilian rainforest, a quiet evolution is unfolding. In Amazonas, the country's biggest state, people are using an approach called REDD to conserve their forests in return for credit. This project's success has huge implications for reducing deforestation, cutting emissions and eradicating poverty, and its time has definitely come. The paper.
This publication reviews the GEF's work on sustainable forest management and its current portfolio as well as potential roles of the GEF in the post-2012 climate regime. The report.
The paper by Aaron Cosbey of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) focuses on the cross-cutting objective of advancing development goals throughout the Bali Action Plan in a sustainable way, making the case that there are strategic interests for developing countries in simultaneously addressing climate change and nationally-defined development priorities. The paper.
This resource guide aims to inform practitioners and policy makers of the linkages between gender equality and climate change and their importance in relation to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. It makes the case for why it is necessary to include women's voices, needs and expertise in climate change policy and programming, and demonstrates how women's contributions can strengthen the effectiveness of climate change measures.The guide.
Forest and climate change expert, Congo Basin Forest Fund
Act as the authority of the CBFF Secretariat in pro-poor forest management, reduced carbon emissions, and natural resource management. Advising the Secretariat and other bodies on global forest development initiatives and the impact of these initiatives on the Bank's programs, the COMIFAC Convergence Plan and the CBFF agenda. More.
Policy Advisor - Climate Change and Forests
The postholder will work from the Rainforest Foundation's London office, as part of a small Programmes team, developing a programme of campaigning and field work targeting the theme of forests and climate change. S/he will be responsible to the Programme Manager and will work with some of our key partner organisations, especially in the Congo Basin. S/he will be expected to spend around 6 weeks of the year overseas. More.
Applications are invited for two fixed-term three-year postdoctoral research assistant positions to start June 2009 or as soon as possible thereafter, based in the Ecosystems Group of the Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QY. More.
The Open University (UK) have plans to launch a new website for learning about climate change. They are looking for people to give feedback on the prototype before it goes live to the public. If you'd like to be one of the first to see this innovative new online network for learning, sign up at: http://www.sociallearnproject.org/
Graduate study in Environmental Management & Development, and Climate Change at the Australian National University (ANU). There are a number of scholarship opportunities for students from a range of African nations who are eligible to apply for study at the Master's level in the Environmental Management and Development program and the Climate Change program. More.
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