CLIM-FO-L  Electronic Journal and Newsletter            APRIL/2009


II. The road to Copenhagen
III. Events & meetings
IV. Research Articles
V. New Publications and other media
VI. Jobs
VII. Announcements
CLIM-FO Information



17 April 2009

A soya king's change of heart on the rainforest

When Brazil's environment minister, recently called for developing countries such as his own to adopt targets to curb carbon-dioxide emissions, there were mumblings of disagreement from other bits of the federal government.


17 April 2009

Dying trees may exacerbate climate change

Forestry experts have again warned that climate change could transform forests from sinks to sources of carbon. The carbon storing capacity of global forests could be lost entirely if the earth heats up 2.5° Celsius above pre-industrial levels, according to a new report


16 April 2009

Kenya signs its first REDD deal to conserve forests

Yesterday San Francisco-based Wildlife Works Carbon and Kenya Forest Service (KFS) announced a plan to protect the 80,000-acre Rukinga forest reserve in southeastern Kenya. The project will be funded by sales of carbon credits in the voluntary carbon market.


16 April 2009

Cattle, not soy, drives Amazon deforestation: report

Cattle ranchers are far bigger culprits in Amazon deforestation than soy farmers, a study showed on Tuesday, as the environmental record of Brazil's commodity exporters comes under increasing international scrutiny.


14 April 2009

Rainforest conservation gains in U.S. and U.N. climate proposals

A proposed mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) figures prominently in the draft climate bill released last month by Congressmen Henry Waxman and Ed Markey as well as a U.N. document posted last week following a climate meeting in Bonn, Germany.


14 April 2009

The Dire Fate of Forests in a Warmer World

It's not easy to kill a full-grown tree - especially one like the piñon pine. The hardy evergreen is adapted to life in the hot, parched American Southwest, so it takes more than a little dry spell to affect it.


7 April 2009

UN's State Of The World's Forests Reveals Deforestation Is Speeding Up

Despite the alarming conclusions of the UN's latest State of the World's Forests, the mainstream media has devoted surprisingly little attention to the report. Snowed under by other news developments as it may have been, global deforestation is by no means insignificant. It's taking place at shocking rates, the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)'s bi-annual report reveals.






2 April 2009

REDD alert: how Brazil's biggest state is protecting forests with credits

In Brazil's biggest state, people are using an approach called REDD to conserve their forests in return for credit.


31 March 2009

Rain Forest-Saving Credits May Cut Carbon-Emission Prices                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

Awarding tradable credits to countries that reduce deforestation will cause carbon prices to plummet worldwide and may make global warming worse by pulling investors away from renewable energy, an economic study found.


30 March 2009

Forests could undermine carbon market: Greenpeace

Carbon market prices could tumble by 75 percent if credits for safeguarding forests are added to markets for industrial emissions, environmental group Greenpeace said on Monday.


27 Mar 2009

Australia wants forest CO2 trade in Copenhagen pact

Australia has submitted a proposal to U.N. climate negotiators that outlines a scheme to use carbon credits to protect rain forests, Climate Change Minister Penny Wong said on Friday.


27 March 2009

New Finnish-UN partnership aims to help developing countries protect forests

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the Government of Finland have established a €14 million partnership titled "Sustainable Forest Management in a Changing Climate."


25 March 2009

Third CDM forestry project approved

It's the first small-scale A/R project to be registered, a scheme to plant trees on the fringe of the Thar Desert in Rajasthan in India. The project is estimated to generate 380,000 temporary CERs (tCERs) over its 20-year lifespan.


25 March 2009

REDD in Indonesia could evict forest people from their lands.

Without safeguards, REDD could mimic logging concessions in Indonesia, a model fraught with corruption and conflicts over land, say indigenous rights' groups, warns U.N. committee.


20 March 2009

$ 18 Million Approved Under UN-REDD Programme

A UN programme aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions from forests and boosting livelihoods in tropical nations has approved $18 million in support of five pilot countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

II. The Road to Copenhagen - UNFCCC negotiations


Bonn, Germany, 29 March-8 April: the fifth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the UNFCCC (AWG-LCA 5) and the seventh session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP 7).


The objective of this latest round of UN climate change talks was to clarify views of UNFCCC parties on the post-2012 climate change regime. Under the AWG-LCA, countries discussed how to strengthen international cooperation on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including from deforestation and forest degradation; adapting to climate change; and financing and technology transfer. The AWG-KP discussed Annex 1 countries' emission reductions commitments after 2012, and legal issues, including possible amendments to the Kyoto Protocol.


UNFCCC negotiations on the post-2012 regime are due to be completed in the UN Climate Change Conference to be held in Copenhagen from 7 to 18 December 2009. UNFCCC will next meet in Bonn from 1-12 June. Parties will then begin deliberations on negotiation texts, which are being prepared by the Chairs of the two Ad Hoc Working Groups.  The Bonn talks agreed to schedule three additional meetings prior to Copenhagen: in Bonn from 10-14 August, and from 2-6 November, at a location to be announced. The ninth session of the AWG-KP and the seventh session on the AWG-LCA will take place in Bangkok on the 28 September to the 9 October.


Points of particular interest regarding forests included:

AWG-LCA discussions on "REDD+" (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries - plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries) appeared to show some convergence of opinion on the inclusion of conservation in a final decision. Financial, technical and capacity strengthening needs were discussed. Many parties supported a phased approach to financing -- tapping multiple revenue sources but in a step-wise fashion. Links between REDD+ and nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) were discussed.


In AWG-KP discussions on LULUCF, two broad options for accounting for LULUCF were discussed -- an activities-based approach and a land-based approach.  Proposals for an expansion of the activities now included in LULUCF accounting were made.  In addition, proposals for accounting for forest management and for harvested wood products were discussed. 


Submissions of views

24 April is the deadline for submissions of views by Parties to UNFCCC on various issues, including on the treatment of LULUCF in the second commitment period, and on the negotiation text to be discussed at AWG-LCA in the June meetings in Bonn.


23-24 March 2009, Bonn - Expert Meeting on Methodological Issues relating to Reference Emission Levels and Reference Levels

The expert meeting was part of work programme of UNFCCC's Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice on methodological issues on REDD, which is due to be completed by Copenhagen.  The discussions focused on approaches and methods for setting reference levels for REDD. For more information see:


III. Events & meetings

Second meeting of the CBD AHTEG on biodiversity and climate change

18-22 April

The second meeting of the Ad hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Biodiversity and Climate Change, organized by the Secretariat of the Convention for Biological Diversity, will be held in Helsinki, Finland. More.

Eighth session of the UN Forum on Forests (UNFF-8)

20 April - 1 May 2009

UN headquarters, New York. This session will meet at UN headquarters in New York. Agenda items include working to reach agreement on a decision on voluntary global financial mechanisms, a portfolio approach and a forest financing frame work. More.

Thirtieth session of the IPCC

21-23 April 2009

The 30th session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will take place in Antalya, Turkey. The 39th session of the IPCC Bureau will convene in the same location, on 20 April 2009. More.

Indigenous peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change

20 - 24 April 2009.

Anchorage, Alaska. The aims of the conference include bringing indigenous peoples together to talk about common issues and raising the visibility and participation of indigenous peoples in local, national and international processes. More.

Workshop on Adaptation to Climate Change in West African Agriculture

27-30 April 2009

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), together with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) are organizing an International Workshop on Adaptation to Climate Change in West African Agriculture, which will take place from 27-30 April 2009, in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. More.

Seventeenth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development

4 - 15 May 2009

UN headquarters, New York. This policy session will focus on agriculture, rural development, land, drought, desertification and Africa. More.

Workshop on forests and water

12 - 14 May 2009

Antalya, Turkey. This workshop is hosted by the Republic of Turkey and jointly co-organized by Switzerland, Turkey, MCPFE, UNECE Water Convention and FAO. More.

The 8th Meeting of Asia Forest Partnership & AFP Dialogue 2009

28-29 May 2009, Bali, Indonesia

The Government of Indonesia, in collaboration with the Asia Forest Partnership (AFP) will host a regional dialogue to examine the links between schemes to compensate countries for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) and efforts to combat illegal logging and its associated trade. Little has been said so far about the linkages between the two, but if a country - or, indeed, a global trade system - cannot control illegal logging, it is unlikely to be able to implement REDD. More.


IV. Research Articles

An integrated approach to climate change adaptation

Gurung, G. B.; Dinanath Bhandari

LEISA Magazine. 2008. 24: 4, 6-8. 5 ref

This paper focuses on the project called "Increasing the resilience of poor communities to adapt to the impacts of climate change", which was carried out between 2005 and 2007 by Practical Action Nepal. Experience from this project indicates that adapting to climate change requires an integrated approach. The integrated approach adopted by this project considered agriculture and livestock development; water resources management; forest, land and soil conservation; the diversification of incomes and livelihoods; the rehabilitation of local infrastructure; awareness and education; and institutional development.

Agroforestry as a strategy for carbon sequestration

Nair, P. K. R.; Kumar, B. M.; Nair, V. D.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 2009. 172: 1, 10-23

During the past three decades, agroforestry has become recognized the world over as an integrated approach to sustainable land use because of its production and environmental benefits. Its recent recognition as a greenhouse gas-mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol has earned it added attention as a strategy for biological carbon (C) sequestration. The perceived potential is based on the premise that the greater efficiency of integrated systems in resource (nutrients, light, and water) capture and utilization than single-species systems will result in greater net C sequestration. Available estimates of C-sequestration potential of agroforestry systems are derived by combining information on the aboveground, time-averaged C stocks and the soil C values; but they are generally not rigorous. Methodological difficulties in estimating C stock of biomass and the extent of soil C storage under varying conditions are compounded by the lack of reliable estimates of area under agroforestry. We estimate that the area currently under agroforestry worldwide is 1,023 million ha. Additionally, substantial extent of areas of unproductive crop, grass, and forest lands as well as degraded lands could be brought under agroforestry. The extent of C sequestered in any agroforestry system will depend on a number of site-specific biological, climatic, soil, and management factors. Furthermore, the profitability of C-sequestration projects will depend on the price of C in the international market, additional income from the sale of products such as timber, and the cost related to C monitoring. Our knowledge on these issues is unfortunately rudimentary. Until such difficulties are surmounted, the low-cost environmental benefit of agroforestry will continue to be underappreciated and underexploited.

Monitoring carbon stocks in the tropics and the remote sensing operational limitations: from local to regional projects

Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.; Castro-Esau, K. L.; Kurz, W. A.; Joyce, A.

Ecological Society of America

Current remote sensing technologies are effective tools for contributing to the estimation of terrestrial carbon stocks and carbon stock changes. This paper provides an overview of information requirements, sensor capabilities and limitations, and analysis approaches for the use of remotely sensed data in the generation of tropical carbon sequestration monitoring systems. While it is evident that remotely sensed data have tremendous utility for monitoring carbon stock changes, it is important to be aware of their limitations. Three critical limitations are: (1) the definition of methods and algorithms to accurately estimate forest age, (2) the provision of techniques that can yield accurate estimation of deforestation rates in both tropical dry and wet forest environments, and (3) the strong need to develop new approaches to link biophysical variables (e.g., leaf area index) to spectral reflectance to support spatially distributed carbon sequestration models. The validity of final estimates of carbon and carbon stock changes rests on complex issues at several levels, from the data themselves, to the analysis, interpretation, and validation of the data. Consideration of these issues, as well as the need for sound project planning and development within budget constraints, will be important in the development of carbon stock monitoring programs in the tropics.

Simulating the effects of climate changes on Eastern Eurasia forests

Ningning Zhang, H. H. Shugart, Xiaodong Yan

Climatic Change 10.1007/s10584-009-9568-4

The extensive forests of Eastern Eurasia cover an area of ca. 6 million km2. The FAREAST model, a forest gap model that simulates the stand composition and dynamics of Eastern Eurasian forests under the current climate, was used to simulate the responses of the Eastern Eurasia Forests to the climate change. Two different scenarios of possible future climatic change were obtained from the IPCC (2001) report (CMIP2 and IS92a-GS) and were used as input to the FAREAST model to determine the compositional and structural sensitivity to climate changes for several locations and along montane elevation gradients. The simulation results suggest that, under the influence of the conditions in the two climate-change scenarios, the underlying forest dynamics should be quite different. Further, Eastern Eurasian forests maintain currents forest structure and biomass only within a small range of climate change. Broad-leaved deciduous trees of such genera as Fraxinus, Quercus and Tilia increase their ranges over Eastern Eurasia under the climate-change scenarios. Conifers, such as Larix and Picea, decrease sharply under climate change and the area of their distributions are reduced. The overall biomass of Pinus is not decreased over the region. While the Pinus distribution range shifts, the area associated with the range of the taxa is not changed.

The interface between agriculture and forests

Marx Carneiro, C

Chile Forestal. 2008. 338, 39-41.

Findings are presented from a study by the FAO Forestry Committee (Comite Forestal del FAO, COFO) carried out in Latin America on the interface between agriculture and forests, which demonstrates that the areas under agriculture has advanced considerably to occupy previously forested areas. The main findings are discussed under the headings of: livestock and food crop production systems substituting for forests; the reforestation of abandoned agricultural areas; deforestation in relation to climatic warming; the substitution of food and forage crops by energy crops; and forests as a source of sustainable biomass production for energy.

Impact of the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme on Forest Management

Piers Maclaren, Bruce Manley & School of Forestry students

New Zealand Journal of Forestry 53/3 (2008) 33-39

We evaluated the impact of carbon trading on forest management.  Questions examined were: whether to plant at all; what species and silviculture to use; and when to harvest. Revenue from annual sales of carbon units greatly increases the profitability of all species and regimes. Indeed, if the price remains at $30 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent then nearly all forestry investments - regardless of site quality - are capable of paying $3000/ha for the land and still achieving a reasonable real rate of return. If the price of carbon is zero, the most profitable species/regimes are, in order: radiata pine grown on a clearwood regime; radiata pine grown on a framing regime; radiata pine with a plant-and-leave regime; Douglas-fir; Eucalyptus nitens; and indigenous forestry. This ranking alters substantially with higher carbon prices. Radiata regimes which have higher volume become favoured over regimes that produce trees of large piece-size or clearwood. Eucalypt regimes become relatively more profitable than low-volume radiata regimes. Radiata pine, however, remains the most profitable species under almost every conceivable scenario. With regard to the details of radiata pine regimes, a rising carbon price favours late thinning, production thinning, and high final stocking - and discourages pruning. As the carbon price increases, there is a general lengthening of optimum rotation age. These trends apply across all site qualities. The benefits of carbon trading are less pronounced for stands that were planted in the 1990s compared with future stands, because much of the carbon sequestration has already taken place with no payment. Nevertheless, carbon trading is still worthwhile. Whatever the date of planting, there are still some risks in "opting in" to the ETS, particularly with regard to cash-flow difficulties at time of harvest. Most of these risks can be avoided or mitigated by careful estate planning, albeit with a reduction in profitability. Growers can choose to retain sufficient units to cover any future liabilities, and to avoid situations where carbon liabilities at harvest greatly exceed expected revenues from the sale of timber. Alternatively, they may choose to modify their estates (by mixing species, regimes, or age-classes) so as to smooth out the future profile of their carbon stocks. Planting a normal forest achieves zero risk - because there are no further carbon losses - but it is more profitable to achieve normality by harvesting rather than by planting alone. Tree-breeding promises some carbon advantages, particularly where the gain is through volume growth rather than the lesser benefit of increased wood density.

Matching national forest policies and management practices for climate change adaptation in Burkina Faso and Ghana

Kalame, F.B.; Nkem, J.; Idinoba, M.; Kanninen, M.

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 14, 2009

Many studies have suggested various kinds of forest policies, management planning and practices to help forests adapt to climate change. These recommendations are often generic, based mostly on case studies from temperate countries and rarely from Africa. We argue that policy and management recommendations aimed at integrating adaptation into national forest policies and practices in Africa should start with an inventory and careful examination of existing policies and practices in order to understand the nature and extent of intervention required to influence the adaptation of forest ecosystems to climate change. This paper aims to contribute to closing this gap in knowledge detrimental to decision making through the review and analysis of current forest policies and practices in Burkina Faso and Ghana and highlighting elements that have the potential to influence the adaptation of forest ecosystems to climate change. The analysis revealed that adaptation (and mitigation) are not part of current forest policies in Burkina Faso and Ghana, but instead policies contain elements of risk management practices which are also relevant to the adaptation of forest ecosystems. Some of these elements are found in policies on the management of forest fires, forest genetic resources, non-timber resources, tree regeneration and silvicultural practices. To facilitate and enhance the management of these elements, a number of recommendations are suggested. Their implementation will require experienced and well-trained forestry personnel, financial resources, socio-cultural and political dimensions, and the political will of decision makers to act appropriately by formulating necessary policies and mainstreaming adaptation into forest policy and management planning.

Forestry based carbon sequestration option for India

Mohapatra, A. K.

Indian Journal of Forestry. 2008. 31: 4, 483-490. 20 ref.

Carbon capture and sequestration through forests can play an important role in reducing India's GHG emissions, as consumption of fossil fuels is unlikely to slow down given India's reliance on coal power and other non renewable sources. Land use and forest enhancement strategy can provide a significant climate change mitigation option for India. Since climate change has a long term impact on ecology and economy of developing countries, India need to redefine its priorities currently envisioned in the national forest and environment policy and has to incorporate a C management agenda. It being the sixth largest emitter, forest can act as a major terrestrial sink provided forestry practices integrate C balance approaches.

Accounting for carbon sequestration and its implications for land-use change and forestry projects.

Cacho, O.; Hean, R.; Karanja, F.

Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources. 2008. 3: 077, 1-17

As carbon becomes a valuable commodity traded in markets for greenhouse-gas emissions, there will be incentives to adopt land uses that capture carbon payments as well as produce other marketable outputs, including biofuels. These production systems may be more sustainable than many of those in current use, but there is also the risk that the growing demand for biofuels will cause land degradation, deforestation and food scarcity. The land-use patterns that arise as a result of carbon markets will largely depend on the 'rules of the game', which will be determined by governments and international agencies. This paper addresses these issues by reviewing the literature on the potential for terrestrial carbon pools to contribute to mitigating climate change. The review covers studies from forestry, ecology, economics, agriculture and other disciplines, reflecting the complexity of the issues and the range of research priorities that will need to be addressed in the next few decades. There is strong evidence that the potential for land-use systems to contribute to climate mitigation efforts is significant, but for this to occur it will be necessary that landholders receive incentives to change their current land uses. These incentives are linked to scientific, institutional and economic factors. An essential component will be the development of markets that allow the trade of emission reductions from both the energy sector and the land-use change and forestry (LUCF) sector. Technical factors that will contribute to success include: creation and analysis of remote-sensing and socio-economic datasets to estimate credible baselines; development of simple and inexpensive techniques for measuring soil carbon; and development of agreed standards that relate land-use and biophysical characteristics of a site to carbon content. Much research is being done to address these factors, and monitoring and reporting systems for LUCF activities are operational under the Kyoto Protocol, but obstacles remain for widespread implementation. There is a window of opportunity for projects to be developed that restore degraded croplands, avoid deforestation and encourage reforestation. This opportunity has a limited life span that depends on the duration of the transition period to low-carbon energy technologies that will ultimately carry the burden of climate change mitigation.

Contribution of trees to soil carbon sequestration under agroforestry systems in the West African Sahel.

Takimoto, A., Nair, V.D., and Nair, P.K.R. (2008)

Agroforestry Systems. DOI: 10.1007/s10457-008-9179-5

Consequent to recent recognition of agricultural soils as carbon (C) sinks, agroforestry practices in the West African Sahel (WAS) region have received attention for their C sequestration potential. This study was undertaken in the Ségou region of Mali that represents the WAS, to examine the extent of C sequestration, especially in soils, in agroforestry systems. Five land-use systems were selected in farmers' fields [two traditional parkland systems, two improved agroforestry systems (live fence and fodder bank), and a so-called abandoned land]. Soil samples taken from three depths (0-10 cm, 10-40 cm, and 40-100 cm) were fractionated into three size classes (2,000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm) and their C contents determined. Whole-soil C contents, g kg

-1 soil, across three depths ranged from 1.33-4.69 in the parklands, 1.11-4.42 in live fence, 1.87-2.30 in fodder bank, and 3.69-5.30 in abandoned land; and they correlated positively with silt + clay content. Using the 13C isotopic ratio as an indicator of relative contribution of trees (C3 plants) and crops (C4 plants) to soil C, more tree-origin C was found in larger particle size and surface soil and indicated that long-term tree presence promoted storage of protected C in deeper soil. Existing long-standing agroforestry practices of the region such as the parklands seemed to have little advantage for sequestering additional C, whereas improved agroforestry practices such as live fence and fodder bank introduced in treeless croplands seemed to be advantageous.

A strategy for seed management with climate change

Wang, B. S. P.; Morgenstern, E. K.

Forestry Chronicle. 2009. 85: 1, 39-42. 39 ref.

While climate change has been generally accepted by the forestry community, we are still searching for ways and means to alleviate its impact. We still have to collect seeds, for example, to support continued reforestation programs. To provide some guidance for meeting the changing environments, we felt it is important to review the current seed management strategy, discuss species adaptability and seed source as well as collection, handling, germination, treatment and storage.


V. New Publications and other media

Adaptation of Forests and People to Climate Change - A Global Assessment Report

IUFRO 2009

This book is the first product of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests' Global Forest Expert Panels (GFEP) initiative. GFEP is a new mechanism for providing objective and independent scientific assessments of key forest-related issues to support international processes and decision-making at the global level. It is led and coordinated by the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO). The book.

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD): An Options Assessment Report

Prepared for The Government of Norway

A report prepared for the Government of Norway by the Meridian Institute assesses several important considerations for a future REDD mechanism under the UNFCCC, and strives to clarify and inform some of the critical choices that will need to be made about including REDD in a Copenhagen agreement. More.

Financing REDD: how government funds can work with the carbon market

IIED Briefing Papers

Evidence is showing that REDD is simple and workable. Funding is an altogether more complex issue, however. Looking at the roles of market and government, is a combined approach to financing REDD feasible? The paper.

Working Paper on Climate Scenarios in Adaptation Planning

The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) 2009

The book tries to answer questions commonly addressed by non-climatologists when they want to address climate scenario in adaptation plans. It covers topics on the need of climate scenarios for adaptation, types of climate data or information we need, different types of climate scenarios, emission scenarios, choosing general circulation model (GCM), how to modify the spatial and temporal resolution of climate data, how to deal with uncertainties, and the progress of the climate models in assessing extreme events. The book also provides additional information regarding tools and sources of data in relation to climate scenario. The publication.

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD) - the link with wetlands

Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (2009)

This paper summarises the importance of wetlands in relation to climate change, as a basis for examining their potential role in the measures for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) being discussed under the Kyoto Protocol. The question is addressed also in relation to relevant aspects of other intergovernmental agreements. The paper.

State of the World's Forests 2009

FAO, 2009

This report notes that the economic crisis and climate change raise the profile of forest management on the global agenda, as demand for products and environmental services is expected to increase in the coming decades. The report also underscores the need to reform forestry institutions and increase investments in science and technology to improve forest management. The report.

Adapting to climate change

Unasylva No. 231/232 Vol. 60, 2009/1-2

This special double issue addresses how forests and forest-dependent people will adapt to climate change. Topics provide examples of the links between climate change and sustainable development; the impacts of climate change on forest health and on forest species composition and distribution; and ways in which science and policy can promote adaptation of forests and communities. The issue was developed from presentations to the international conference on Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Changing Climate with Emphasis on Forest Health: A Review of Science, Policies and Practices (Umeå, Sweden, August 2008). The journal.

How we re-grew a rainforest

Ted Talks (2009)

By piecing together a complex ecological puzzle, biologist Willie Smits has found a way to re-grow clearcut rainforest in Borneo, saving local orangutans -- and creating a thrilling blueprint for restoring fragile ecosystems. The film.



Report on soils' role in climate change mitigation

The European Commission (EC) (5 March 2009)

The report that underlines the role that soils can play in mitigating climate change. The report "Review of existing information on the interrelations between soil and climate change," is a synthesis of the best available information on the links between soil and climate change, and highlights that soils contain around twice the amount of carbon in the atmosphere and three times the amount to be found in vegetation. The authors underline the need to sequester carbon in soils, adding that the technique is cost competitive and immediately available, requires no new or unproven technologies, and has a mitigation potential comparable to that of any other sector of the economy. The Report.

Guidelines for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in tropical timber production forests

ITTO, IUCN, (2009)

This publication, which offers a complete revision and updating of the original Biodiversity Guidelines published by the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) in 1993, sets out the specific actions that policymakers, forest managers and other stakeholders should take to improve biodiversity conservation in tropical production forests. The guidelines.

Linkages between mitigation and adaptation in land-use change and forestry activities

The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) 2008

This paper explores the opportunities for linking mitigation activities with efforts to increase adaptation measures to climate change in the land use, land use change and forestry sector. Criteria and indicators for monitoring adaptation to climate change are discussed in the light of emerging standards for mitigation project development and monitoring. The following land use categories are considered in this paper: forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements, and other lands (includes bare soil, rock, ice, and all unmanaged areas that do not fall in any of the other categories).

A New Climate for Forests: GEF action on sustainable forest management

GEF (March 2009)

This publication reviews the GEF's work on sustainable forest management and its current portfolio as well as potential roles of the GEF in the post-2012 climate regime. The report.

Environment Outlook in the Amazonia: GEO Amazonia

UNEP (2009)

This report is part of UNEP's Global Environment Outlook (GEO) series. It reveals the variety of environmental degradation occurring in the Amazon region of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. The publication highlights population growth, urbanization and expanded economic activity, and the resulting deforestation, loss of biodiversity and climate change impacts in the region. The report.

Tropical Forest Update: Climate Changing in Tropical Forests

ITTO, February (2008)

The latest issue of the International Tropical Timber Organization's newsletter focuses on climate change and tropical forests. It includes articles on the emerging market for land-use carbon credits, the UN Collaborative Programme on Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD), and carbon trading. The newsletter.


Planning for Climate Change, Strategies for Mitigation and Adaptation for Spatial Planners
Edited By Simin Davoudi, Jenny Crawford and Abid Mehmood (August 2009)

Addressing both mitigation measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to the effects of climate change, the book provides an overview of emerging practice, with analysis of the drivers of policy change and practical implementation of measures. It scopes planning issues and opportunities at different spatial scales, drawing on both the UK and international experiences and highlighting the need to link global and local responses to shared risks and opportunities. The book.

Carbon Markets, An International Business Guide

By Arnaud Brohe, Nick Eyre and Nicholas Howarth with a Foreword by Nicholas Stern (May 2009)

Combining theoretical aspects with practical applications, this book is for business leaders, financiers, carbon traders, lawyers, bankers, researchers, policy makers and anyone interested in market-mechanisms to mitigate climate change. The Book.


Climate Change: Financing Global Forests
The Eliasch Review By Johan Eliasch

In this comprehensive and detailed report, Johan Eliasch makes a clear and forceful case for forests to be included in international carbon trading mechanisms. He calls for the international community to support forest nations to halve deforestation by 2020 and to make the global forest sector carbon neutral by 2030. The book.

VI. Jobs

Junior Consultant Forest & Climate Change

3 April 2009

Österreichische Bundesforste AG Consulting, the international consulting division of the Austrian Federal Forests, is searching for a junior consultant "Forest and Climate Change", based in Purkersdorf, Austria (close to Vienna). Please send your application consisting of a cover letter and a CV until April 30th, 2009 to: Gerda Handl, Österreichische Bundesforste AG, Consulting, Pummergasse 10-12, AT-3002, Purkersdorf, Tel: +43 2231 600-5510, Fax: +43 2231 600-5509. More.

JI assessment teams members for accreditation

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat call for experts (JI assessment teams members for accreditation) - fifth call Deadline for application: 5 May 2009. This call is to supplement rosters of experts who undertake assessment work under the JI accreditation process. More.


Climate Change Scientist
World Agroforesty Centre (ICRAF) seeks to recruit a world-class scientist to conduct research contributing to its Global Research Project (GRP) on Climate Change. The position is based at the headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. More.



VII. Announcements

UNFCCC Secretariat Releases Workshop Report on Opportunities and Challenges for Mitigation in the Agricultural Sector


7 April 2009: The UNFCCC Secretariat has released the workshop report on opportunities and challenges for mitigation in the agricultural sector (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/CRP.2), which was held in Bonn, Germany, on 4 April 2009, during the fifth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA). More.

Climate investment framework requests feedback on forest program

World Bank

The World Bank is seeking feedback on the design documents for its Forest Investment Program (FIP), a part of its Climate Investment Framework (CIF) that seeks to pilot and demonstrate new approaches to forest management that lead to major impacts in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from forests. The deadline for comments on the design documents is 6 April 2009. A revised document will then be prepared for approval at the final design meeting, to be held on 7-8 May 2009, in Washington DC, US. More.

FAO's COFO urges members to deliberate on forest sector responses to climate change


Over 550 participants gathered at the 19th session of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) Committee on Forestry (COFO), from 16-20 March 2009, at FAO headquarters in Rome, Italy. The final report, inter alia, urges members to deliberate on national and international responses of the forestry sector to climate change, recommends that FAO and other organizations strengthen members' capacities to implement SFM, and recommends that FAO prepare a report on the State of the World's Forest Genetic Resources by 2013. More.



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last updated:  Monday, May 25, 2009