II. The road to Copenhagen
III. Events & meetings
IV. Research Articles
V. New Publications and other media
VI. Jobs
VII. Announcements
CLIM-FO Information


 18 June 2009

EU leaders agree climate funding principles

The European Union agreed the basis of its financial contribution to a global climate change deal on Thursday, but environmentalists said more was needed to ensure success at global talks in Copenhagen in December.

 17 June 2009

Hybrid American Chestnut Trees Have Superior Carbon Capture Potential

Introducing a new hybrid of the American chestnut tree would not only bring back the all-but-extinct species, but also put a dent in the amount of carbon in the Earth's atmosphere, according to a new Purdue University study.

 16 June 2009

Attacking the demand side of deforestation

A new UK government-sponsored initiative seeks to address the demand side of deforestation by identifying how an organization's activities and supply chains contribute to forest destruction. The initiative, called the Forest Footprint Disclosure Project.

 16 June 2009

Amazon could lose 60% of forest without triggering catastrophic die-off, claims new study

Brazil's setting aside of more than 500,000 square miles (1.25 million square kilometers) of rainforest in protected areas over the past decade may effectively buffer the Amazon from the effects of climate change, preventing Earth's largest rainforest from tipping towards arid savanna in the face of ongoing deforestation and rising temperatures, argues a new paper.

 15 June 2009

Bonn climate talks leave big divide

The latest round of UN climate negotiations has made progress on technical issues but little headway on the major questions holding back a new global climate treaty.

 11 June 2009

Indonesia leads on REDD despite fears

Indonesia continues to warn that unless the emerging global REDD avoided deforestation initiative is made simple it will not work in developing countries. But despite its concerns, the government appears to be leading the development of REDD capacity among developing countries.

 9 June 2009

Climate pact must halt deforestation and industrial logging of old-growth forests, exclude carbon credits for forest conservation

A global framework on climate change must immediately halt deforestation and industrial logging of the world's old-growth forests, while protecting the rights of forest communities and indigenous groups, said a broad coalition of activist groups in a consensus statement issued today at U.N. climate talks in Bonn Germany.

   6 June 2009

Money grows on trees: Irregular carbon credits cause upheaval in the government of Papua New Guinea

Even before agreement on which projects might qualify, a REDD market has emerged on the basis of promises to deliver carbon credits from pilot REDD projects.

 5 June 2009

Invest in trees and soil, not just cleaner coal

Chopping down fewer trees and caring for the soil may be cheaper and more effective in fighting climate change than curbing emissions from coal plants.

 4 June 2009

REDD can compete financially with palm oil in Indonesia peatlands while protecting endangered species

A new paper finds that forest conservation via REDD — a proposed mechanism for compensating developing countries for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation — could be economically competitive with oil palm production, a dominant driver of deforestation in Indonesia.

 4 June 2009

Forest carbon market already shows cracks

It could save the rainforests of Borneo, slow climate change and the international community backs it. But a plan to pay tropical countries not to chop down trees risks being discredited by opportunists even before it starts.

 3 June 2009

Deforestation 'faster in Africa'

Africa's forests are disappearing faster than those in other parts of the world because of a lack of land ownership, a says a study presented in Cameroon's capital, Yaounde, at a meeting of forest community representatives from Africa, Latin America and Asia.

 2 June 2009

Brazil on target in slowing Amazon deforestation

Brazil is on track to meet its target to reduce Amazon deforestation this year and will cut credit to ranchers and meatpackers who raise or buy cattle from illegally logged land, the environment minister said on Tuesday.

 21 May 2009

Forest-carbon scheme gaining favour in climate talks

A scheme that could unlock billions of dollars for poorer nations by saving their forests is set to be included in a new climate pact, a top U.N. official said, but issues such as funding still need to be resolved.

II. The Road to Copenhagen - UNFCCC negotiations

 Bonn Climate Talks, 1 - 12 June: The thirtieth sessions of the UNFCCC Convention subsidiary bodies - SBSTA and SBI, the sixth session of the AWG-LCA and the eighth session of the AWG-KP.

 This round of UN climate change meetings made progress in negotiations on the post-2012 climate change regime under UNFCCC, when the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol expires.  The negotiations are due to be completed in UNFCCC's COP15, which will be held in Copenhagen from 7 to 18 December this year.     

 The negotiations continued in the two ad-hoc working groups set up for this purpose: one on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) and the other on the Further Commitments for Annex 1 Countries under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP).  AWG-LCA worked on a draft negotiation text, prepared by its chair prior to the meeting and covering a "common vision", adaptation, mitigation (including reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation - REDD), financing and technology.  AWG-KP discussions focused largely on Annex 1 countries' aggregate and individual emissions reductions commitments, and on land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF).  The texts elaborated at the June Bonn meetings will be the basis for discussion at the subsequent meeting in Bonn in August. 

 The remaining negotiations in the lead up to Copenhagen are: 

  • Bonn, 10-14 August
  • Bangkok, 28 September- 8 October
  • Barcelona, 2-6 November


  Points of particular interest regarding forests

 REDD: AWG-LCA discussed policy approaches on REDD, and SBSTA discussed methodological issues. Countries continued to make progress in exploring policy options and clarifying positions on REDD.  Main issues on which agreement still needs to be reached include: the scope of REDD activities (REDD, REDD-Plus, or REDD-Plus-Plus), the form of a financial incentive mechanism (fund, market-based or mixed), whether REDD could be used for generating carbon offsets, and links between REDD and nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs). Many parties emphasized the need to ensure that REDD activities respect the rights of indigenous people and forest-based communities and safeguard biodiversity. 

 SBSTA discussed its recent work related to setting reference levels for REDD, and whether to refer to “reference levels” or “reference emission levels,” or both. It also discussed whether to request developing countries to use the most recently adopted IPCC guidance and guidelines.

 LULUCF:  AWG-KP discussions on LULUCF included several issues of relevant to forests.  Various options are now on the table for alternative methods for carbon accounting in harvested wood products and for forest management (ie a bar-band approach). In relation to general GHG accounting the two different methods - activities-based approach versus a land-based approach were discussed. Issues related to GHG accounting in wetlands, and for dealing with natural disturbances and non-permanence were also discussed. Parties were encouraged to submit, before August 2009, information and data to facilitate parties' understanding of the implications of the options for addressing LULUCF issues in the post-2012 arrangements. 

 There were indications in Bonn that interest in a broader inclusion of land-based activities and sectors in carbon accounting. This is seen in widespread support for REDD-Plus (generally referring to REDD plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest stocks) and some support for REDD-Plus-Plus (which also addresses activities outside the forest sector that drive deforestation and forest degradation). Inclusion of agriculture in CDM has also been receiving increased attention over the past few months.  


III. Events & meetings

Biofuels Markets & Jatropha Asia

29 June - 1 July

The 4th Biofuels Markets & Jatropha Asia annual will take place in Jakarta, Indonesia on the 29th June - 1st July 2009. More.

High-level dialogue on climate change in Asia and the Pacific

16 June 2009 - 17 June 2009.

Manila, the Phillipines. The high-level dialogue, will invite global and regional leaders to share the latest thinking on various aspects of climate change. More than 700 participants drawn from the business community, civil society, governments, development agencies, and academia are expected to attend. More.

Dialogue Series on Forests, Governance and Climate Change

8 July

The Energy, Environment and Development Programme of Chatham House and the Rights and Resources Initiative will hold the first in a series of Dialogues on Forests, Governance and Climate Change on 8 July 2009 at the Royal Society, in London. This is the first in a series of meetings aiming to promote learning and frank discussion on the key issues facing forests and forest communities as the world scales up efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. More.

Meeting multiple demands for forest information: New technologies in forest data gathering

17 - 20 August 2009

IUFRO. Information collected for one purpose is now useful for more - there are many examples - airborne LiDAR collected for productivity assessment can also be used for operations planning for the establishment of the next rotation; defining environmental protection zones etc; data used by harvesters for optimisation purposes can be collected from harvesters & used for developing product prediction models.. The objective of this conference is to review the latest research and practical developments relating to data integration from different sources. The conference program will consist of six plenary sessions with an in-conference field-tour. More.

Second World Congress on Agroforestry

August 23 - 28 2009. 

Nairobi, Kenya. The overall Congress theme is “Agroforestry - The Future of Global Land Use”. Plenary, symposia, concurrent sessions, and poster sessions will be organized around different major topics, based on the following: markets as opportunities and drivers of agroforestry land use; tree-based rehabilitation of degraded lands and watersheds; climate change adaptation and mitigation; agroforestry's contribution to a multifunctional agriculture combining productivity with environmental sustainability; and policy options and institutional innovations for agroforestry land use. More.


21 September - 2 October 2009. 

Buenos Aires, Argentina. The ninth Conference of the Parties to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification will consider the JIU assessment of the GM; review the Secretariat’s communication strategy; review the Convention bodies’ work programmes; consider options for regional coordination mechanisms; discuss the format for future CRICs and reporting guidelines; and conduct a concurrent scientific conference during the ninth session of the Committee on Science and Technology. More.

13th World Forestry Congress: Forests in development – a vital balance

18-25 October 2009. Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Organized by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and institutions from various sectors of Argentina, this Congress provides an opportunity to present an overview of the state of forests and forestry around the world, to discern trends, adapt policies and raise awareness among policy makers, the public and other stakeholders. This meeting will address themes including: forests and biodiversity; development opportunities; forests in the service of people, including forests and climate change; organizing forest development; and people and forests in harmony. More

Forest Day 3

13 December 2009

Forest Day 3 will take place alongside the 15th Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  It will be hosted by the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, the Government of Denmark and CIFOR. At Forest Day 3 aim to ensure that the design and implementation of forest-related climate mitigation and adaptation measures are effective, efficient and equitable. More.

IV. Research Articles

Forest management and carbon sequestration in wood products

Ingolf Profft, Martina Mund, Georg-Ernst Weber, Eberhard Weller and Ernst-Detlef Schulze

European Journal of Forest Research, Article in press

Wood products are considered to contribute to the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions. A critical gap in the life cycle of wood products is to transfer the raw timber from the forest to the processing wood industry and, thus, the primary wood products. Therefore, often rough estimates are used for this step to obtain total forestry carbon balances. The objectives of the study published here were (1) to examine the fate of timber harvested in Thuringian state forests (central Germany) and (2) to quantify carbon stocks and the lifetime of primary wood products made from this timber. The analyses were based on the amount and assortments of actually sold timber, and production parameters of the companies that bought and processed this timber. Total annual timber sale of soft- and hardwoods from Thuringian state forests (195,000 ha) increased from about 136,893 t C (0.7 t C ha-1 year-1) in 1996 to 280,194 t C (1.4 t C ha-1 year-1) in 2005. About 47% of annual total timber harvest went into short-lived wood products with a mean residence time (MRT) <25 years. Thirty-one per cent of the total harvest went into wood products with an MRT of 25-43 years, and only 22% was used as construction wood and glued wood, products with the longest MRT (50 years). The average MRTof carbon in harvested wood products was 20 years.

Drought Sensitivity of the Amazon Rainforest

Oliver L. Phillips, et al.

Science 323, 1344 (2009)

Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 × 1015 to 1.6 × 1015 grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.

Creating incentives for avoiding further deforestation: the nested approach

Pedroni, L.; Dutschke, M.; Streck, C.; Estrada Porrua, M.

Climate Policy. 2009. 9: 2, 207-220.

Since 2005, Parties to the UNFCCC have been negotiating policy options for incentivizing reductions of (greenhouse gas) emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) in a future climate regime. Proposals on how to operationalize REDD range from market-based to pure fund-based approaches. Most of the current proposals suggest accounting for REDD at the national level. Accounting for emission reductions and implementing policy reform for curbing deforestation will take time and imply high levels of technical and institutional capacity. Therefore it is essential that developing countries receive sufficient support to implement national REDD programmes. To save time and ensure prompt action in reducing deforestation, a REDD approach is proposed that integrates project-level and subnational REDD schemes into national-level accounting. This 'nested approach' can achieve meaningful reductions in GHG emissions from improved forest governance and management, while allowing for an immediate and broad participation by developing countries, civil society and the private sector.

Regulation of Small-Scale Carbon Sink Projects in the Clean Development Mechanism from the Perspective of Aspects of Multidisciplinary Biodiversity

Marko Heiskanen

International Journal of Biodiversity Science & Management Volume 5 Issue 1 (2009): 1-9.

This paper considers the current regulatory framework of small-scale carbon sinks in the clean development mechanism (CDM). The legal characteristics are assessed from perspectives related to regulation theory. To what extent does CDM regulation support active biodiversity management in the small-scale implementation of afforestation and reforestation projects? After analysing the above question, fresh concepts for better consideration of biodiversity aspects during the implementation of small-scale carbon sink projects in developing countries are presented. These new concepts are examined in the framework of the current process of legal establishment, which seeks to encourage cost-effective project implementation in cases where biodiversity impacts are appropriately taken into account during small-scale projects. Is it possible to create a workable and plausible conceptual set-up for considering additional efforts to preserve and enhance biodiversity while sequestering carbon and to do it in a way that makes it possible to reward those efforts in the CDM framework? These questions are discussed here in a multidisciplinary manner. It is found that biodiversity specialized carbon management, which includes the new concepts, can be seen as a potential small-scale project framework for maintaining biodiversity and local development in and around a small-scale project area.

Modelling long-term impacts of environmental change on mid- and high-latitude European forests and options for adaptive forest management

A. Pussinena, b, G.J. Nabuursa, Corresponding, R. Wieggersa, G.J. Reindsa, G.W.W. Wamelinka, J. Krosa, J.P. Mol-Dijkstraa and W. de Vriesa

Forest Ecology and Management, Article in Press

The process based model SMART–SUMO–WATBAL was applied to 166 intensive monitoring forest plots of mid- and high-latitude Europe to evaluate the effects of expected future changes in carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, precipitation and nitrogen deposition on forest growth (net annual increment). These results were used in the large-scale forest scenario model EFISCEN (European Forest Information SCENario model) to upscale impacts of environmental change and to combine these results with adapted forest management. Because of the few plots available, Mediterranean countries were excluded from analyses. Results are presented for 109 million ha in 23 European countries. We predict significant impacts of environmental change on mid- and high-latitude European forests. Under a no climate change scenario, an increased fellings scenario assumed wood demand to increase from 3.8 to 5.3 m3 ha−1 yr−1 between 2000 and 2010, maintaining growing stock volumes at around 170 m3 ha−1. In 2100 it was thus possible to cut 50% more under intensive management than current felling level. Climate change increased this possibility to 90% (from 3.8 to 7.2 m3 ha−1 yr−1). The growing stock in 2100 increased to 279 m3 ha−1 under base felling level and no environmental change, but under environmental change, the rise was up to 381 m3 ha−1 in 2100. The average carbon stock of whole tree biomass was 72 Mg ha−1 carbon in 2005 and it increased to a predicted 104 Mg ha−1 carbon in 2100 under no environmental change and base fellings. Environmental change enhanced the build up of carbon stocks to up to 143 Mg ha−1 carbon in 2100. An average 35–40% higher increment is thus foreseen for 2100 compared to a no environmental change scenario (both under base fellings). The largest relative growth rate change is foreseen for the Nordic countries, with up to 75% growth increase. The impact of environmental change on C stock change in trees is as significant as the impact of forest management.

A predictive framework to understand forest responses to global change

McMahon, S. M.; Dietze, M. C.; Hersh, M. H.; Moran, E. V.; Clark, J. S.;

New York Academy of Sciences. 2009. 1162: 221-236

Forests are one of Earth's critical biomes. They have been shown to respond strongly to many of the drivers that are predicted to change natural systems over this century, including climate, introduced species, and other anthropogenic influences. Predicting how different tree species might respond to this complex of forces remains a daunting challenge for forest ecologists. Yet shifts in species composition and abundance can radically influence hydrological and atmospheric systems, plant and animal ranges, and human populations, making this challenge an important one to address. Forest ecologists have gathered a great deal of data over the past decades and are now using novel quantitative and computational tools to translate those data into predictions about the fate of forests. Here, after a brief review of the threats to forests over the next century, one of the more promising approaches to making ecological predictions is described: using hierarchical Bayesian methods to model forest demography and simulating future forests from those models. This approach captures complex processes, such as seed dispersal and mortality, and incorporates uncertainty due to unknown mechanisms, data problems, and parameter uncertainty. After describing the approach, an example by simulating drought for a southeastern forest is offered. Finally, there is a discussion of how this approach and others need to be cast within a framework of prediction that strives to answer the important questions posed to environmental scientists, but does so with a respect for the challenges inherent in predicting the future of a complex biological system.

The Opportunity Cost of Land Use and the Global Potential for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture and Forestry

Alla Golub, Thomas Hertel, Huey-Lin Lee, Steven Rose and Brent Sohngen

Resource and Energy Economics, Article in Press

This paper analyzes the role of global land-use in determining potential greenhouse gas mitigation by land-based activities in agriculture and forestry. Land-based activities are responsible for over a third of global greenhouse gas emissions, yet the economics of land-use decisions have not been explicitly modeled in global mitigation studies. In this paper, we develop a new, general equilibrium framework which effectively captures the opportunity costs of land-use decisions in agriculture and forestry, thereby allowing us to analyze competition for heterogeneous land types across and within sectors and input substitution between land and other factors of production. In our analysis of carbon taxation, we find significant changes in the global pattern of comparative advantage as a result of differential mitigation costs across sectors, regions, and land types. We find that forest carbon sequestration is the dominant strategy for GHG emissions mitigation globally in the land using sectors. However, when compared to the rest of the world, land-use emissions abatement in the US and China comes disproportionately from agriculture, and, within agriculture, disproportionately from reductions in fertilizer-related emissions. In the world as a whole, agriculture-related mitigation comes predominantly from reduced methane emissions in the ruminant livestock sector, followed by fertilizer and methane emissions from paddy rice. The results also show how analyses that only consider regional mitigation may under- or over-estimate mitigation potential. For example, U.S.-specific analyses likely over-estimate the potential for abatement in agriculture. Finally, we note that this general equilibrium framework provides the research community with a practical methodology for explicit modeling of global land competition and land-based mitigation in comprehensive assessments of greenhouse gas mitigation options.

Modelling the impact of carbon trading legislation on New Zealand's plantation estate

Manley, B. and Maclaren, P. 2009

NZ Journal of Forestry, May 2009 Vol.54 No. 1, 39-44.

The New Zealand Government has enacted legislation for an emission trading scheme (ETS) under which owners of Kyoto-compliant forests will receive/surrender credits for increases/decreases in the carbon stocks of their plantations.  Stand-level analysis indicates that carbon trading will have a number of impacts: - the increase in forest profitability will encourage afforestation; - silvicultural regimes that give increased biomass production will be preferred; - rotation length will increase. The goal of the ETS is to provide incentives to land and forest owners to make decisions that help the New Zealand Government meet its Kyoto Protocol obligations. This paper gives the results of an analysis that models the likely impact of the ETS on the carbon stock in New Zealand’s plantation estate.  An estate model is developed for New Zealand’s 573,000 ha Kyoto-compliant estate.   Potential land for afforestation is also included in the model.  The impact on national carbon stock of changing rotation length and afforestation rate are evaluated separately.  Changing silvicultural regimes is then evaluated in combination with these factors.  Results indicate that the ETS has the potential to ensure that New Zealand’s Kyoto-compliant estate does not become a net source of carbon.

The prospects for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in Mesoamerica

Kaimowitz, D.

International Forestry Review, Article in Press

The general reluctance of policy makers to include forests in discussions about global warming has changed with the development of measures to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). Mesoamerica (Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua ad Panama) presents a logical starting point to promote REDD due to the extent of its forest, and the relatively advanced state of its forest management institutions and policies. This paper reviews the prospects for REDD in Mesoamerica using PES (payment for environmental services) and other instruments, with emphasis on the effectiveness of REDD measures at reducing emissions, and their efficiency and fairness. It concludes that in spite of reduced deforestation in the region, the growth of payments to avoid deforestation will be the most important policy change related to REDD in the region in the coming years. However, the magnitude and impact of any payments must not be exaggerated and should be set in context of the overall trends resulting from broader social and economic dynamics.

Woody biomass and bioenergy potentials in Southeast Asia between 1990 and 2020

Nophea Sasakia, b, Wolfgang Knorrc, David R. Fostera, Hiroko Etohb, Hiroshi Ninomiyab, Sengtha Chayb, Sophanarith Kimd and Sengxi Sunb

Applied Energy, In Press

Forests in Southeast Asia are important sources of timber and other forest products, of local energy for cooking and heading, and potentially as sources of bioenergy. Many of these forests have experienced deforestation and forest degradation over the last few decades. The potential flow of woody biomass for bioenergy from forests is uncertain and needs to be assessed before policy intervention can be successfully implemented in the context of international negotiations on climate change. Using current data, we developed a forest land use model and projected changes in area of natural forests and forest plantations from 1990 to 2020. We also developed biomass change and harvest models to estimate woody biomass availability in the forests under the current management regime. Due to deforestation and logging (including illegal logging), projected annual woody biomass production in natural forests declined from 815.9 million tons (16.3 EJ) in 1990 to 359.3 million tons (7.2 EJ) in 2020. Woody biomass production in forest plantations was estimated at 16.2 million tons yr−1 (0.3 EJ), but was strongly affected by cutting rotation length. Average annual woody biomass production in all forests in Southeast Asia between 1990 and 2020 was estimated at 563.4 million tons (11.3 EJ) yr−1 declining about 1.5% yr−1. Without incentives to reduce deforestation and forest degradation, and to promote forest rehabilitation and plantations, woody biomass as well as wood production and carbon stocks will continue to decline, putting sustainable development in the region at risk as the majority of the population depend mostly on forest ecosystem services for daily survival.

Climate change mitigation: a spatial analysis of global land suitability for clean development mechanism afforestation and reforestation

Zomer, R. J.; Trabucco, A.; Bossio, D. A.; Verchot, L. V.

Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2008. 126: 1/2, 67-80

Within the Kyoto Protocol, the clean development mechanism (CDM) is an instrument intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while assisting developing countries in achieving sustainable development, with the multiple goals of poverty reduction, environmental benefits and cost-effective emission reductions. The CDM allows for a small percentage of emission reduction credits to come from afforestation and reforestation (CDM-AR) projects. We conducted a global analysis of land suitability for CDM-AR carbon 'sink' projects and identified large amounts of land (749 Mha) as biophysically suitable and meeting the CDM-AR eligibility criteria. Forty-six percent of all the suitable areas globally were found in South America and 27% in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Asia, despite the larger land mass, relatively less land was available. In South America and Sub-Saharan Africa the majority of the suitable land was shrubland/grassland or savanna. In Asia the majority of the land was low-intensity agriculture. The sociologic and ecological analyses showed that large amounts of suitable land exhibited relatively low population densities. Many of the most marginal areas were eliminated due to high aridity, which resulted in a generally Gaussian distribution of land productivity classes. If the cap on CDM-AR were raised to compensate for a substantially greater offset of carbon emission through sink projects, this study suggests that it will be increasingly important to consider implications on local to regional food security and local community livelihoods.

Carbon removals/sources of forests and forest conversion and applied carbon accounting methods and parameters in major developed countries

Zhang XiaoQuan; Zhu JianHua; Hou ZhenHong

Forest Research, Beijing. 2009. 22: 2, 285-293

Data from updated 1990-2006 national greenhouse gas inventory submitted by Annex I parties in 2008 were collected, based on which the net carbon removals by sinks or emissions by sources for forest land and forest conversion (forestry related category) as well as their carbon accounting methods and parameters applied were analysed. In accordance with the request of Conference of Parties, all Annex I Parties accounted, updated and reported their net carbon removals by sinks or emissions by sources for forest land and forest conversion based on IPCC good practice guidance for land use, land use change and forestry. IPCC higher tier methods and country-specific parameters have been widely applied in most of developed countries. The forestry-related category in major developed countries was a net carbon removal and presented an increasing trend from 1990 to 2006. The percentage of the net removals in national greenhouse gas emissions by sources in most of developed countries has been increasing, to a various extent, while China is subjected to a contrary trend. Carbon accounting methods currently applied in China's forestry-related category has a large gap compared to major developed countries. This paper recommended China to strengthen their studies and development of its own carbon accounting systems on the basis of experiences gained by developed countries, and to develop China-specific parameters, so as to enhance the capacity of China in the compliance of international climate change agreements. At the same time, China shall continue to increase forest area and effectively improve forest management, aiming at increasing carbon removals of the forestry-related category.



V. Publications, Reports and other media

Tropical forest tenure assessment: trends, challenges and opportunities
This report presents and analyzes the state of forest tenure in much of the world’s tropical forests, and compares the distribution of ownership in 2002 and 2008 in 39 tropical countries. The report.

Incentives to sustain forest ecosystem services: A review and lessons for REDD


A review of 13 schemes that make payments for ecosystems services in Africa, South-East Asia and Latin America concluded that performance-based payments can be part of REDD but only if important preconditions are met. The report.

Utilizing Payments for Environmental Services for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in Developing Countries: Challenges and Policy Options


This paper explores a range of key issues for consideration in the development and implementation of successful PES programs for REDD. The report.


Cost of implementing methodologies and monitoring systems relating to estimates of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, the assessment of carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions from changes in forest cover, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks


This paper provides an overview of the possible steps and requirements needed to develop and implement a monitoring system for estimating emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, assessing carbon stocks and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from changes in forest cover, and assessing the enhancement of forest carbon stocks. It provides information on the indicative costs associated with the possible steps and requirements of a national monitoring system. The difference in terms of cost implications and capacities between establishing a national monitoring system for GHG emissions and removals from deforestation and forest degradation, and maintaining and/or upgrading an existing system for monitoring are presented and discussed. The document.

Indigenous Worldviews & REDD

On the Frontlines of Climate Change

The article highlights perspectives from Central America. An indigenous Bribri, Alí García Segura, cautioned against REDD implementation that conflicts with worldviews of indigenous peoples. Explaining the history of his people, he noted that “carbon is an external concept,” as it cannot be separated from other elements of “a web of life.” He expressed his fears about changes in customs due to increased interactions with foreigners, and noted that development projects have failed to result in benefits to his people. In conclusion, he called for enhanced communication between financial institutions and indigenous communities, identifying the need for a “dialogue mechanism.” He emphasized that REDD efforts will not only fail, but rights will also be violated, if traditional knowledge is not considered when implementing REDD projects. The article.

Vital Forest Graphics

Vital Forest Graphics serves as an advocacy tool to promote conservation and sustainable management of the world’s forests through a better understanding of the values they provide in support of global ecological stability, economic development and human well-being. The publication includes the two key environmental issues of climate change and deforestation. The book.

Fact sheet: Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries: approaches to stimulate action


The UNFCCC has published a fact sheet on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), titled, “Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries: approaches to stimulate action.” The four page fact sheet outlines the relationship between forests and climate change, highlighting the services provided by forests and drivers and impacts of deforestation. The fact sheet.

The Little REDD+ Book, second edition 

The Global Canopy Programme

The Global Canopy Programme (GCP) in collaboration with partner organisations is pleased to announce the recent release of the second edition of the Little REDD Book. The new edition has been revised to reflect the latest research and submissions on REDD and includes an updated analytical framework. The Little REDD Book has also been translated into Bahasa Indonesia, French, Portuguese and Spanish with a further translation planned into Simplified Mandarin. The book.

Carbon 2009: Emission trading coming home

Point Carbon

Carbon 2009 is Point Carbon's fourth annual report on the global carbon market, presented on 17 March at our Carbon Market Insights conference in Copenhagen. We provide a comprehensive overview of all mandatory GHG emission trading schemes, whether current or upcoming. The main data source for the report is our annual Carbon Market Survey, but we also draw on Point Carbon’s in-depth analyses of global carbon markets and international climate policy in our publication series. The report.

State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2009

World Bank

The report, covers trading of EU Allowances (EUAs) under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), from transactions completed under the Kyoto Protocol’s flexible mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI)), as well as data from voluntary markets. The report.



VI. Jobs

Scientist, Climate Change, Forests and Governance Programme


Under the leadership of the Programme Director, the Scientist will be involved in research activities in domain 1 and 2, specifically related to mitigation, adaptation and governance issues at various sites globally. More.

PhD Researcher (Promovendus) m/f European forest management adaptation to climate change

Association of Universities in the Netherlands

The department of Urban and Regional Planning and Geo-information Management (PGM) invites qualified persons to apply for the full-time position of 'PhD Researcher(Promovendus)m/f  European forest management adaptation to climate change Spatial planning support system for European interregional scenario development for forest management adaptation to climate change. More.

Forestry Officer, Budapest

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Officer responsible for advising countries and for planning and implementing FAO forestry activities in Central and Eastern Europe. More.

Forest Resources Officer, Bangkok

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

The officer will provide technical support and policy advice to member countries on forest issues. More.


Marie Curie fellowships : applications welcome

Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)

CMCC is providing support to individual experienced researchers meeting the requirements of the FP7 People Programme to develop research proposals aimed at carrying out a Marie Curie Individual Fellowship at CMCC with reference to the following funding schemes More.


VII. Announcements

Invitation to participate in global survey


The Center for International Forestry Research is conducting a global survey to gauge the perceptions of risk to climate change in the context of production (tropical) forestry and to learn about the response options available by forest managers, forestry practitioners, researchers, and policy-makers. A publication is being planned based on the results of this survey by the end of 2009.

You are invited to complete the on-line survey which should take no more than 15 minutes of your time. The survey is also available in French and Spanish. Please feel free to pass this message to others you think would be interested in participating.

Links to the online survey: ENGLISH  SPANISH  FRENCH

New website on funding

The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and the Heinrich Böll Foundation have launched a new, independent website Climate Funds Update. This site provides information on the growing number of international funding initiatives that have been designed to help developing countries address the challenges of climate change.  The fund descriptions focus on the institutional and governance characteristics of the emerging funding initiatives. The site.


Ideas for Forest Day 3


FD3 Organising Committee are currently designing the programme for the day and would like to hear your ideas on the issues related to forests and climate change you would like to discuss at the Forest Day learning events.   Click here to fill out a survey form and send your ideas.

Pilot International Newsletter

Pilot International Newsletter is an annual newsletter released in both online and printed versions. It reports on project funding organizations, international education institutions and international conferences in the global sustainability sector. The purpose of Pilot International Newsletter is to promote global sustainable development by bridging gaps between project funding organizations, international education institutions, international conferences and their respective beneficiaries. More information and the newsletter.

News on international REDD initiatives

-    International Forest Carbon Initiative

-    UN-REDD

-    FCPF



CLIM-FO Information

The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to compile and distribute recent information about climate change and forestry. CLIM-FO-L is issued monthly.


Past issues of CLIM-FO-L are available on the website of FAO Forest and Climate Change:

For technical help or questions contact [email protected]

The Newsletter is compiled by Jesper Tranberg and Susan Braatz.

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The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

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last updated:  Wednesday, June 16, 2010