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II. UNFCCC negotiations and related discussions
III. Events & meetings
IV. Research Articles
V. New Publications and other media
VI. Jobs
VII. Announcements
CLIM-FO Information


24 August 2010

Indonesia project boosts global forest CO2 market

An Indonesian project aimed at saving a vast tract of rainforest has past a milestone seen as a boost in the development of a global market in forest carbon credits. That market under the U.N.-backed scheme reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) could eventually be worth billions of dollars annually and is central to the goal of driving private sector involvement in forest protection.


 24 August 2010

CIFOR Director General gives keynote on forests, climate change and communities

Forestry scientists need to think big, act fast and communicate better if their work is to have an impact on global climate change negotiations, CIFOR Director General Frances Seymour said in a keynote address at an international forestry conference.


23 August 2010

Forests may hold double climate benefit

Organic pollutants emitted by trees could add to the cooling effects of forests beyond their role in sequestering carbon, according to researchers in India. The knowledge could see forestry used to greater effect in the fight against climate change, it is argued.


20 August 2010

Norway to transfer $30m in forest aid to Indonesia
The transfer of money occurred after an Oslo delegate visited Indonesia to discuss Indonesia's plans of how it will use Norway's $1 billion pledge to avoid deforestation.  The talks focused on different measures to fight deforestation in Indonesia, including setting up an Indonesian agency, developing a national strategy, establishing a fund, and creating a monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) framework.


18 August 2010

Earth's green carbon sink on the wane

Satellite data indicate that carbon storage by plants is decreasing despite climate warming. This is the result found by ecologists Maosheng Zhao and Steve Running from the University of Montana in Missoula.


16 August 2010

Report Questions Forests' Effectiveness in Storing Carbon

A new study suggests declining tree growth in certain regions may hinder their ability to store carbon dioxide and help the world meet emissions reduction targets.


12 August 2010

Russia counts environmental cost of wildfires

Without better forest management, country can expect further uncontrolled fires in the future. As fires sweep across Russia during its hottest and driest summer on record, the country is facing a multitude of public-health and environmental disasters — including the risk of radioactive particles being released from contaminated land around the Chernobyl nuclear reactor.

11 August 2010

5 New Countries Join the UN-REDD Programme

The UN-REDD Programme’s Policy Board agreed in an inter-sessional decision in August to welcome Bangladesh, Bhutan, Central African Republic (CAR), Colombia and Guatemala as partners of the Programme and official observers to the UN-REDD Programme Policy Board.


9 August 2010

Mangroves offer win-win opportunity

Healthy mangrove forests provide a huge range of environmental benefits and need to be protected, says Mark Huxham. In this week's Green Room, he argues that schemes such as Redd offer a vital lifeline to the important ecosystems.


11 August 2010

New Resources for REDD+ Negotiators

The Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (FIELD) will develop resources, including updates on the UN-REDD Programme, to help developing country negotiators working on REDD+ in the lead-up to COP-16 in December.


6 August 2010

LULUCF, loopholes and REDD

LULUCF (land-use, land use change and forestry) became a hot topic at the Bonn meeting in June 2010, when it became clear that rich countries were attempting to use LULUCF to “hide increased emissions while trying somehow to create the illusion they are stopping catastrophic climate change,” as CAN International put it.


4 August 2010

Does the Opportunity Cost Approach Indicate the Real Cost of REDD+

There are serious problems with using the “opportunity cost” as a way of calculating the cost of REDD. Using this approach, the cost of REDD is based on estimated land values, which are in turn based on the (discounted) values of the agricultural products produced on the land. An obvious problem with this approach appears when the person clearing the land does so largely to feed themselves and their family.


3 August 2010

Model shows 'waves of forest degradation'

An international team of researchers has developed a model that suggests degradation of tropical forests occurs in a series of "waves". High-value trees were felled in the first "wave", followed by a wave that removed mid-value timber before the remaining wood was felled for charcoal.


20 July 2010

Developing countries pledge carbon cuts

Six developing nations participating in a climate change meeting in the Maldives have announced some of the toughest domestic carbon reduction targets in the world.

II. UNFCCC negotiations and related discussions

The Bonn Climate Change Talks 2 - 6 August 2010

Following the latest round of climate change meeting, 31 May - 11 June, negotiations continued in Bonn the 2-6 August. This was the eleventh session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) and the thirteenth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments of Annex 1 Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP).


AWG-LCA: Before the meeting, the chair of AWG-LCA made a new text available based on the June meeting and including elements under discussion: a shared vision on long-term cooperation, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology and capacity building. The main focus of the week’s negotiations was to develop and prepare the text for negotiations in Tianjin, China, in October, where the objective will be to prepare clear options and proposals to be considered at COP 16 in Cancún, Mexico. Progress on some issues in the negotiations during the week was noted by many participants but many old and new issues were opened up, resulting in a considerably longer negotiation text which does not bringing Parties closer to an agreement in Cancún. The possibility of adopting a legally-binding agreement in Cancún appears remote; the outcome may rather be a package of implementing decisions and a mandate to negotiate a binding agreement at COP 17.


AWG-KP: The central issues discussed in this session were Annex I Parties’ emissions reductions as well as how to avoid a gap between the first and second commitment periods. Regarding further commitments for Annex I Parties, flexibility mechanisms; land-use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF); and the link of these to the pledged emission reductions were addressed. In general good progress was made especially on LULUCF and flexible mechanisms. At the end of the session the chair presented a document with draft decisions and future options which will form the basis for the negotiations in the October meeting. He invited Parties to comment on the new text before 31 August.

Points of particular interest regarding forests

REDD-plus: Some parties expressed concern, that the negotiations on REDD-plus made a u-turn at this session. Already agreed issues were re-opened and the negotiation text was elaborated rather than simplified. Some claimed that the issue had been deliberately “pulled back” in the negotiations by a handful of Parties. However, others claimed that they made constructive additions on issues such as inclusion of natural and “other” sinks under REDD-plus and in relation to markets, equity and indigenous peoples. The main discussion points and text modifications related to implementation of REDD-plus activities, references to markets as a way of financing REDD-plus activities and possible exclusion of the option for Annex I Parties to use REDD-plus emission reductions for offsets. No agreement was reached on these points and the different text options were all included in the draft negotiation text for further discussion.


The major issues to be resolved on REDD-plus thus continue to include the financing modality (market based, fund based or a mixture of the two); the method of deciding the reference levels for forest emissions (projections of business-as-usual trends, negotiation or historical records) and national versus sub-national approaches (if incentives would be provided to developing countries only if mitigation benefits were achieved at national level or if sub-national mitigation actions could receive incentives).


LULUCF: The main discussion on Land Use Land Use Changes and Forests during the week included: accounting for forest management and how to deal with reference levels; how to define and account for emissions caused by force majeure (defined as an extraordinary event or circumstance whose occurrence or severity is beyond the control of countries) and the various options for including harvested wood products in emissions accounting or if HWP should be included at all.


As in the June meeting, one of the key issues in the discussion on LULUCF was how Annex 1 Parties’ set and document the reference levels for accounting of emissions and removals from forests. This issue received intense debate, stemming from concern that loopholes in the LULUCF text could allow Annex 1 Parties to adjust their reference levels for greenhouse gas emissions and carbon uptake (removals) from forests and forest management in such a way as to undermine their emissions targets under the Kyoto Protocol. Both the review process of forest management reference levels and caps on forest management were identified as key issues to address at AWG-KP 14 in October.


The use of HWP in emissions accounting received intense attention and countries expressed concern about double emissions accounting, problems related to tracking information and the risk of potential perverse incentives to intensify harvesting in natural forests. The discussion on HWP ended with a proposal from several countries which included emissions accountability for HWP-producing countries, accountability measures to avoid gaps and provisions for the sustainable use of HWPs.


CDM: AWG-KP did not touch the issue of expanding the scope of CDM to include e.g. REDD, wetlands and sustainable forest management, in the second commitment period. Neither was the proposal made in SBSTA in June on reforestation of “forests in exhaustion” as a possible action under the CDM mechanism discussed.


The next and last negotiation session before COP 16 (Cancún, Mexico 29 November to 10 December) will be held from 4 – 9 October 2010 in Tianjin, China.

III. Events & meetings

Workshop on Forest Governance, Decentralization and REDD+ in Latin America

30 August to 3 September 2010, Oaxaca, Mexico 

A country-led CIFOR  initiative in support of the UN Forum on Forests by the Governments of Mexico and Switzerland which will contribute both to COP 16 and the ninth session of the UN Forum on Forests.  More.

UNFF ad hoc expert group on forest financing

13 September 2010 - 17 September 2010. Nairobi, Kenya

A part of the UN Forum on Forest’s strategic plan on forest financing an open-ended intergovernmental ad hoc expert group on financing for sustainable forest management will meet. More information on UNFF website.

Global Expert Workshop on Biodiversity Benefits of REDD

20-23 September 2010, Nairobi, Kenya    

Hosted by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the UN-REDD Programme with the purpose to support the efforts of parties in addressing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries and forest biodiversity. More

Expert Workshop on Integrating Climate Change into National Forest Programmes

20-21 September 2010, Rome, Italy  

Food and Agriculture Organization and the National Forest Programme Facility host this consultation to get guidance from the invited experts on the development of guidelines for integrating climate change into national forest policy. More.  

INTERREG IVB conference on "European Forestry - Fit for Climate Change?"

21-22 September 2010. Nancy, France

The European ForeStClim project (2008-2012) which develops transnationally harmonised forestry management strategies for Northwest Europe, invites participants from and outside the ForeStClim project to its mid-term conference.  More.

Twentieth session of the FAO Committee on Forestry (COFO)

4-8 October 2010, Rome, Italy

The biennial sessions of COFO bring together heads of forest services and other senior government officials to identify emerging policy and technical issues, to seek solutions and to advise FAO and others on appropriate action. Other international organizations and, increasingly, non-governmental groups participate in COFO. More.

UNFCCC subsidiary bodies

4 – 9 October 2010, Tianjin, China.

Bonn Climate Change Talks – October 2010 includes meetings of the fourteenth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties of the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP 14) and the twelfth sessions of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA 12). More information on the UNFCCC website.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) COP 10

18-29 October 2010, Nagoya, Japan

The tenth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity is expected to, inter alia, assess the achievement of the 2010 target to reduce significantly the rate of biodiversity loss. It will be preceded by the fifth Meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.  More.

Pilot International Conference on Global Sustainable Development

19-21 November 2010, Kampala Uganda

The conference will bring together leading experts from a wide range of disciplines to discuss the impact realities of climate change and sustainable development. Climate Change, A Challenge to Businesses in the 21st Century. More.

COP 16 of the UNFCCC

29 November to 10 December 2010, Cancún, Mexico

The 33rd meetings of the SBI and SBSTA will also take place as well as AWG-LCA 13 and AWG-KP. More.  

Forest Day 4

5 December 2010, Cancun (Quintana Roo), Mexico

This event alongside the 16th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and will be hosted by the Government of Mexico and CPF members under the leadership of CIFOR. The event is a platform for anyone with an interest in forests and climate change to share their views and work together to ensure forests remain high on the agenda for global strategies to address climate change. More.

IV. Research Articles

Recent Widespread Tree Growth Decline Despite Increasing Atmospheric CO2

Silva LCR, Anand M, Leithead MD

PLoS ONE 5(7): e11543. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011543

The synergetic effects of recent rising atmospheric CO2 and temperature are expected to favor tree growth in boreal and temperate forests. However, recent dendrochronological studies have shown site-specific unprecedented growth enhancements or declines. The question of whether either of these trends is caused by changes in the atmosphere remains unanswered because dendrochronology alone has not been able to clarify the physiological basis of such trends. Here we combined standard dendrochronological methods with carbon isotopic analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of two deciduous and two coniferous tree species along a 9° latitudinal gradient across temperate and boreal forests in Ontario, Canada. Our results show that although trees have had around 53% increases in WUE over the past century, growth decline (measured as a decrease in basal area increment – BAI) has been the prevalent response in recent decades irrespective of species identity and latitude. Since the 1950s, tree BAI was predominantly negatively correlated with warmer climates and/or positively correlated with precipitation, suggesting warming induced water stress. However, where growth declines were not explained by climate, WUE and BAI were linearly and positively correlated, showing that declines are not always attributable to warming induced stress and additional stressors may exist. Our results show an unexpected widespread tree growth decline in temperate and boreal forests due to warming induced stress but are also suggestive of additional stressors. Rising atmospheric CO2 levels during the past century resulted in consistent increases in water use efficiency, but this did not prevent growth decline. These findings challenge current predictions of increasing terrestrial carbon stocks under climate change scenarios.

Quantifying the impacts of the quality of governance on deforestation

Chisa Umemiya, Ewald Rametsteiner and Florian Kraxner

Environmental Science & Policy, ENVSCI-816; No. of Pages 7

The quality of governance is known to have effects on deforestation, together with other social and economic factors. However, assessing the impact of governance quality is a challenging task due to the complex and diverse mechanisms of deforestation as well as limited data availability. In this paper, interrelations between governance quality and deforestation rates are analysed on a global scale, using national data on governance quality and deforestation. Results indicate an increase in governance quality tends to be associated with a decrease in deforestation rates (i.e., a lower level of deforestation). The paper then discusses the limitations of the quantitative assessment, including data issues.

Maintaining the role of Canada’s forests and peatlands in climate regulation

Matthew Carlson, Jing Chen, Stewart Elgie, Chris Henschel, Álvaro Montenegro, Nigel Roulet, Neal Scott, Charles Tarnocai and Jeff Well

The Forestry Chronicle, Juillet 2010, vol. 86, no 4

Canada’s forest and peatland ecosystems are globally significant carbon stores, whose management will be influenced by climate change mitigation policies such as offset systems. To be effective, these policies must be grounded in objective information on the relationships between land use, ecosystem carbon dynamics, and climate. Here, we present the outcomes of a workshop where forest, peatland, and climate experts were tasked with identifying management actions required to maintain the role of Canada’s forest and peatland ecosystems in climate regulation. Reflecting the desire to maintain the carbon storage roles of these ecosystems, a diverse set of management actions is proposed, incorporating conservation, forest management, and forest products.

Ecosystem Carbon Stock Influenced by Plantation Practice: Implications for Planting Forests as a Measure of Climate Change Mitigation

Liao C, Luo Y, Fang C, Li B

PLoS ONE 5(5): e10867.

Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha−1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age (<25 years vs. ≥25 years), stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen), tree species origin (native vs. exotic) of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

Developing carbon budgets for UK agriculture, land-use, land-use change and forestry out to 2022

Dominic Moran, Michael MacLeod, Eileen Wall, Vera Eory, Alistair McVittie, Andrew Barnes, R. M. Rees, Cairistiona F. E. Topp, Guillaume Pajot and Robin Matthews, et al.

Climatic Change DOI: 10.1007/s10584-010-9898-2

This paper derives a notional future carbon budget for UK agriculture, land use, land use change and forestry sectors (ALULUCF). The budget is based on a bottom-up marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) derived for a range of mitigation measures for specified adoption scenarios for the years 2012, 2017 and 2022. The results indicate that in 2022 around 6.36 MtCO2e could be abated at negative or zero cost. Furthermore, in the same year, over 17% of agricultural GHG emissions (7.85 MtCO2e) could be abated at a cost of less than the 2022 Shadow Price of Carbon (£34 (tCO2e)  − 1). The development of robust MACCs faces a range of methodological hurdles that complicate cost-effectiveness appraisal in ALULUCF relative to other sectors. Nevertheless, the current analysis provides an initial route map of efficient measures for mitigation in UK agriculture.

Operational approaches to managing forests of the future in Mediterranean regions within a context of changing climates

Stephens, S. L.; Millar, C. I.; Collins, B. M.

Environmental Research Letters. 2010. 5: 2, 024003

Many US forest managers have used historical ecology information to assist in the development of desired conditions. While there are many important lessons to learn from the past, we believe that we cannot rely on past forest conditions to provide us with blueprints for future management. To respond to this uncertainty, managers will be challenged to integrate adaptation strategies into plans in response to changing climates. Adaptive strategies include resistance options, resilience options, response options, and realignment options. Our objectives are to present ideas that could be useful in developing plans under changing climates that could be applicable to forests with Mediterranean climates. We believe that managing for species persistence at the broad ecoregion scale is the most appropriate goal when considering the effects of changing climates. Such a goal relaxes expectations that current species ranges will remain constant, or that population abundances, distribution, species compositions and dominances should remain stable. Allowing fundamental ecosystem processes to operate within forested landscapes will be critical. Management and political institutions will have to acknowledge and embrace uncertainty in the future since we are moving into a time period with few analogs and inevitably, there will be surprises.

Ecosystem Carbon Stock Influenced by Plantation Practice: Implications for Planting Forests as a Measure of Climate Change Mitigation

Liao C, Luo Y, Fang C, Li B

PLoS ONE 5(5): e10867. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010867

Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha−1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age (<25 years vs. ≥25 years), stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen), tree species origin (native vs. exotic) of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

Urban forests' potential to supply marketable carbon emission offsets: a survey of municipal governments in the United States

Poudyal, N. C.; Siry, J. P.; Bowker, J. M.

Forest Policy and Economics. 2010. 12: 6, 432-438. 32 ref.

This study assesses the motivation, willingness, and technical as well as managerial capacities of U.S. cities to store carbon and sell carbon offsets. Based on a national survey of urban foresters, arborists, and other officials responsible for urban forest management within U.S. municipal governments, results indicate that local governments are interested in selling carbon offsets. An estimated Probit discrete choice model shows that the chance of a city participating in carbon trading is positively influenced by a number of factors including: (1) level of urbanization, (2) management's knowledge of carbon sequestration, (3) revenue generation from offset sales, (4) population education level, and (5) familiarity with carbon market institutions such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). The cost of living, as reflected by median home prices, appears to be inversely related to the probability of participation. Currently, a number of cities have the technical and managerial capacity to establish quality carbon offset criteria such as enforceability, additionality, verifiability, and baseline establishment. However, many cities are still unaware of carbon sequestration opportunities, and there appears to be a fundamental disconnect to market participation. The results also suggest that municipal governments would gain from a better understanding of the costs and benefits associated with urban forest carbon storage.

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: national implementation of REDD schemes

Charlotte Streck

Climatic Change (2010) 100:389–394 DOI 10.1007/s10584-009-9767-z

Since 2005 the international negotiations to define an incentive system to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) under the auspices of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have made significant process. With the overall progress to define a future international climate agreement being slow and the trenches between developing and developed countries continuing to be deep, an agreement on REDD may well be one of the most concrete and feasible achievements of the international climate change negotiations under the UNFCCC. The background article by Corbera et al. (2009) in this issue is therefore a timely contribution to the current debate on enhanced climate change mitigation in developing countries. Informed by literature but also by first-hand experience in international negotiations and the implementation of policies in a developing country context, the article describes both the opportunities and challenges of an emerging REDD mechanism. Flexibility will be of essence for an effective REDD scheme. Different national circumstances, various levels of resources and capacities, and sensitivity towards an overly prescriptive international mechanism make the design of a modular and phased mechanism a condition for success. International REDD arrangements will face the challenging task of interacting with national governments relative to the performance of their national REDD strategies, while not encroaching on the sovereign discretion of nations to design adequate and acceptable policies and measures nationally (Meridian Institute 2009a). Policies to implement REDD will have to be based on a broad consensus between the government and all relevant stakeholders and originate from a process characterized by high political legitimacy. National implementation of REDD will thus depend on the national circumstances, policy priorities, costs and political feasibility.

Assessing the mitigation potential of forestry activities in a changing climate: A case study for Karnataka

Khatun, Kaysara; Valdes, Paul J.; Knorr, Wolfgang; Chaturvedi, Rajiv Kumar
Forest policy and economics. 2010 Apr. 12(4) p. 277-286

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol allows Afforestation and Reforestation (A/R) projects as mitigation activities to offset the CO in the atmosphere whilst simultaneously seeking to ensure sustainable development for the host country. The Kyoto Protocol was ratified by the Government of India in August 2002 and one of India's objectives in acceding to the Protocol was to fulfil the prerequisites for implementation of projects under the CDM in accordance with national sustainable priorities. The objective of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of using large-scale forestry projects under the CDM in achieving its twin goals using Karnataka State as a case study. The Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) Model is used to observe the effect of varying carbon prices on the land available for A/R projects. The model is coupled with outputs from the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to incorporate the impacts of temperature rise due to climate change under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2, A1B and B1. With rising temperatures and CO, vegetation productivity is increased under A2 and A1B scenarios and reduced under B1. Results indicate that higher carbon price paths produce higher gains in carbon credits and accelerate the rate at which available land hits maximum capacity thus acting as either an incentive or disincentive for landowners to commit their lands to forestry mitigation projects.

Can the uncertainty of full carbon accounting of forest ecosystems be made acceptable to policymakers?

Anatoly Shvidenko, Dmitry Schepaschenko, Ian McCallum and Sten Nilsson

Climatic Change DOI: 10.1007/s10584-010-9918-2

In accordance with the concept that only full accounting of major greenhouse gases corresponds to the goals of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, this paper considers uncertainties of regional (national) terrestrial biota Full Carbon Accounting (FCA), both those already achieved and those expected. We analyze uncertainties of major components of the FCA of forest ecosystems of a large boreal region in Siberia (~300 × 106 ha). Some estimates for forests of other regions and Russia as a whole are used for comparison. The systems integration of available information sources and different types of models within the landscape-ecosystem approach are shown to have enabled an estimation of the major carbon fluxes (Net Primary Production, NPP, and heterotrophic respiration, HR) for the region for a single year at the level of 7–12% (confidential interval, CI, 0.9), Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) of 35–40%, and Net Biome Production (NBP) of 60–80%. The most uncertain aspect is the assessment of change in the soil carbon pool, which limits practical application of a pool-based approach. Regionalization of global process-based models, introduction of climatic data in empirical models, use of an appropriate time period for accounting and reporting, harmonization and multiple constraints of estimates obtained by different independent methods decrease the above uncertainties of NEP and NBP by about half. The results of this study support the idea that FCA of forest ecosystems is relevant in the post-Kyoto international negotiation process.

The role of the forest sector in an era of global change - a view on some priorities for the 21st century

Wood, P.

Indian Forester. 2010. 136: 5, 701-706.

This paper argues for a few key priorities for the forest sector in the century which aims to highlight some of the forestry priorities that are forgotten. The role and functions of the forest sector are defined. It is emphasized that the mission of both education and research is to enable the forest sector to fulfill its role in this era of global change.

Forest fire occurrence and climate change in Canada

Wotton, B.M.; Nock, C.A.; Flannigan, M.D.

International journal of wildland fire. 2010. 19(3) p. 253-271

The structure and function of the boreal forest are significantly influenced by forest fires. The ignition and growth of fires depend quite strongly on weather; thus, climate change can be expected to have a considerable impact on forest fire activity and hence the structure of the boreal forest. Forest fire occurrence is an extremely important element of fire activity as it defines the load on suppression resources a fire management agency will face. We used two general circulation models (GCMs) to develop projections of future fire occurrence across Canada. While fire numbers are projected to increase across all forested regions studied, the relative increase in number of fires varies regionally. Overall across Canada, our results from the Canadian Climate Centre GCM scenarios suggest an increase in fire occurrence of 25% by 2030 and 75% by the end of the 21st century. Results projected from fire climate scenarios derived from the Hadley Centre GCM suggest fire occurrence will increase by 140% by the end of this century. These general increases in fire occurrence across Canada agree with other regional and national studies of the impacts of climate change on fire activity. Thus, in the absence of large changes to current climatic trends, significant fire regime induced changes in the boreal forest ecosystem are likely.

What makes a 'REDD' country?

Phelps, J.; Guerrero, M. C.; Dalabajan, D. A.; Young, B.; Webb, E. L.

Global Environmental Change. 2010. 20: 2, 322-332.

Despite remaining uncertainties, REDD projects are being planned and implemented across the tropics, primarily targeting countries with high forest cover and high deforestation rates. However, there is growing recognition that REDD planning requires a broadened approach; a future REDD mechanism should incentivise emissions reduction in all developing forested countries, and should address critical non-carbon dimensions of REDD implementation - quality of forest governance, conservation priorities, local rights and tenure frameworks, and sub-national project potential. When considering this broader suite of factors, different REDD priorities can emerge, including in countries with low forest cover that would be overlooked by conventional site selection criteria. Using the Philippines as a case study, the paper highlights the importance of an enabling environment to REDD implementation, and presents a more comprehensive and inclusive approach for thinking about what comprises a "REDD country".

A little REDD model to quickly compare possible baseline and policy scenarios for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

Dudley, Richard G.

Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change. 2010 Jan. 15(1) p. 53-69

A simple model allows rapid comparison of typical baseline and policy scenarios which might be considered under international programs to avoid CO emissions caused by forest clearing, such as REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation). These tests of REDD policy scenarios can also include CO stored in forest products. The value of avoided emissions can also be determined if expected carbon prices, constant or varying, are included. The paper discusses simple illustrative example comparisons as well as possible feedback effects within larger scale setting of CO offset availability, CO price and emissions reductions.

Impact of recent climatic change on growth of low elevation eastern Mediterranean forest trees

Dimitrios Sarris, Dimitrios Christodoulakis and Christian Körner

Climatic Change (2010) 100 DOI: 10.1007/s10584-010-9901-y

Evidence is presented of how Pinus halepensis Miller from dry habitats at <300 m elevation of four Greek island regions have responded to climatic conditions of the last two centuries. We compared historical periods of low growth due to low precipitation with the recent period of significant precipitation decline. In all cases trees’ growth patterns across the twentieth century were consistent with trends in annual (rather than seasonal) precipitation, with lowest values in both precipitation and radial growth during the last two decades of the twentieth century, the worst conditions for tree growth in more than 200 years. The data are compared with trends across different vegetation belts of the northern Mediterranean basin. Drought related tree mortality in Greece in 2000 and 2007 coincided with the most severe fire outbreaks on record. IPCC WG I (2007) climate scenarios for the Mediterranean suggest a further decline in precipitation, particularly in the eastern regions. Should this occur, growth reduction in trees, tree mortality and damage from forest fires are likely to become more severe.

Does REDD+ threaten to recentralize forest governance?

Phelps, J.; Webb, E. L.; Agrawal, A.

Science (Washington). 2010. 328: 5976, 312-313.

This paper describes a new approach to emission mitigation, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), which may interrupt a promising trend toward decentralized forest management. The REDD + along with decentralization are discussed in this paper. Further, the REDD+ reversing decentralization trends and its multiple incentives are given. It is established that communities should have control over local REDD+ design and implementation. Governments may propose REDD+ sites, support low-emission rural-development strategies, and deliver payments and/or services as incentives. Local users should be given authority, information, and support to determine whether they engage with REDD+, align their management, monitoring, and enforcement with low-emissions objectives, and to negotiate revenue sharing. Finally, it is suggested that new research is necessary to optimize REDD+ effectiveness through a combination of decentralized and centralized forest governance.

Getting REDD to work locally: lessons learned from integrated conservation and development projects

Blom, B.; Sunderland, T.; Murdiyarso, D.

Environmental Science & Policy. 2010. 13: 2, 164-172.

Tropical forests hold several goods and services used by forest-dependent people as safety nets to traverse difficult periods of resource supply. These same goods and services are constantly surrounded by emerging markets linking remote communities with major urban centers nationally and internationally. How these markets affect adaptation remains unclear. This paper examines the roles of markets in non-timber forest products that normally serve as safety nets for forest communities, and the implications for climate change adaptation in the Congo Basin. Following the identification and prioritization of forest-based development sectors for adaptation by stakeholders, the types of markets and trades surrounding the identified sectors were examined in two provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo as a case study in order to evaluate revenue flows and their potential contribution to adaptation by local communities. The distribution of the market revenue leaves local people with returns much lower than the worth of the commodity, while wholesalers and retailers reap most of the benefits and profit from the high variability in volume and market earnings for the same commodity across provinces. Markets may increase the value of a commodity as observed in this study, but their contributions to adaptation appear highly limited for local communities following their distribution among the stakeholders in the market chain. This is likely to be worse in free market settings, especially when it diminishes the safety net roles of forest goods and services. Markets should therefore complement rather than substitute forests roles for adaptation to climate change in tropical forest countries. Capturing the benefits of trade for adaptation is crucial but will require policy reforms and further research that addresses the complexity in benefit sharing.


V. Publications, Reports and other media

Application of Small-scale Afforestation and Reforestation CDM Methodology to Low-income Rural Communities in Paraguay

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences

This working report will explain the interpretation of the contents and strategies of the methodology for realizing a small-scale reforestation CDM project validated in Paraguay. The report also aims to facilitate application of the methodology as a guide for extension towards other areas in Paraguay or neighbouring countries with similar conditions. This document will analyze the meaning of the 53 paragraphs of AR-AMS0001.Ver04.1 one by one and will use concrete examples to indicate how to overcome the described requirements. The difference between AMS0001.Ver04.1 and Ver05 is referred to in the relevant paragraphs. The report.

Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD): a casebook of on-the-ground experience

The Nature Conservancy

The purpose of this report is to present some of the lessons learned from this experience, specifically as they relate to commonly cited challenges to creating real, credible and verifiable carbon benefits to the atmosphere through forest carbon activities. The four projects profiled in this report are briefly described in the "Project Snapshots" section to familiarize the reader with their basic design and strategy. The report then reviews basic forest carbon science in the section entitled "REDD 101," and the history and current state of climate change policy and carbon markets as they relate to forest carbon. Finally, the eight sections that follow under "Technical Challenges and Field Experience," describe the main challenges to REDD, using one of four projects profiled in the report as an in-depth case study to demonstrate how this challenge was successfully overcome on the ground and what lessons were learned from the experience. More.

REDD Readiness Requires Radical Reform - Prospects for making the big changes needed to prepare for REDD-plus in Ghana

The Forests Dialogue

The REDD-plus field dialogue was held in Ghana’s Western Region and the dialogue process engaged nearly 50 leaders from a broad spectrum of Ghanaian government and civil society, as well as stakeholders from 13 countries. The report summarizes the outcomes of the Ghana dialogue including  the context and status of REDD-plus in Ghana, lessons applicable to Ghana from other international and local experiences and the challenges and ways forward for REDD-plus readiness in Ghana as identified via the dialogue. The Report.

Reducing Forestry Emissions in Indonesia

Center for International Forestry Research

The report investigates the trade-offs between development pathways based on land-intensive with the aim to information to stakeholders, both national and international, about the potential conflict between the dual objectives of carbon emissions reductions and economic development. This analysis provides important indications of areas where synergies exist and where multiple objectives can be pursued sustainably. The Report.

LULUCF briefing: No offsets, no false accounting

Global Forest Coalition

Briefing paper on Land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF), prepared by GFC's European focal point Almuth Ernsting from Biofuelwatch and Helena Paul from Econexus. The paper.

World Bank Publishes Report on Economic Evaluation of Adaptation Projects

World Bank

The World Bank has published a new report within its Development and Climate Change series titled "Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation Projects: Approaches for the Agricultural Sector and Beyond. Report.

GEF Publishes Brief on Financing for Sustainable Forest Management and REDD+

Global Environment Facility

This brief describing its investment programme for sustainable forest management (SFM) and reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks ( REDD+), as well as opportunities for funding of forest-related activities in the fifth GEF cycle. The Brief.


VI. Jobs

Chief Technical Advisor
Gola Forest Programme, Sierra Leone
The Gola Forest Programme is an exciting and pioneering long-term project to conserve the globally important Gola Rainforest National Park in Eastern Sierra Leone. The Programme employs 100 national protected area staff and manages the forest from Kenema Town; 2 hours drive for the Gola forest. The RSPB seeks an experienced and enthusiastic protected area specialist to support the Programme to deliver its objectives over the next 2 years. The post holder should have a relevant degree, extensive experience of protected areas in Africa and an exemplary track record of protected area work.
More information.

Independent Forest Monitor

Guyana Forestry Commission
The Guyana Forestry Commission, on behalf of the Government of Guyana, requires the services of an Independent Forest Monitor, to undertake the initial scoping mission in 2010 and a monitoring assessment in 2011, in keeping with the detailed terms of reference developed and available on GFC’s website.  


VII. Announcements

Forest Day 4 – Registration now open


The Collaborative Partnership on Forests and the Government of Mexico, through the National Forestry Commission, are pleased to announce that registration for Forest Day 4 is now open. Register here.

Call for articles  on climate change implications in Africa

Nature & Faune magazine

The theme for the next issue of Nature & Faune magazine is “Climate change implications for agricultural development and natural resources conservation in Africa”. Natural resources conservation, agricultural development, and climate change, will therefore form the tripod on which the next issue of the magazine will be based.  This is certainly a topic on the wave. The next issue of Nature & Faune magazine therefore seeks to learn about any past, ongoing or planned climate change mitigation/adaptation-related activities in your community, project, academic or research centre regarding these issues at local, national and regional levels. Nature & Faune magazine hereby invite you to submit manuscript(s) on any issue related to the theme to   [email protected]   or to    [email protected]. Visit the website for further information on Nature & Faune magazine: http://www.fao.org/africa/publications/nature-and-faune-magazine/ . Deadline for submission of articles, announcements and other contributions is 30th September 2010

ACP-FLEGT - Call for proposals


The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is issuing a call for proposals through its Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade Support Programme to African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries (ACP-FLEGT Support Programme). More.

All the latest UN-REDD Programme news and information is now easy to follow by subscribing to the Programme’s new RSS feed


It is now possible to subscribe to the UN-REDD Programme’s RSS feed by logging onto www.un-redd.org, and clicking on the RSS button on the homepage or in the Media Centre.

Launch a REDD+ online database

The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies

IGES has launched a REDD+ online database. The purpose of the database is to make information on REDD+ readiness activities and projects readily accessible for analysis and learning. The database mainly provides profiles of REDD-plus projects using a common template, but the intention is to also provide country summaries of REDD-plus policies and frameworks. The database is at an early stage of development. Further project profiles and country summaries will be added and IGES welcomes any information for the updating of the profiles and the country summaries. More information.

last updated:  Thursday, September 30, 2010