17 October 2012 - IUFRO

GFEP at CDB meeting in Hyderabad

At the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Hyderabad, India, the IUFRO-led GFEP successfully presented key findings of its current assessment on the relationship between biodiversity, forest management and potential REDD+ activities. With input of more than 50 leading scientists from around the world, this assessment will constitute the first comprehensive analysis to date of the relationship between biodiversity, forest management and REDD+. It seeks to provide decision-makers with most up-to-date scientific information on how these complex relationships may be affected by management activities implemented to achieve REDD+ objectives. The assessment report will be officially launched on the occasion of the next UN climate convention (UNFCCC) meeting from 26 November to 7 December 2012 in Doha, Qatar.

15 October 2012 – Mongabay

Norway to double carbon tax on oil industry for climate change programs

Beginning next year, Norway will nearly double the carbon tax on its domestic oil industry to help set up a $1 billion climate change fund for programs in developing nations among other green projects. The Scandinavian nation is the world's 13 largest oil producer and third biggest oil exporter, yet has been one of the most active champions of funding climate change projects.

15 October 2012 – EDF

State-level REDD+ offers huge climate benefits

Carbon markets are taking giant steps toward becoming a reality, with forests and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) central to the process. Many environmentalists support REDD+, but a few want to obstruct it.

12 October 2012 – CIFOR

Research program joins forces with the United Nations to help world meet 2020 deforestation goals

A leading research program has agreed to join forces with the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity as part of a broader goal to cut the rate of deforestation in half by the end of the decade and to promote sustainable management of farms and forests.

09 October 2012 – IISD

On the Road to Doha: Will the Bell Toll for the Kyoto Protocol?

The last round of climate change talks before the 18th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 18) to be held in Doha, Qatar, concluded in Bangkok, Thailand, on 5 September. Delegates are now back in their capitals, reflecting whether discussions throughout this year were productive enough to lead to a successful outcome in Doha.

09 October 2012 – The World Bank

Ethiopia Climate Project Receives Africa’s First Forestry Carbon Credits under the CDM

Humbo village, in southwestern Ethiopia, rural communities are benefiting from an innovative carbon reduction project that has successfully restored 2,728 hectares of biodiversity-rich land, bringing cash into their hands in some of the remotest parts of the continent.

05 October 2012 – CIFOR

Emission reduction policies must be based on accurate carbon measurements

Forest-rich countries must ensure that policies for emissions reduction programs, such as REDD+, are based on accurate measurements of carbon stored and released from trees, otherwise they could greatly overestimate their contribution in reducing the planet’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

 04 October 2012 – IFAD

IFAD’s new Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP) goes live

The Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP) is a new programme launched by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in 2012 to channel climate and environmental finance to smallholder farmers through IFAD-supported programmes.  A multi-year and multi-donor financing window, ASAP will provide a new source of co-financing targeted specifically at scaling up and integrating climate change adaptation in ‘regular’ smallholder development programmes. Through ASAP, IFAD aims to transform incentives within IFAD and its partners to increase the impact on climate resilience of its approximately US$1bn per year of new investments.



II. Multilateral processes in climate change


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Negotiations took place in Bangkok, Thailand 30th of August to 5th of September 2012 where the following bodies and working groups met: The Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol, The Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action.  Click here to read about the results of the negotiations.


The 18th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and the 8th meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol will take place from Monday 26th November till Friday the 7th of December in Doha, Qatar. More  


Parties and accredited observers are invited to submit their views to UNFCCC on various issues (incl. CDM and LULUCF), as decided by UNFCCC. Click here for the UNFCCC document. See also the first document noted under section V, for views submitted on financing options.


III. Events & meetings


Upcoming events


Preparing the forest sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia to meet global challenges

29 October – 2 November, 2012, Issyk-kul, Kyrgyzstan

The main objectives of the Regional Workshop are to: (1) review the progress made by target countries and international organizations towards the implementation of the Krtiny Declaration and update priorities of target countries; and (2) support target countries by exchanging experience in selected forest-related areas (forest resource assessment, forest and water, etc.), in the context of global challenges such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. More

Illegal logging and legality verification – the FLEGT / VPA as new modes of governance

6-7 December, 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark

In 2003 the EU adopted its Action Plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT). In order to promote the import to Europe of legal timber, the EU proceeded in 2005 to introduce Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) with countries that export tropical timber. As of March 2013, timber placed on the European market must be documented legal, and traders will be required to exercise due diligence to ensure that the timber they deal with is from legal sources. At this backdrop, this international academic conference will discuss a number of theoretical and empirical issues related to the practice of illegal logging and trade in illegal tropical timber as well as measures to counteract such practices. Although main focus will be on the EU modalities, presentations on other related initiatives are welcome as well. More


World Forests Summit. Achieving sustainable forest management on a global scale

5-6 March 2013, Stockholm, Sweden

Forests play a crucial role in the world's environment, health and economy - yet they are under threat. Our World Forests Summit will assemble a leading group of experts from around the world to identify common ground and discuss mechanisms for forest stakeholders to work together differently. The summit will openly explore the tensions and compromises that are involved in creating a thriving global green economy, delivering fresh insight into solving critical challenges at both global and national levels. More

11th International Conference on Dryland Development: “Global Climate Change and its Impact on Food & Energy Security in the Dry lands”

18-23 March 2013, Beijing, China

It has now been well established that the global climate change is occurring and is having a wide impact on the environment and the livelihood of the people across the world. Dry areas of the world have highly fragile ecosystem, which is highly vulnerable to climate changes. For sustainable development of the drylands and other dry areas in the face of global climate and other changes, it is important to recognize the impacts of climate change and human activities on dryland ecosystem and understand the process and mechanism of dry lands ecosystem changes occurring because of these pressures.  In addition, other global changes are also triggering challenges for food and energy security in the drylands. The Conference will provide an opportunity to exchange research results and experiences among colleagues from around the world and to promote international cooperation in developing strategies to meet the challenge of sustainable development of the drylands in the face of these changes. Emphasis will be specially laid on identifying adaptation and mitigation strategies using traditional knowledge as well as modern science and technology for different dryland ecologies. More


IV. Research Articles

Democratic less-developed countries cause global deforestation

Larjavaara, M.

International Forestry Review Vol. 14(3): 299-313

The role of democracy on deforestation has been analysed previously but the results have been contradictory. In this study, FAO statistics on forest area change in countries of the world from 2000 to 2010 were compared with three independent democracy indices. Democratic less developed countries caused 55%–74% of the net global forest area decrease and non-democratic less-developed countries caused 66%–67% of the net forest increase. When the relative forest area change weighted with forest area in the country was plotted against the level of democracy in 121–131 less-developed countries the slopes of fitted linear regressions were statistically significant for all three democracy indices, linking positive forest area change and non-democracy. The potential mechanisms causing these trends are unclear but nevertheless the vigorous promotion of democratic methods by donors in high-income countries should be questioned.

Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas

Beaumont, L. J.; Duursma, D

PLoS ONE; 2012. 7: 8, e43714.

The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA) is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21st century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

A case study of REDD+ challenges in the post-2012 climate regime: the scenarios approach

Lu HeLi; Liu GuiFang

Natural Resources Forum; 2012. 36: 3, 192-201

The REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) partnership works to promote the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by protecting forests in developing countries through positive incentives. It is regarded as an essential component of the post-2012 climate regime to stabilize GHG emissions and engage developing countries in worldwide mitigation endeavours. This study focuses on the gap between agricultural revenue and REDD+ compensation through the construction of several scenarios that explore the impacts of possible carbon price ranges. Three scenarios that reflect different potential policies are examined: (1) current carbon trading; (2) carbon trading with all forestry activities; and (3) carbon trading with all countries participating gradually over the coming decades. Data for developing the scenarios were obtained through a case study in central Kalimantan, Indonesia, by interrogating the potential for revenue by expanding agricultural land. The results indicate that REDD+ payments could not effectively compensate land users for their opportunity cost of deforestation, making it difficult for the governments to ensure that REDD+ money "reaches the ground" in terms of balancing the agricultural revenue of land users.

Opportunities and challenges of promoting agroforestry for climate change mitigation: a case-study of the Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) pilot project in Tanzania.

Rioux, J

Nature & Faune; 2012. 26: 2, 63-68

Agriculture can help mitigate climate change through reducing emissions from the agricultural sector and pressure on surrounding forests by investing in agroforestry systems that enhance carbon sequestration and provide fuel wood, thus reducing the need to deforest. In Africa, the main driver of deforestation remains subsistence agriculture, which stresses the need to develop climate-smart agriculture at field level with adequate support from district and national level policies. Agroforestry has been identified as a climate change mitigation practice for its potential to sequester carbon. Moreover, it provides multiple co-benefits to farmers, thus supporting adaptation to climate change. Farmer group discussions in the Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania suggest that 77% of trees found in the area provide them multiple benefits, mainly the provision of fire wood (79%) followed by fruits/food (51%). They also highlighted local adoption challenges, mainly the land tenure system and the common practice of slash and burn agriculture, which both impede tree planting and the wider promotion of agroforestry. This paper shows the importance for addressing land tenure while promoting agroforestry and connecting small scale farming with district and national policies on land tenure, agriculture and environmental conservation to ensure that climate change mitigation in agriculture is to be successful in Africa.

Agriculture-forest interface for guaranteed food security and climate change adaptation

Toure, C. T

Nature & Faune; 2012. 26: 2, 49-51

In the eastern, northern and central regions of Senegal, shifting agriculture has led to severe land depletion through massive destruction of the plant cover. Populations find it difficult to ensure food self-sufficiency due to the lack of land suited for food production. Therefore, it is necessary to revisit the vision of ensuring food availability by promoting the protection of the Agriculture-Forest interface which guarantees the restoration of depleted land, good agricultural productivity and biodiversity preservation. The example of Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR) is a perfect case in point.

Conceptual structure for climate-smart agriculture for enhanced productivity in the Congo Basin

Thiombiano, L.; Sagnia, S.; Nguinguiri, J. C.; Fonteh, M. F.; Molua, E. L

Nature & Faune; 2012. 26: 2, 28-32

In safeguarding food security, alleviating poverty and protecting the environment, agriculture will have to be intensified while minimising land expansion and conserving existing forest resources. This paper espouses a framework for climate-smart agriculture in the Congo Basin. It suggests sustainable farmland and water management under a polyculture of trees including for timber, crops and livestock. The effective integration of these components to achieve farmer welfare will require access to markets and value chain addition, as well as timely research, effective extension and adequate communication. This calls for political will to provide enabling conditions for the performance of eco-agriculture in the Congo Basin.

A rational approach to managing water, wetlands and forests towards a greener economy for Africa

Boroto, R. J.

Nature & Faune; 2012. 26: 1, 90-94

A methodology under development is proposed for the sustainable exploitation of water, wetlands and forests in the context of a watershed and towards a greener economy in Africa. If adopted, it will assist in 'doing things better', through practical steps. Africa depends a great deal on the exploitation of its natural resources, including water, wetlands and forests. The continent is faced with population growth, an increasing pressure for economic development, and climate change that all affect natural resources. Carrying business as usual will exacerbate the destruction of the continent's ecosystems and the loss of the goods and services that they provide. A rational approach could reserve this trend and contribute to a greener economy in Africa. The approach that is presented in this paper is work in progress. It consists of two key steps comprising (1) a classification of wetland and forest resources according to their ecological value, (2) a technical guide for the gradual exploitation of wetlands and forest resources focusing on maximizing the benefits of a green economy. This methodology is first being developed for wetlands and inland valleys and will be tested on two pilot cases. This paper is part of an early consultative process, comments and contributions from readers are therefore welcome.

Importance of savanna woodlands in rural livelihoods and wildlife conservation in southeastern Zimbabwe

Gandiwa, E

Nature & Faune; 2012. 26: 1, 60-66

Increasing human population, economic challenges, climate change impacts are intensifying reliance by local communities on savanna woodlands in tropical regions. Knowledge of the importance and value of savanna woodland ecosystems to rural livelihoods and wildlife conservation is therefore needed to enhance lasting benefits from them. Savanna woodlands are of economic, social and ecological importance in southeastern Zimbabwe. Recommendations for conserving woodland resources include the strengthening of control systems and enhancing community based natural resource management programmes.

Africa's forests and climate change - what to do?

Chipeta, M. E

Nature & Faune; 2012. 26: 1, 32-38

This paper presents and discusses the current and future impacts of global warming and climate change, on Africas forests and agriculture, as well as some ways of saving the remaining forests and woodlands for their continuous economic, social and environmental contributions in the future.

Developing REDD+ policies and measures from the bottom-up for the buffer zones of Amazonian protected areas.

Scriven, J

Environment, Development and Sustainability; 2012. 14: 5, 745-765

A key activity in Phase 1 of REDD+ - the UN's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) forestry mitigation mechanism - is the development of policies and measures (PAMs) to define where and how emissions reductions and carbon stock enhancements and conservation will be achieved. This paper provides contextual data and information for the development of PAMs specifically for the buffer zones of protected areas in the Peruvian Amazon, sites where REDD+ has the potential to generate considerable social and ecological co-benefits. The study sites are the buffer zones of two national parks, Yanachaga-Chemillen (YChNP) in central Peru and Manu (MNP) in the south-east. Data were collected through smallholder household surveys (<i>n</i>=200), covering livelihood strategies, land use practices and preference rankings of five REDD+ criteria. The findings suggest that PAMs in buffer zones could realistically achieve an additional ~10% conservation of remaining forest and between 25 and 70% additional reforestation of non-forest areas on private lands. The paper argues that in areas where agricultural co-operatives exist, such as MNP, these should be engaged in national REDD+ PAMs and supported by an international NGO; in areas where smallholders operate individually, such as YChNP, international NGOs may be best placed to gain local trust and thereby raise participation rates. The environmental effectiveness of REDD+ conservation PAMs could be greater in areas of intense agricultural production, yet financial and technical support for reforestation may offer the most effective avenue for carbon mitigation in these areas.

LULUCF in the post-2012 regime: fixing the problems of the past?

Macintosh, A. K.

Climate Policy; 2012. 12: 3, 341-355

One of the reasons why the Kyoto Protocol has been environmentally ineffective is the flaws in the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) accounting rules, including voluntary accounting for Article 3.4 activities, the adoption of a definition of forest management that allowed parties to preferentially include and exclude forest lands, and allowing parties with net emissions from LULUCF in 1990 to include deforestation emissions in their 1990 emissions base year. Three proposed amendments to the LULUCF rules for the post-2012 regime are discussed and analysed: (1) a force majeure rule, (2) a baseline-and-credit system for forest management and (3) an 'emissions-toatmosphere' approach for harvested wood products. Although these proposals have the potential to significantly improve the accounting framework, there are still significant problems such as the failure to account for the biophysical effects of forest activities, uncertainties associated with the application of the forest management baseline-and-credit system and continuing optional coverage of Article 3.4 activities.

Marginal abatement cost curves: a call for caution

Kesicki, F.; Ekins, P

Climate Policy; 2012. 12: 2, 219-236

Legal commitments to reduce CO2 emissions require policy makers to find costefficient means to meet these obligations. Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, which illustrate the economics associated with climate change mitigation, have recently attracted a great amount of attention. A number of limitations with MAC curves are explained by the implication they should be just one tool in a broader set of decision-making aids used in assessing climate policy. MAC curves, for example, omit ancillary benefits of greenhouse gas emission abatement, treat uncertainty in a limited manner, exclude intertemporal dynamics and lack the necessary transparency concerning their assumptions. MAC curves based on the individual assessment of abatement measures suffer from additional shortcomings such as the non-consideration of interactions and non-financial costs, a possibly inconsistent baseline, double counting and limited treatment of behavioural aspects. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation exhibit many of the above-mentioned problems, making it particularly difficult to capture in a cost curve. Policy makers should therefore be cautious when interpreting MAC curves, pay attention to the underlying assumptions, consider non-financial costs and be aware of the important uncertainties and underlying path dependencies.

Community perceptions of REDD+: a case study from Papua New Guinea

Leggett, M.; Lovell, H

Climate Policy; 2012. 12: 1, 115-134

REDD projects have received considerable attention for their potential to mitigate the effects of climatic change. However, the existing literature has been slow to assess the impacts of proposed REDD projects on the livelihoods of forest communities in the developing world, or the implications of these local realities for the success of REDD+initiatives in general. This study presents ethnographic research conducted with communities within the April-Salomei pilot REDD+Project in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Several cases of institutional biases and uneven power relationships have been exploited by local elites to prevent landowners from making free and informed choices about their involvement in the project, although landowners and local communities are well positioned to capture forthcoming project benefits. By underestimating the scale and impact of traditional shifting cultivation practices, the credibility of the REDD+project design and the value of any future carbon credits are critically undermined. Based on the actual practices found in PNG, the authors' radical proposal is to call for a halt on REDD development in PNG while institutional enabling conditions are improved, comprehensive landowner consultations conducted, and detailed mapping and genealogical surveys of landowners completed. Without these developments, future REDD+projects in PNG are unlikely to benefit either the global climate or local development.

Brazil's Amazon forest in mitigating global warming: unresolved controversies

Fearnside, P. M.

Climate Policy; 2012. 12: 1, 70-81

Brazil's Amazon rainforest provides an important environmental service with its storage of carbon, thereby reducing global warming. A growing number of projects and proposals intend to reward carbon storage services. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is currently a key issue for negotiations on an international agreement that is to take effect in 2013. Various issues require decisions that will have substantial impacts on both the effectiveness of mitigation and the scale of Amazonia's potential role. These decisions include the effects that money generated from payments can have, the spatial scale of mitigation (e.g. projects or countries and sub-national political units), whether to have voluntary or mandatory markets, and whether these reductions will generate carbon credits to offset emissions elsewhere. It is argued that national-level programmes, combined with a national target under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, are the best solution for Brazil in terms of both capturing international funding and stimulating the major cuts in global emissions that are needed to minimize climate risk to the Amazon rainforest. The high likelihood of passing a tipping point for maintaining the Amazon rainforest implies the need for urgency in altering current negotiating positions.


GIS and multi-criteria decision analysis for land use resource planning

Nyeko, M

Journal of Geographic Information System; 2012. 4: 4, 341-348

Natural resources management is indispensable in ensuring environmental sustainability and reducing the risk associated with climate change and increasing demand for ecological goods and services. Natural resources planners need to have at their disposal tools that can objectively help in prioritizing land use allocation. Traditional application of land use change model based on economic model, trend analysis, and or scenario analysis present some challenges of data availability and reliability necessary for implementation of the models. However, with the advent of information technology, GIS and remote sensing, biophysical data known for having influence on land use allocation can easily be accessed. The current study explores the application of GIS-Multi-criteria analysis in modeling future land use scenarios for resources planning and management using easy to construct biophysical parameters known for influencing future land use allocation. The decision problems in this study are to find the best spatial allocation of land to future agriculture and forest development, which are considered to present critical land use change in the study area. The  afforestation scenarios are meant to offset the pressure on the native forest resources due to the increased demand for fuel and timber and also to contribute to the environmental protection and the agricultural land use scenarios are meant to increase productivity and ensure environmental protection. The land use scenarios did not consider "when" in the future the land use pattern may develop. The analyses of scenarios indicate that afforestation extent in the basin can be increased from 4.6% to 42.9% of the total basin area. However, the afforestation extent of 42.9% may be considered unrealistic, since in practice, it may not be possible to realize up to 42.9% afforestation, nevertheless, the spatial pattern of the afforestation may provide crucial insight into spatial afforestation policies and it future consequences. The agricultural land use can increase from 6.2% to 53.7% of the basin area. The agricultural land use expansion can be realised since the expansion of farm land is primarily the main option to achieve food production increase in the near future. The findings indicate potential use of the methodology in land use planning.

Global estimates of carbon stock changes in living forest biomass: EDGARv4.3 - time series from 1990 to 2010

Petrescu, A. M. R.; Abad-Vinas, R.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Blujdea, V. N. B.; Grassi, G

Biogeosciences; 2012. 9: 8, 3437-3447

While the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) focuses on global estimates for the full set of anthropogenic activities, the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector might be the most diverse and most challenging to cover consistently for all countries of the world. Parties to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to provide periodic estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, following the latest approved methodological guidance by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The current study aims to consistently estimate the carbon (C) stock changes from living forest biomass for all countries of the world, in order to complete the LULUCF sector in EDGAR. In order to derive comparable estimates for developing and developed countries, it is crucial to use a single methodology with global applicability. Data for developing countries are generally poor, such that only the Tier 1 methods from either the IPCC Good Practice Guide for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF) 2003 or the IPCC 2006 Guidelines can be applied to these countries. For this purpose, we applied the IPCC Tier 1 method at global level following both IPCC GPG-LULUCF 2003 and IPCC 2006, using spatially coarse activity data (i.e. area, obtained combining two different global forest maps: the Global Land Cover map and the eco-zones subdivision of the Global Ecological Zone (GEZ) map) in combination with the IPCC default C stocks and C stock change factors. Results for the C stock changes were calculated separately for gains, harvest, fires (Global Fire Emissions Database version 3, GFEDv.3) and net deforestation for the years 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010. At the global level, results obtained with the two sets of IPCC guidance differed by about 40 %, due to different assumptions and default factors. The IPCC Tier 1 method unavoidably introduced high uncertainties due to the "globalization" of parameters. When the results using IPCC 2006 for Annex I Parties are compared to other international datasets such as (UNFCCC, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)) or scientific publications, a significant overestimation of the sink emerges. For developing countries, we conclude that C stock change in forest remaining forest can hardly be estimated with the Tier 1 method especially for calculating the C losses, mainly because wood removal data are not separately available on harvesting or deforestation. Overall, confronting the IPCC GPG-LULUCF 2003 and IPCC 2006 methodologies, we conclude that IPCC 2006 suits best the needs of EDGAR and provide a consistent global picture of C stock changes from living forest biomass independent of country estimates.

Policy update: amazon deforestation and Brazil's forest code: a crossroads for climate change

Schwartzman, S.; Moutinho, P.; Hamburg, S

Carbon Management; 2012. 3: 4, 341-343.

This paper describes the status of the Amazon forests, and discusses the role of the Forest Code in controlling deforestation and protecting the forests. The paper also discusses the impacts of changing climate on the forest vegetation, and relates relationships among deforestation, forest degradation, climate change and forest fires.


V. Publications, Reports and other media

Incorporating climate change considerations into agricultural investment programmes. A guidance document 


This following guidance document aims to assist investment project formulation practitioners in incorporating climate change considerations into agricultural investment projects and programmes. The main focus is on project/programme formulation (i.e. identification and design), although some aspects of supervision and evaluation will also be presented. It is intended for national and international staff and consultants, as well as government staff involved in mobilizing investment for agriculture and rural development, mainly through assistance to project or programme identification, formulation and supervision. It is meant to apply to investment projects or programmes in agriculture and rural development (agriculture in the broad sense, including fisheries, livestock and forestry). It can also be used for stand-alone climate change projects or programmes; however, for most stand-alone climate change projects/programmes, there are specific guidelines provided by their funding agencies and other development partners. The publication  

Moving forward. Selected achievements of the FAO forestry programme 2010-2011


In this 2012 edition of Moving forward, FAO Forestry is pleased to present a selection of the work, including as relates to climate change, it undertook in the 2010–2011 biennium for the benefit of the global forestry community. The FAO Forestry Programme encompasses a vast range of activities and projects, of which this booklet presents only a sample. In all regions of the world, the Programme is helping to implement sustainable forest management and boost the livelihoods of forest-dependent people. The publication


Defining climate-related forest activities, finance and expenditure in national budgetary systems


This paper consolidates the issues and existing approaches to defining climate-related forest activities and finance. Integrating the multiple approaches, six categories of climate-related forest activities are identified. A step-wise tool is then proposed that allows the identification of budgetary expenditure within these categories. The scope of the tool is narrow, focussing only on the forest sector and on climate change mitigation. It does not capture the broader sectors of the economy that impact on forest extent and quality, or the role that forests play in climate change adaptation. The tool can be regarded as a starting point that further research and the application of case studies can refine. The publication

Mitigation Finance


This paper considers what “counts” as climate change mitigation finance, with reference to the concept of additionality, by reviewing a range of activities that can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the five sectors that account for the largest share of global GHG accumulation: energy, transport, industry, agriculture and water. It considers the underlying policy and regulatory complexities that will affect investment in such options. It identifies a range of interventions that might support mitigation and approaches to public support of such interventions (summarised in Table 1). It emphasises the importance of support for innovation, reforming subsidies for GHG-intensive approaches, and support to strengthen institutional capacity to manage low carbon development, recognising the political economy of mitigation. Rather than offering definitive guidance, it elaborates key concepts and approaches to support deeper interrogation and discussion of the issues at hand. The publication


REDD+ Politics in the Media. A case study from Papua New Guinea 


This study examines how policy debates around reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing forest carbon stocks (REDD+) have been framed by the media in Papua New Guinea. It does this through an analysis of print media articles mentioning ‘REDD(+)’ or ‘carbon trade’/‘carbon trading’ published between December 2005 and December 2010. The articles were drawn from Papua New Guinea’s highest selling and/or most influential newspapers – two Englishlanguage daily newspapers, the Post-Courier and The National, and the weekly local language publication Wantok Niuspepa. The analysis identifies common topics covered by the media when reporting on REDD+ and includes coverage of the key actors in the national REDD+ policy domain, and their positions – as either advocates or adversaries – on particular issues. The publication


V.I Jobs

Technical Adviser on REDD+ Assessment and monitoring

FAO – Deadline for application is 25th of October 2012

FAO seeks a technical adviser for REDD+ Assessment and monitoring to be based in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. More

VII. Announcements


IGES CDM Project Database (updated to 30 September 2012)


This database contains information of CDM project activities in pipeline as of 31 May 2012. Projects under validation is summarised on the sheet "Validation" and projects requested for registration or registered is summarised on the sheet "Requested & Registered." All data is source from the UNFCCC website. IGES and UNFCCC secretariat has signed the MOU in May 2008 on CDM data. Now, we regularly exchange the CDM data to enhance data quality and its analysis to better serve for the stakeholders. More

EU FAO FLEGT Programme: First call for proposals


The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations announces the first call for proposals for projects through the EU FAO Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade Programme (EU FAO FLEGT Programme) . The four-year initiative has two main components: providing assistance to stakeholders in putting the European Union FLEGT Action Plan into practice, and supporting the collection, analysis and dissemination of FLEGT-related information and lessons learned among stakeholder groups. More


last updated:  Wednesday, November 28, 2012