In unfavorable habitats such as steep rocky slopes, grazing grounds, heavily populated districts and places near roads and ancient caravan routes, the dominant vegetation is a scattered, open type of forest. The tree species and associated vegetation are the same as that of the forest zone.
Mountain riparian forest
The dominant tree species along the mountain streams are Salix acmophylla, Platanus orientalis, Fraxinus rotundifolia, Populus euphratica and Juglans regia. The common small tree species in abundance are Vitis vinifera, Rubus sanctus, Rosa canina, Vitex agnus-castus, Nerium oleander, Cionura erecta and Paliurus spina-christi. Other plant species include Eupatorium cannabinum, Pulicaria dysenterica, Mentha longifolia, Sacharum ravennae, Latherum salicaria and Cyperus longus (Chapman 1957).