Wood Energy Catalogue

Black Gold -The charcoal grey market in Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan

Countries of implementation
Kenya, South Sudan, Uganda

This report explores how criminality manifests in the charcoal value chains in Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan, and how these three countries are linked by the regional flows of charcoal.

It finds that while there is no massive or acute organized crime problem, poor, ineffective or inappropriate regulation has given rise to forms of market orga­nization with organized crime qualities – including cartels, high-level corruption and violence – in some locations, which is considered as undermined law enforcement capacity, jeopar­dized environmental protection efforts and expanded the exploitation and coercion of vulnerable populations and those relying on charcoal as a convenient fuel.

It consists of 5 chapters: 1) The charcoal trade: impact and regulation; 2) Regional roles and flows; 3) Charcoal value chains; 4) Criminal markets: Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan; and 5) Conclusion.

Charcoal, market, trade, regulation, enforcement, charcoal flows, criminality, cartels, corruption, violence, Kenya, Uganda, South Sudan
Type of initiatives
Sector review and study
Level of intervention
Multiple countries
Responsible agencies
Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime