FAO Publications

FAO. 2018. Guide to the classical biological control of insect pests in planted and natural forests. FAO Forestry Paper 182. FAO, Rome.
Insect pests damage millions of hectares of forest worldwide each year. Moreover, the extent of such damage is increasing as international trade grows, facilitating the spread of insect pests, and as the impacts of climate change become more evident. Classical biological control is a well-tried, cost-effective approach to the management of invasive forest pests. It involves the importing of “natural enemies” of non-native pests from their countries of origin with the aim of establishing permanent, self-sustaining populations capable of sustainably reducing pest populations below damaging levels. [more…]

FAO. 2011. Guide to implementation of phytosanitary standards in forestry. FAO Forestry Paper 164, FAO, Rome. Also Available in Chinese Korean Spanish Serbian  Arabic Albanian Russian
This gude explains how the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) and national plant protection organization (NPPO) regulations affect the import and export of forest commodities; how relevant ISPMs can be used to prevent pest introduction and spread; and how forest-sector personnel can work together with NPPOs to contribute to the development and implementation of ISPMs and national phytosanitary regulations that help reduce pest movement while restricting trade as little as possible. The guide will be of vital interest to people involved in nursery activities, planting, managing, harvesting [more…]

FAO. 2009. Global review of forest pests and diseases. FAO Forestry Paper 156, FAO, Rome.
Forests need to be managed so that the risks and impacts of unwanted disturbances are minimized. Measures to protect forests from insect pests and diseases are an integral part of sustainable forest management. The importance of considering the impacts of insect pests and diseases on forests and the forest sector has been recognized for some time. Effective pest management requires reliable information – information on the pests themselves, their biology, ecology, and distribution, their impacts on forest ecosystems and possible methods of control [more...]

Moore, B. 2005. Alien invasive species: impacts on forests and forestry. A review. Forest Health and Biosecurity Working Paper FBS/8E. Forestry Department, FAO, Rome.
The increasing global movement of people and products, though beneficial to many people, is also facilitating the movement of alien species around world. These species may be unintentionally introduced to new environments in shipments of food, household goods, wood and wood products, new and used tires, animal and plant products, containers, pallets, internal packaging materials, and humans. In the absence of their natural predators, competitors and pathogens, they prosper in their new environments and spread at the expense of native species, affecting entire ecosystems. Not all invasive species have been inadvertently introduced, however [more…]

FAO. 2004. African network on invasive species. Unasylva, 219(55): 65-66. 
At a task force meeting organized by the Forest Research Institute of Malawi (FRIM), the Forestry Department of Malawi and FAO from 15 to 17 December 2004, the dormant Tree Pest Management Network for Central, Eastern and Southern Africa was reborn as the Forest Invasive Species Network for Africa (FISNA). The task force meeting was held in Zomba, Malawi and attended by participants from seven countries – Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia – as well as the African Forest Research Network (AFORNET), CAB International and FAO [more…]

FAO. 2004. Forest threats. Unasylva, 217(55/2).
Forests have long been threatened by a variety of destructive agents. Today, the frequency, intensity and timing of fire events, hurricanes, droughts, ice storms and insect outbreaks are shifting as a result of human activities and global climate change, making forest ecosystems even more prone to damage. This issue of Unasylva examines the threats posed by a number of biotic and abiotic agents and some of the measures for overcoming them. Natural threats such as fire, insects and diseases are integral to forest dynamics [more…]

Cock, M. 2003. Biosecurity and forests: an introduction - with particular emphasis on forest pests. Forest Health and Biosecurity Working Paper FBS/2E, Forestry Department, FAO, Rome.
Broadly speaking, “biosecurity” in food and agriculture describes the concept and process of managing - in a holistic manner - biological risks associated with food and agriculture (in the broadest sense, i.e. including agronomy, livestock husbandry, forestry, fisheries and related environmental aspects). This usage also implies that transboundary movements or the use of novel genotypes are involved in some way. A separate, though related, concept is “biosafety”, which, as developed for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, is used specifically in relation to the release and transboundary movement of [more…]

FAO. 2003. Forestry Outlook Study for Africa. Regional report - opportunities and challenges towards 2020. FAO Forestry Paper 141, Rome, 68 pp.
The main objective of FOSA is to indicate what is likely to happen in the next two decades if the current trends persist and the priorities and strategies that may be pursued to enhance forestry’s contribution to sustainable development. In addition to providing a regional overview, FOSA explicitly takes into account subregional specifics and throws light into the potentials and challenges for forestry development in each of the five subregions in Africa. FOSA was a true participatory effort involving all the African countries and leading organizations concerned with forests and forestry in the region [more…]

Boa, E. 2003. An illustrated guide to the state of health of trees. Recognition and interpretation of symptoms and damage. FAO, Rome, 49 pp.  
The aim of this guide is to help readers recognize symptoms of ill health in trees and understand their general significance. The guide provides 140 photographs of symptoms from more than 50 tree species to be used as a basis for demonstrating the effects of pest (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) influences on trees. It aims to assist anyone interested in tree health or responsible for managing trees. Tree health is not always routinely monitored in developing countries, and working guidelines and forest protection measures are not always incorporated into forest management [more…]

Boa, E. & Nash, P. 2002. General report and outline of courses. Tree Health Course Seychelles, CABI Bioscience, FAO.
The FAO Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) has two main thrusts: to study sandragon disease itself and to strengthen national capacity in forest protection. The appearance of two damaging tree diseases within a few years of each other has emphasised the need to know more about how to study and manage tree heath problems.
One of the main challenges of diagnosing problems on trees such as Pterocarpus indicus is making the distinction between the relative importance and influence of biotic and abiotic factors [more...]

Diekmann, M., Sutherland, J.R., Nowell, D.C., Morales, F.J. & Allard, G. (eds). 2002. FAO/IPGRI Technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm, No. 21. Pinus spp. FAO/IPGRI, Rome, Italy, 90 pp.
The collection, conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources and their global distribution are essential components of research activities underpinning the imple- mentation of international crop and tree improvement programmes. Inevitably, the movement of plant germplasm involves a risk of accidentally that remain symptomless in plants, such as virus- es or bacteria, pose a special risk. To minimize such a risk, preventive measures and effective testing procedures are required to ensure that distributed material is free of pests of potential phytosanitary importance [more…]

FAO. 2002. International Standards for phytosanitary measures. Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade. ISPM # 15, FAO, Rome.
Wood packaging material made of unprocessed raw wood is a pathway for the introduction and spread of pests. Because the origin of wood packaging material is often difficult to determine, globally approved measures that significantly reduce the risk of pest spread are described. NPPOs are encouraged to accept wood packaging material that has been subjected to an approved measure without further requirements. Such wood packaging material includes dunnage, but excludes processed wood packaging material [more…]

Old, K.M., Vercoe, T.K., Floyd, R.B., Wingfield, M.J., Roux, J. & Neser, S. (eds). 2002. FAO/IPGRI Technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm, No. 20. Acacia spp. FAO/ IPGRI, Rome, Italy, 87 pp.
 the movement of plant germplasm involves a risk of accidentally introducing associated plant pests.1 Pathogens that cause no symptoms in plants, such as viruses or bacteria, pose a special risk. To minimize such a risk, preventive measures and effective testing procedures are required to ensure that distributed material is free of pests of potential phytosanitary importance. The international movement of plant germplasm for research (including plant biotechnology research), conservation and basic plant breeding purposes requires complete and current information concerning the phytosanitary status of plant germplasm [more...]

Murphy, S.T. 1998. Protecting Africa's trees. Unasylva, 41/1(192).
In 1986, an alien sap-sucking aphid, the cypress aphid (Cinara cupressi), was reported from Cupressus plantations in Malawi. Feeding by the aphid caused dieback of branches and, frequently, the death of trees. By 1991 it had spread to eight countries in eastern and southern Africa and was estimated to have killed trees for a value of US$ 41 million, while continuing to cause a loss in annual growth increment of US$ 413.5 million per annum (Murphy, 1993).
The story of the cypress aphid exemplifies one of the problems affecting African trees today [more… ]

Ciesla, W.M., Diekmann, M. & Putter, C.A.J. (eds). 1996. FAO/IPGRI Technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm, No. 17. Eucalyptus spp., FAO, IPGRI, ACIAR & ASEAN, Rome, Italy, 67 pp.
Collecting, conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources and their global dis- tribution are essential components of international crop and tree improvement pro- grammes. Inevitably, the movement of germplasm in technical crop improvement programmes involves a risk of accidentally introducing plant pests1 along with the host plant. In par- ticular, plant pests which accompany symptomless host material, such as viruses, pose a special risk. In order to manage this risk, effective testing or indexing procedures are required to ensure that material distributed is free of pests of quarantine concern [more…]

FAO. 1991. Exotic aphid pests of conifers: a crisis in African forestry, Muguga, Kenya, 3-6 June 1991. Proceedings of the workshop. FAO, Rome, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Muguga, International Institute of Biological Control, Nairobi, Rome, Italy, 160 pp.
Since 1968, three species of conifer aphids have been introduced into eastern and southern Africa. These are the pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini, the pine needle aphid, Eulachnus rileyi, and the cypress aphid, Cinara cupressi. These aphids have had wide ranging impact on the conifer forest resources of this region [more… ]

Further references

Anderson, R.L. 1994a. Assessment of forest diseases in Kenya with specific emphasis on cedar decline, FAO, Rome (Italy). Forestry Department, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Nairobi (Kenya), 34 pp.

Ciesla, W.M. 1991. Cypress aphid, a new pest of confers in eastern and southern Africa. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 39 (2/3): 82-93.

last updated:  Tuesday, June 4, 2019