Food security and nutrition: building a global narrative towards 2030 - HLPE consultation on the V0 draft of the Report
During its 45th Plenary Session (October 2018), the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) requested the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) to produce a brief report (of about 20 pages, and approximately 20000 words) titled “Food security and nutrition: building a global narrative towards 2030” that takes stock of HLPE contributions “with a view toward informing future CFS actions on FSN for all in the context of the 2030 Agenda”, with analysis that takes into account the perspective of those most affected by food insecurity and malnutrition. The overall aim of the report, as articulated in the CFS multi-year program of work is to: “elaborate in a forward-looking perspective a global narrative on FSN, enlightened by previous HLPE publications and considering recent developments in the FSN sector” in order to provide strategic guidance towards the achievement of SDG2 and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Click here to download the CFS request.
The report will be presented at CFS 47th Plenary session in October 2020. As part of the process of elaboration of its reports, the HLPE is organizing a consultation to seek inputs, suggestions, and comments on the present preliminary V0 draft (for more details on the different steps of the process, see the Appendix in the V0 draft). The results of this consultation will be used by the HLPE to further elaborate the report, which will then be submitted to external expert review, before finalization and approval by the HLPE Steering Committee.
HLPE V0 drafts of reports are deliberately presented early enough in the process - as a work-in-progress, with their range of imperfections – to allow sufficient time to properly consider the feedbacks received in the elaboration of the report. E-consultations are a key part of the inclusive and knowledge-based dialogue between the HLPE Steering Committee and the knowledge community at large.
Contributing to the report
This V0 draft identifies areas for recommendations and contributions on which the HLPE would welcome suggestions or proposals. The HLPE would welcome submission of material, evidence-based suggestions, references, and concrete examples, in particular addressing the following questions:
- The V0 draft is structured around a conceptual framework that proposes to focus on six dimensions of FSN. Along with the four established pillars of FSN (availability, access, stability, utilization), the V0 draft also discusses two additional dimensions: agency and sustainability, which have become increasingly important and recognized dimensions to achieving sustainable food systems. Do you think that this framework addresses the key issues of FSN?
- The V0 draft analyzes in what ways thinking on FSN has shifted in recent years as articulated in past HLPE reports; and how these insights can feed into a global narrative on how best to meet SDG2 targets. Do you think that the analysis of the evolution of conceptual approaches and thinking on FSN clearly addresses its current adequacy to meet the SDG2 targets?
- The V0 drafts identifies main trends that have complex implications for all dimensions of food security. While some of these trends have widespread agreement with respect to their implications for food security and nutrition, others have less agreement and as such require more research. Do you think that trends identified are the key ones in affecting FSN outcomes today that might help explain stalled progress on meeting SDG2 targets? Do you have additional data or information that could help refine the analysis of the interplay between these trends and FSN outcomes?
- Drawing on HLPE reports and analysis in the wider literature, the report outlines several examples of potential policy pathways to address current challenges in ways that build more resilient and sustainable food systems and engage all stakeholders. Throughout the V0 draft there has been an attempt to indicate, sometimes with placeholders, specific case studies that would illustrate pathways to achieving FSN with concrete examples and experience, focusing on the six dimensions of availability, access, stability, utilization, agency and sustainability. The HLPE recognizes that the range of case studies could be more complete. Are the set of case studies appropriate in terms of the dimension chosen and regional balance? Can you suggest further case studies that could help to enrich and strengthen the report? Do you agree that the selected examples are among the most promising potential pathways to achieve FSN targets toward 2030? Do you have other good practices and examples of policy and interventions that could accelerate progress towards SDG2 along the six identified dimensions?
- Are there any major omissions or gaps in the V0 draft? Are topics under-or over-represented in relation to their importance? Are there any redundant facts or statements that could be eliminated from the V0 draft (especially considering the CFS request for a concise report)? Are any facts or conclusions refuted, questionable or assertions with no evidence-base? If any of these are an issue, please share supporting evidence.
We thank in advance all the contributors for being kind enough to read, comment and suggest inputs on this V0 draft of the report. We look forward to a rich and fruitful consultation.
The HLPE Steering Committee
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Anne W. Kepple
Yes, I think the draft identifies the main trends. I suggest that the 14 trends and challenges be incorporated better into Box 2.
However two things are needed:
I cannot respond fully to this now but our team in ESS may be able to contribute additional case studies. Certainly the example of the (now extinct) National Food Security and Nutrition System in Brazil should be highlighted.
Dear HLPE Steering Committee,
As the Civil Society and Indigenous Peoples’ Mechanism (CSM), we would like to thank you for the opportunity to provide feedback on the V0 draft of the Report: “Food security and nutrition: building a global narrative towards 2030”. Please kindly find attached the document containing CSM’s input.
Should you require any further information from our side, please do not hesitate to contact us.
We thank you once again and best regards,
Magdalena Ackermann on behalf of the CSM
Please find attached comments from World Animal Net on the V0 Draft of the report "Food security and nutrition: building a global narrative towards 2030."
In general, we are very pleased to see that through this report both sustainability and agency will be incorporated into the dimensions of FSN. We suggest several opportunities where the draft could strengthen its wording on needed transitions to achieve FSN, specifically the "transition to diets that contain a smaller proportion of calories from animal source foods" as suggested in the 2019 "Sustainable Healthy Diets: Guiding Principles" report by FAO and WHO. We also suggest that increasing awareness and demand for high animal welfare products should be considered as one of the trends outlined. Animal welfare standards have now been agreed by 183 countries through the World Organisation for Animal Health, and animal welfare was also covered prominently in "HLPE10: Sustainable agricultural development for food security and nutrition: what roles for livestock?"
Thank you for the opportunity to submit comments on the V0 Draft.
World Animal Net
السيدة Kathleen Machado
On behalf of Active Remedy Ltd. I would like to thank the organizers for offering us the opportunity to provide input towards the HLPE V0 draft report 2020: ‘Food security and nutrition: Building a global narrative towards 2030’
1. The V0 draft is structured around a conceptual framework that proposes to focus on six dimensions of FSN. Along with the four established pillars of FSN (availability, access, stability, utilization), the V0 draft also discusses two additional dimensions: agency and sustainability, which have become increasingly important and recognized dimensions to achieving sustainable food systems.
Do you think that this framework addresses the key issues of FSN?
Yes, we feel that the two dimensions of ‘agency’ and ‘sustainability’ are important and needed additions to the conceptual framework.
We do however feel that the V0 draft could be significantly improved if more emphasis is placed upon the essential role of water, biodiversity and ecosystems in providing all the causes and conditions needed for long-term sustainable agriculture.
“Forest ecosystems are fundamental to maintaining the water cycle.” (FAO, Forests and Water Action Plan, 2015)
With increasing urgency for food production, there is a trend towards expanding agricultural cultivation to cover more terrestrial land surfaces. However it is absolutely essential that any substantial changes in vegetation cover are done with full consideration and appreciation of the complex interconnectivity that exists between ecosystems.
“Ensuring that ecosystems are protected and conserved is central to achieving water security – both for people and for nature. Ecosystems are vital to sustaining the quantity and quality of water available within a watershed, on which both nature and people rely. Maintaining the integrity of ecosystems is essential for supporting the diverse needs of humans, and for the sustainability of ecosystems, including protecting the water- provisioning services they provide.” (UN Water, Analytical Brief, 2013)
Also recognition of the need to conserve these ecosystems in order to maintain and regulate essential earth systems such as the global hydrological cycle and climate systems, is key to achieving FSN.
“Forests perform vital ecosystem services, including the regulation of the water and carbon cycles and protection of biodiversity, that are essential to agriculture.” (HLPE 11)
The fact that all food production is dependent upon the global water cycle and that this in turn is dependent upon interlinking ecosystems needs to be given far more attention when putting measures in place towards sustainable food systems. Essentially the conservation and restoration of biodiversity, particularly within key water related ecosystems, is necessary to meet the present demands for FSN. The importance of this fact cannot be overemphasised within this report.
“As is discussed in more detail in Chapter 3, current global discourse favours a decentralized approach, based on the principle of subsidiarity as espoused in Agenda 21 of the UN Conference on Environment and Development of 1992. One such approach to water management is the ecosystem approach (ES), which aims at the integrated management of land, water and living resources. Importantly, the ecosystem approach recognizes that humans are an integral component of ecosystems (CBD, 1992), and calls for strong stakeholder participation – involving those who have an interest in, or could be affected by, decision- making. It also recognizes that management of natural resources should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level. Whether within more traditional water management approaches, or newer approaches such as the ecosystem approach, it is at the local level that there is the greatest potential for collective action around water management.” (HLPE 9)
As was concluded in FAO, HLPE Report 9 in 2015:
“Water is life. Water is essential to food security and nutrition. It is the lifeblood of ecosystems, including forests, lakes and wetlands, on which depend the food security and nutrition of present and future generations.”
“The cycle of water through the land, atmosphere, and oceans is intimately tied to the Earth’s climate through processes such as latent heat exchange and the radiative effects of water in its vapor, liquid, and solid phases. Water, and its cycling in the Earth system, is critical for human populations and ecosystems. The National Climate Assessment process is clearly identifying changes in the timing and availability of water as central to an understanding of the effects of climate change.” (USGCRP, ‘Our Changing Planet’, 2001.)
The fact that all FSN is dependent upon climate, which is dependent upon the global hydrological cycle and that this in turn is dependent upon interlinking ecosystems, needs to be seriously addressed when putting measures in place for sustainable food systems.
“Given their important role in water supply and regulation, the protection, sustainable management and restoration of mountain ecosystems will be essential.” (UNESCO, Climate Change Impacts on Mountainous Regions of the World, 2012)
With increasing urgency for food production, there is a trend towards expanding agricultural cultivation to cover more terrestrial land surfaces however it is absolutely essential that any substantial changes in vegetation cover are done with full consideration and appreciation of the complex interconnectivity that exists between ecosystems and the need to conserve the in order to maintain and regulate essential earth systems such as the global hydrological cycle and climate systems.
“The Global Water Cycle is an integral part of the Earth/ Climate system; water vapor constitutes the Earth’s most abundant and important greenhouse gas, and water is its most active solvent.” (USCRP, Draft White Paper, chapter 7: ‘The Global Water Cycle and its Role in Climate and Global Change, Strategic Plan for the Climate Change Science Program’, November 2002)
Considering that it has been widely accepted that water is essential to all food security, we feel that the global water cycle should be given greater prominence within this report.
“Water is at the heart of both the causes and the effects of climate change ((NRC, 1998)” (National Academies, Emerging Global, Water and Energy Initiative- An integrated Perspective, 1999)
Recognizing the vital importance of the ecosystems, which maintain the hydrological cycle has been agreed upon by world governments and included within SDG Goal 6, Target 6.6 as a necessity for achieving water availability.
“By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes” (UN, 'Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development', Target 6.6, New York, September 2015)
This is a particularly pivotal target, which needs immediate implementation and which will determine the effectiveness of all other efforts towards achieving FSN and the 2030 Agenda:
“The current pace and scale of human development is altering the hydrological cycle in ways that has eroded the capacity of ecosystems to provide life-sustaining functions and services. Rivers that for centuries ran from source to sea now run dry in many years due to damming, diversion and depletion of glaciers and water resources.” (UN Water, ‘The Global Water Crisis: Addressing an Urgent Security Issue’ 2012)
2. The V0 draft analyzes in what ways thinking on FSN has shifted in recent years as articulated in past HLPE reports; and how these insights can feed into a global narrative on how best to meet SDG2 targets.
Do you think that the analysis of the evolution of conceptual approaches and thinking on FSN clearly addresses its current adequacy to meet the SDG2 targets?
“Sustainable forest management aims to maintain and enhance the economic, social and environmental values of all types of forests, for the benefit of present and future generations, “leaving no one behind”. As such, sustainable forestry is a key component of sustainable food systems. Conversely, optimizing the contributions of forests and trees to FSN could be a key objective of SFM. (HLPE 11)
Unless the present V.O Draft places far greater emphasis upon the interconnection of the SDG Goals and Targets, it will be impossible to meet the SDG 2 Targets.
“71. We reiterate that this Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals and targets, including the means of implementation, are universal, indivisible and interlinked.”
(UN, Transforming our world, the 2030 Agenda, 2015)
It has been agreed by world government and UN bodies, that all the SDGs of the 2030 Agenda are interconnected, therefore when considering Goal 2 on Ending Hunger, other interrelated goals need to be considered.
“The inter-linkages and integrated nature of the Sustainable Development Goals are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realized. If we realize our ambitions across the full extent of the Agenda, the lives of all will be profoundly improved and our world will be transformed for the better.” (UN, Transforming our world, the 2030 Agenda, 2015)
3. The V0 drafts identifies main trends that have complex implications for all dimensions of food security. While some of these trends have widespread agreement with respect to their implications for food security and nutrition, others have less agreement and as such require more research.
Do you think that trends identified are the key ones in affecting FSN outcomes today that might help explain stalled progress on meeting SDG2 targets? Do you have additional data or information that could help refine the analysis of the interplay between these trends and FSN outcomes?
It is positive that section 3.3 of the draft looks at the stresses caused by biodiversity loss, land degradation, water scarcity and pollution that arise from land-use changes but we feel that far greater emphasis needs to be given to these areas because they are so pivotal in ensuring FSN and the resilience of the sector.
“For future food security, land and water management needs to preserve ecosystem functions and ensure the future of the resource. Sustainable management of ecosystems, and an ecosystem’s approach to water management from local to continental levels is key to ensuring quantity and quality of water for food security and nutrition in the future.” (FAO/HLPE, HLPE 9, Water for Food Security and Nutrition, 2015)
The V0 draft can only be truly effective if far greater attention and emphasis is given to FSN conclusions highlighted in previous HLPE/FSN Reports. HLPE 9 and HLPE 11 are valuable in this respect.
“Ecosystems and landscapes sustain water resources. Forests play a major role in the watercycle, ensuring quantity, quality and stability of water for human use.” (HLPE 9)
“Forests perform vital ecosystem services, including the regulation of the water and carbon cycles and protection of biodiversity, that are essential to agriculture.” (HLPE 11)
“Water basins can be of huge dimensions and in some cases continental. Furthermore, the interaction between ecosystems and the water cycle can operate at continental scales, meaning that ecosystem management can have sometimes very remote effects on water availability, as the example of land- use change in Amazon shows (see Box5).” (HLPE 9)
5. Are there any major omissions or gaps in the V0 draft?
The links between FSN, the global water cycle and ecosystems, although given attention in previous HLPE Reports have been marginalised in this Draft
“We recognize the key role that ecosystems play in maintaining water quantity and quality and support actions within respective national boundaries to protect and sustainably manage these ecosystems” (UNCSD, The Future We Want RES/A/66/288 2012, para 122, 2012).
Are topics under-or over-represented in relation to their importance? Are there any redundant facts or statements that could be eliminated from the V0 draft (especially considering the CFS request for a concise report)?
Issues, which we have highlighted in our submission have been severely under represented in this VO Draft and need to be given far greater emphasis, considering that they form the very structure and basis for any successful FSN outcome.
“The natural resources of the earth, including the air, water, land, flora and fauna and especially representative samples of natural ecosystems, must be safeguarded for the benefit of present and future generations” (Stockholm Environment Report 1972)
“For future food security, land and water management needs to preserve ecosystem functions and ensure the future of the resource. Sustainable management of ecosystems, and an ecosystem’s approach to water management from local to continental levels is key to ensuring quantity and quality of water for food security and nutrition in the future.” (FAO/HLPE 9, Water for Food Security and Nutrition, 2015)
Also as mentioned in section 3.3vof the present VO Draft:
“Agriculture is far more sustainable when whole systems thinking is applied, simulated by directly utilizing the patterns and resilient features observed in natural ecosystems. In the face of these environmental stresses, there is growing interest in low external input farming methods such as agro-ecology that seek to strengthen agricultural ecosystems” It would be helpful to include the term ‘permaculture’ as well as ‘agro-ecology’ into this section and because it is an approach that provides many mitigation and adaptation solutions to the problems posed by climate change, then it would be beneficial to elaborate upon the advantages of agro-ecology and permaculture.”
(This FAO 2014 paper offers further information regarding this critical issue.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development
“Humanity is at a watershed moment. Ultimately, the challenge of water security cannot be approached only as a problem-solving exercise – it is about fundamentally redefining and reshaping humanity’s relationship with water as it flows through communities, economies, and the ecosystems that sustain them. Addressing this challenge demands that human society envision and enable new ways to live in harmony with the natural water cycle.” (UN Water, ‘The Global Water Crisis: Addressing an Urgent Security Issue’ 2012)
I hope this email finds you well.
I take this opportunity to forward you the contribution of the International Platform of Insects for Food and Feed to the e-consultation on Food security and nutrition.
We would be honoured to remain in contact with you and to provide a constructive input in the development of this interesting and comprehensive report.
(on behalf of the IPIFF Secretariat)
Dear HLPE and FSN Forum Teams,
Kindly find attached UNSCN’s inputs to the V0 draft of the report “Food Security and Nutrition: Building a Global Narrative Towards 2030” both in word and pdf.
Many thanks in advance for your support and kind regards,
Communication and Knoweldge Management Consultant
Dear HLPE Steering Committee,
Thank you very much for this opportunity to provide feedback on such a timely and essential resource that will guide the global food security and nutrition agenda.
Our inputs mostly address the first, fourth, and fifth questions you shared online.
Please, find them attached, and do not hesitate to reach out if you have any questions.
on behalf of HarvestPlus c/o IFPRI
Introduction Para 1. We may want to broaden the first para: the transformation of food systems goes beyond SDG2, can contribute to link different SDGs and is essential to the operationalisation of Agenda 2030. Equity is part of sustainability.
End of para 2, I am not sure it is realistic to expect that the «dramatic restructuration » of food systems will start with production systems. Shifting the focus on demand is more likely to reorient trends.
p. 6 «discrete food security problems», you may want to reword? Food security is a complex issue, hardly a discrete one.
All along my cafeer as nutrition officer, I developed serious reservations about the 4 dimensions of food security which reflected more the evolution of institutional policies that actual logic, and I have therefore systematically avoided any reference to the (in)famous 4 pillars. I am therefore not sure adding more dimensions and coming up with new charts and pictures will really help. Actually the more I go through the VO draft the less I like this 6 dimensions suggestion; putting it at the start of the document and using it to structure the report is in my view a mistake. Do we really think this will generate the needed change, or do we keep on promoting new jargon, generating more publications, reports or training by adopting yet again a new lens? Should we really use the 6 dimensions to parcel possible pathways and disaggregate interventions, responsabilities and funding? 4. p.32 and foll.).
P. 9 Again, reducing sustainability to environmental sustainability should not be endorsed. Regrettably this appears to be the approach pushed by the public health sector in recent years and it is only adding to the prevailing confusion. The three dimensions of sustainability are economic, social and environmental. And food systems practices have major social implications.
p.13 ii/ we should focus on poor diets, which contribute to all forms of malnutrition
While the draft report mentions urbanization pp. 18 and 19, it does not give explicit attention to urban-rural linkages or territorial approaches, which would have changed the perspective by bringing together concretely inequalities, environmental concerns and economic development. With more than half of the world consumers living in urban areas, the role of cities and local governments in promoting sustainable food systems and diets is essential [see UNSCN Discussion Paper Urban-Rural Linkages for Nutrition. Territorial approaches for sustainable development
While the role of smallholder farms (3.4. p/ 21) is indeed key, insufficient attention has been given so far to local food processing, distribution and catering which are major sources of employment in particular for women and youth, as well as important dimensions of local economic development.
3.13. This is an essential issue. The conclusion should be that we should give priority to more resilient food systems in hotspots/ at-risk areas.
Overall the report does not provide sufficient attention to governance issues, in particular local to global, the need to revise existing legal and regulatory contexts, and the importance of knowledge management and practice-based evidence.
السيدة Asha Khosravi
please find attached consolidated comments of PSM members.
with thanks and regards
Thank you very much for the opportunity. Please find attached our comments based on a cross-country analytical approach conducted by the FIRST Programme.
FIRST Management Team