Foro Global sobre Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición (Foro FSN)

Consultas

Las legumbres son valoradas por sus beneficios medioambientales, económicos y para la salud. ¿Cómo puede aprovecharse todo su potencial?

Las legumbres son cultivos alimentarios importantes que pueden desempeñar un papel fundamental a la hora de abordar los desafíos mundiales en materia de seguridad alimentaria y medio ambiente, y contribuir a una alimentación sana.

Como reconocimiento a la contribución de las legumbres al bienestar humano y el medio ambiente, la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas proclamó 2016 como Año Internacional de las Legumbres.

Sin embargo, la mayoría de la gente no sabe exactamente qué son las legumbres:

Según la FAO (1994) las legumbres, un subgrupo de las leguminosas, son plantas cultivadas pertenecientes a la familia Leguminosae (habitualmente conocida como familia de los guisantes) que producen semillas comestibles, utilizadas para el consumo humano y animal. Solamente se consideran legumbres aquellas leguminosas cosechadas para obtener grano seco. Por ejemplo, las leguminosas de grano que se utilizan principalmente para la producción de aceite, como la soja (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), no se consideran legumbres. Del mismo modo, las legumbres que se utilizan para la siembra (por ejemplo, Medicago sativa L.) o como hortalizas, no se consideran legumbres.

Las legumbres son una fuente esencial y barata de proteínas, vitaminas y minerales de origen vegetal para las personas en todo el mundo. Tienen un bajo contenido en grasa, carecen de colesterol, y son una fuente importante de fibra dietética. Además, no contienen gluten y son ricas en minerales y vitaminas B, fundamentales para la salud.

Desde el punto de vista agrícola, los sistemas de cultivos múltiples con legumbres mejoran la fertilidad del suelo, aumentan los rendimientos, y contribuyen a mejorar la sostenibilidad del sistema alimentario. Cabe destacar que -en comparación con otras fuentes de proteínas-, las legumbres tienen una huella hídrica muy baja, y se pueden plantar en suelos muy pobres, inservibles para otros cultivos. Los residuos de los cultivos de legumbres -y de las leguminosas en general- también pueden utilizarse como forraje, mejorando así la calidad de la dieta animal.

Además, las legumbres pueden jugar un papel importante en la adaptación al cambio climático, ya que su amplia diversidad genética permite seleccionar y/o mejorar aquellas variedades resilientes al clima.

Las legumbres forman parte de la gastronomía local en numerosos lugares del mundo y son un producto muy comercializado. Sin embargo, a pesar de los beneficios mencionados anteriormente, su consumo a nivel individual ha registrado un descenso lento pero continuo, y su producción no ha aumentado al mismo ritmo que otros productos básicos, como los cereales. África del Norte es la única región que ha experimentado un cierto crecimiento (muy leve, de hecho) en el consumo a nivel individual.

Reconociendo el enorme potencial de estos cultivos, el Año Internacional de las Legumbres tiene como objetivo concienciar a la población sobre sus beneficios para la seguridad alimentaria, la nutrición y el medio ambiente; fomentar un incremento de su producción; y poner de relieve la necesidad de aumentar la inversión en investigación y desarrollo y en servicios de extensión.

También tiene como objetivo aumentar el consumo de legumbres como ingrediente esencial en las comidas en todo el mundo, así como proporcionar información sobre cómo cocinarlas y consumirlas.

Para que el Año Internacional de las Legumbres sea un evento verdaderamente participativo y para reunir la mayor cantidad de información posible sobre el uso de estas admirables plantas, nos gustaría invitarle a compartir su experiencia y conocimientos, especialmente en relación a las siguientes preguntas:

  • Algunos países producen grandes cantidades de legumbres, aunque no forman parte de sus respectivas dietas. ¿Cómo puede aumentarse el empleo de legumbres en aquellas comunidades en las que estos cultivos no juegan un papel importante en la cocina local o las comidas tradicionales?
  • ¿Tiene algún ejemplo -que pueda ser útil en diferentes contextos- de cómo el consumo de legumbres contribuye a la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición en su comunidad o país?
  • ¿Cuáles son los principales desafíos a los que se enfrentan los agricultores de su país en relación a la producción de legumbres? ¿Cómo deberían abordarse?
  • ¿Conoce alguna investigación o estudio sobre el papel de las legumbres en la adaptación o mitigación del cambio climático? Por favor, compártalos con nosotros.
  • El Año Internacional de las Legumbres pretende también recopilar recetas que den ideas y sirvan de inspiración para consumir estas nutritivas semillas. ¿Le gustaría compartir la suya?

Sus sugerencias, estudios de casos y referencias se utilizarán para elaborar fichas descriptivas e informes que se divulgarán en los eventos e iniciativas regionales y nacionales durante el Año Internacional de las Legumbres.

Secretaría del Año Internacional de las Legumbres

Esta actividad ya ha concluido. Por favor, póngase en contacto con [email protected] para mayor información.

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Kadambot Siddique

UN FAO Special Ambassador for the International Year of Pulses 2016
Australia

Dear all,

Please find attached recent article I wrote for Australia’s largest conservation (No-Till) agriculture farmer group (WANTFA).

Kind regards.

Professor Dr Kadambot Siddique, AM CitWA FTSE FAIA FNAAS
Hackett Professor of Agriculture Chair and Director

UN FAO Special Ambassador for the International Year of Pulses 2016
www.fao.org/pulses-2016/en

Thanks for the discusssion post which is very informative and insightful. Looking forward to future participation which iam unable to do due to being out in the field planting Soybean, Groundnut, Cowpea trials plots of diagnostic,demonstration and adaptation in the project area. Our project N2Africa-Borno Project have various activities on grain legumes ranging from Introduction of legumes production technologies such as inoculation, rightful/correct use of SSP fertilizer, and the general Agronomic practices of legume to small holder farmers with the aims of improving farmers yield and income, improve farmers family nutrition as well as improving soil health in the farmers field. Imroved varieties that are drought tolerant,striga resistant, high grains and fodder yield and high oil content varieties of the a fore mentioned crops are also introduced to the farming communities.Also we are into training of youth on the production, processing and Agribussinesses along the said crops value chains.
Thanks.
Shehu Muhammad Dandago. 

Sr. SGAE CIAA

Secrétariat général des affaires européennes
Francia

Chers collègues,

Nous vous prions de bien vouloir trouver, ci-joint, la contribution de la FRANCE à cette consultation electronique.

Très cordialement.

Pierre VELGE

English translation below

Contribution français à la consultation électronique FAO:

Objet : Les légumineuses sont appréciées en raison de leurs bienfaits sur la santé, l’environnement et l’économie. Comment tirer le meilleur parti de leur potentiel ?

La France contribue à la promotion de l’agro‐écologie dans toutes ses dimensions, et a, dans cette perspective, lancé un plan « protéines végétales pour la France 2014 – 2020 »[i] . Il prévoit de :

  • développer la production de protéines végétales et renforcer l'autonomie fourragère de l'élevage français (aides couplées, mesures agroenvironnementales et climatiques, surfaces d'intérêt écologique, ect.) ;
  • poursuivre les efforts en matière de recherche et d'appui technique auprès des producteurs ;
  • renforcer la gouvernance de la filière.

Les légumineuses revêtent des avantages multiples en termes de santé et de nutrition, d’adaptation au changement climatique, d’agriculture ou encore d’intérêt culturel.

Beaucoup d’espèces de légumineuses s’adaptent parfaitement à des environnements arides et marginaux, par exemple le pois cajan (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth), le pois bambara (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc.) et les lentilles (Lens culinaris Medik.). Elles peuvent donc améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition, qui sont un problème constant dans ces milieux. Elles sont particulièrement intéressantes pour les agriculteurs, qui peuvent consommer une partie de leurs récoltes, en plus d’intensifier leur production de manière durable et d’adapter les légumineuses en fonction de leurs contraintes.

Dans de nombreux pays en développement, les légumineuses représentent une source de protéines plus accessible que la viande ou les produits laitiers, notamment pour les populations pauvres, qui comptent ainsi sur les aliments d’origine végétale pour couvrir leurs besoins en protéines.

Contrairement à d’autres végétaux, elles peuvent être conservées longtemps sans perdre leur valeur nutritive.

Dans les pays les plus riches, cette substitution pour trouver des sources de protéines moins onéreuses pourrait intéresser les populations les plus démunies, d’où la nécessité de redorer l’image des légumineuses encore véhiculée comme « protéine du pauvre ».

La France souhaite participer au renforcement de leur promotion. En effet, malgré un regain d’intérêt, en particulier dans le cadre de régimes végétariens, les légumineuses sont encore peu consommées en France.

Il est ainsi crucial de sensibiliser toutes les populations à leurs avantages, en particulier les plus jeunes, par exemple via la restauration scolaire. Il serait aussi intéressant de revaloriser le patrimoine gastronomique français, dont de nombreux plats sont composés de légumineuses, ainsi que les spécificités régionales (certifications AOP, etc.).

La culture des légumineuses permet aussi de réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES), en particulier des émissions liées à l’épandage d’engrais agricole, via la fixation symbiotique. En France, en 2011, les secteurs de l’agriculture et de la sylviculture représentaient 20 % des émissions de gaz à effet de serre, dont 51 % sous forme de protoxyde d’azote (N2O). En introduisant les légumineuses dans les rotations agricoles, les agriculteurs diminuent les apports d’engrais car leur culture ne nécessite pas d’apport azoté et permet de fertiliser le sol pour les cultures suivantes.

Bonnes pour l’environnement et à la fois viable économiquement, les légumineuses sont à prendre en compte dans les rotations culturales. De plus, chaque région peut trouver une espèce adaptée à ses conditions.

En agroforesterie, l’intégration de haies de légumineuses en fait un système de production valable pour lutter contre l’érosion du sol et la perte en matière organique et en éléments nutritifs : exemple de la méthode d’alleycropping (système de jachère simultanée) ou bien du caroubier en Méditerranée.

Utiliser les légumineuses économise également le combustible fossile servant à produire les engrais azotés, dont la combustion émet des GES, ainsi que les émissions de N2O lors du processus industriel de production de ces engrais. Elles constituent donc un levier important de réduction des GES en agriculture, soit par la réduction de la consommation de fertilisants azotés de synthèse, dans les agricultures qui en consomment beaucoup soit par amélioration de la fertilité des sols et diminution de la pression sur les terres, dans les autres.

En augmentant les légumineuses en France à 1,3 Mha en cultures et 2,8 Mha en prairies, l’INRA estime la réduction possible des émissions de gaz à effet de serre à 1,4 Mt éqCO2 à l’horizon 2030.

Ce gain potentiel de GES ne tiendrait par ailleurs pas compte de la marge de progrès encore possible en matière d’itinéraires techniques sur ces légumineuses. Passer de 3 % à 7 % de légumineuses dans les terres arables permettrait également de diminuer de 10 % la consommation totale annuelle d’engrais azoté en France.

Exemple de projet pilote, engagé en 2011 pour valoriser les services environnementaux associés à ces cultures : Convertir des hectares de légumineuses en crédits carbone, regroupés par InVi AgroSolutions pour être valorisés sur le marché du carbone. Pour l’instant 11 coopératives et 316

agricultures ont répondu positivement, regroupant une surface totale de 4 723 ha en 2011‐2012.

Pour plus de détails :

http://www.unip.fr/uploads/media/Acceder_aux_credits_carbone_avec_chaqu…

ntaire_de_proteagineux.pdf

Publication « Les légumes secs, quelles initiatives territoriales, Réseau action climat », avec le soutien du MEEM, du MAAF et de l’ADEME :

http://www.rac‐f.org/IMG/pdf/publi‐leI_gumes_secs‐web‐finale.pdf


[i] http://agriculture.gouv.fr/le‐plan‐proteines‐vegetales‐pour‐la‐france‐2014‐2020

 

French contribution to the FAO online consultation:

Objective: Pulses are praised for their health, environmental and economic benefits. How can their full potential be tapped?

France contributes to the promotion of agro‐ecology in all its dimensions, and has, with this in view,  launched a plan « protéines végétales pour la France 2014 – 2020 »[vegetable proteins for France][i] . It foresees:

  • development of the production of vegetable protein and reinforcement of the autonomous feeding of French livestock (coupled support, agro-environmental and climatic measures, areas of ecological interest, etc.);
  • continued efforts in terms of research and technical support alongside producers;
  • reinforcement of governance in the sector. 

Pulses include multiple advantages in terms of health and nutrition, adaptation to climate change, of farming or even cultural interest.

Many species of pulses adapt perfectly to arid and marginal environments, for example, the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth), the bambara bean (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc.) and the lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.). They can, therefore, improve food security and nutrition, which are a constant problem in these environments. They are particularly interesting for farmers, who can consume a part of their harvest, as well as intensify their production in a sustainable form and adapt the pulses according to their constraints.

In many developing countries pulses represent a more accesible source of proteins than meat or dairy products, in particular for needy populations who count on vegetables to cover their protein needs.

Contrary to other vegetables, pulses can be stored for a long time without loosing their nutritional value.

In the wealthiest countries, this substitution in order to source less expensive protein could interest the populations most in need, from which arises the requirement to restore the image of pulses still known as the 'protein of the poor.'

France wants to participate in the reinforcement of the promotion of pulses. In fact, despite some growth in interest, in particular in the context of vegetarian diets, pulses are still not much consumed in France.

It is thus crucial to make everyone aware of their advantages, especially the young, for example through catering in school. It will also be interesting to re-evaluate the French gastronomic heritage, where many dishes contain pulses, as well as the regional specialities (Control Designation of Origin AOC/AOP certifications, etc.).

Cultivating pulses leads to a reduction in the greenhouse gas effect (GHG), in particular, the emissions linked to the spreading of agricultural fertilizers, through symbiotic fixation. In France in 2011, the agricultural and sylviculture sectors represented 20% of the emission of greenhouse gases, of which 51% was in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O). When pulses are introduced into agricultural rotations, farmers reduce the use of fertilizers because their culture does not need the addition of nitrogen and leads to the fertilization of the soil for the next crops.

Good for the environment and at the same time, economically viable, the pulses are to be taken into account in crop rotations. Furthermore, each region can find a species adapted to its conditions.

In agroforestry, the integration of strips of pulses becomes a valuable production system to fight against erosion of the soil and the loss of organic matter and of nutritional elements: for example the alleycropping method (system of simultaneous fallow land) or   indeed the carob tree in the Mediterranean.

Using pulses also reduces the GHG emitting combustion of fossil fuel, used to produce nitrogen fertilizers, as well as emissions of N2O from the industrial production process of these fertilizers. Pulses constitute therefore, an important aid in the reduction of GHG in farming, whether by the reduction in the consumption of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers in those agro-systems that use a lot of it or through the improved fertility of the soil and the reduction of pressure on the land, in the other agro-systems.

By increasing the pulses in France to 1.3 Mha in crops and 2.8 Mha in grasslands, the INRA [French National Institute for Agricultural Research] estimates the possible reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at 1.4 Million tons equivalent CO2 by 2030.

This potential gain of GHG would not take into account the margin of progress still possible in terms of technological advances for these pulses. To go from 3% to 7% of pulses in arable land would also lead to a reduction of 10% in the total annual consumption of nitrogen fertilizers in France.

Take the example of a pilot project, initiated in 2011 to evaluate the environmental benefits associated with these crops: To Convert hectares of pulses into carbon credits, regrouped by InVi AgroSolutions in order to be valued in the carbon market. For the moment, 11 cooperatives and 316 agricultural businesses have responded positively, totalling an area of 4 723 ha, in the period 2011‐2012.

For more details:

http://www.unip.fr/uploads/media/Acceder_aux_credits_carbone_avec_chaque_hectare_supplementaire_de_proteagineux.pdf

Publication « Les légumes secs, quelles initiatives territoriales, Réseau action climat », avec le soutien du MEEM, du MAAF et de l’ADEME:

http://www.rac‐f.org/IMG/pdf/publi‐leI_gumes_secs‐web‐finale.pdf

[Dried pulses, territorial initiatives, Action Climate Network, with the support of MEEM [French Ministry of the Environment, Energy and the Sea], MAAF [French Mutual Insurance for Craftsmen] and ADEME [French Environment and Energy Management Agency]]

Dear FSN members and moderator

I hope this posting clarifies meaning and problems of “Exotic Poisoning” in agri-ecologies of pulses crops and address your curiosities. Exotic poisoning has affected farmers many ways. Three categories of them are explained here.

Category One 

Most small and subsistent farmers in developing societies follow mixed, intercropping, relay cropping and terrace edge cropping practices of pulses major crops. Rice, maize, millet and wheat crops are major crop in Nepal. Traditionally most pulse crop species could sustain in poor soil. Organic matter based mycorrhiza played crucial roles in the success of the crop species and varieties. Nowadays, farmers have practiced inorganic fertilizer to take high yield advantage of exotic varieties of the major crops. The major crops are chemical input responsive or demand high doses of the inorganic fertilizer and different growth stages. Crop research and community support agencies have strategically displaced the organic input based varieties. They have done little work to improve productivity of the varieties and make competitive to inorganic fertilizer and other input based varieties. Some pulse crop varieties and mycorrhiza evolve naturally and become endemic to certain ecological pocket. Application of the inorganic fertilizer in higher dose has destroyed the organic matter based mycorrhiza which has led to crop failure of indigenous varieties and hamper the traditional cropping systems. Farmers have not easy availability of or access to improved varieties of all crop species suitable in mountain regions with diverse agro-ecologies. Some of the farmers want to grow landraces for cultural, medical and taste reasons. Therefore, the promotion of chemical input responsive varieties of major crops and inorganic fertilizer poisoned agro-ecologies of some pulses crop varieties and resulted crop failure.

Category Two

The opportunity of evolving genetic properties to be adaptive or become endemic in particular ecological pocket areas has been destroyed by introduction of exotic varieties and practicing frequent replacement of seeds from external sources. It is not a right forum to discuss detail about it but loss of the opportunity is very critical issue for environmental, socially and economically vulnerable communities and mountain region.   

Category Three

Introduction of exotic varieties bring exotic pests which destroy ecological condition to sustain landraces. Considering growing behaviours the problem is most likely have occurred in pulses crops. But it is obvious in species such as vegetable crops. For example, development agencies (government and NGOs) introduced exotic early varieties of cucumber in rural communities without detail risk assessment from agro-ecological perspective. The varieties brought a pest seriously nasty for landraces. Now the pest wiped highly prolific and high yielding local varieties growing conventional season (July to November). The economic and social cost of from loss of the landraces is incomparable to with the benefit of the exotic varieties. Many communities are economically, socially (health perspective) and culturally suffering. The problem bring agencies have ignored the problem. Some critics often argued that foreign agencies strategically introduced this problem to destroy local varieties and create market for their seed.        

Category Four

Cross breeding of exotic varieties with genetically superior landraces can be described as a category of exotic poisoning.  

Thanks.

Bhubaneswor Dhakal

Elizabeth Mpofu

Zimbabwe

Whilst it is true that the pulses play a multipurpose in the lives of people, there is also the need to share how AFRICAN rural women prepare different dishes for their families. I am sharing some recipes for one of the common pulse crop which is the cowpea (nyemba ) in our national language in Zimbabwe. These recipes can be utilized by both communal and urban women.

COWPEA PASTE (RUPIZA)

INGREDIENTS

3 CUPS OF COWPEAS
PEANUT BUTTER
SALT WATER

METHOD

Clean the cowpeas and roast them in a hot pan on low heat
Remove the hulls by grinding the seeds on a grinding stone and winnowing
Crush the DE hulled seed on a grinding stone until broken into very small particles
Boil the ground cowpeas until cooked
Add salt to taste
Using a wooden stick stir the cowpeas until a fine paste is formed
Add a little water and peanut butter
Leave the paste to simmer for 5-10 minutes
Serve with potatoes, rice and here in Zimbabwe it is usually served with (sadza ) which is our staple food.

COWPEA and POTATO SOUP

INGREDIENTS

2 CUPS COWPEAS

500g POTATOES
4 MEDIUM SIZE RIPE TOMATOES
2 GREEN PEPPERS
1 MEDIUM ONION
VEGETABLE OIL
1 TEASPOON SALT

METHOD

Clean the cowpeas and cook until soft
Peel and wash potatoes
Put the potatoes into the cowpeas
Cook together until the potatoes are soft
Cut the pepper. Onion and tomatoes and add to the mixture
Add salt, cooking oil and cook for about 15minutes on low heat
Serve as a starter like that or with little bit of rice

Remark: At present, pulses belong to the Fabaceae Family, not Leguminosae.

Some countries produce large amounts of pulses, but these are not a part of their respective diets. How can the use of pulses be increased in communities where these crops do not play an important role in the local cuisine/traditional meals?

By demonstration. The Portuguese cuisine is based on the Mediterranean Diet which includes legumes in general, and pulses in particular, either as the main dish or as soup, or even for entries and desserts. We consume soup everyday, and very often the soup is prepared with pulses. Our cuisine including pulses is not new, it is very traditional. In the past, we used frequently pulses in our diet but at present the consumption has been decreasing. Actually, each Portuguese consumes about 4.1 kg pulses, mainly beans (3.2 kg) and chickpea (0.9 kg).

·Do you have any examples on how the consumption of pulses contributes to household food security and nutrition in your community or country, which may be useful in different contexts?

The Portuguese Health Ministry has strongly advertised the beneficial of replacement of animal protein for grain legumes in order to prevent the obesity, and diseases like the diabetes and heart diseases. People have been accepting the recommendation.

·What are the main challenges that farmers in your country face with regard to the production of pulses? How should these be addressed?

Farmers produce pulses depending on the subsidy politics, but also on markets. Actual production of pulses in Portugal represents only 0.4% of world production. In 2004, fababean production was 30,000 t per 3,000 ha, and for peas was 10,000 t per 1,550 ha.

Portuguese farmers know about the economic and environmental benefits of producing the grain legumes. However, in order to produce more pulses new varieties highly productive and more resistant to hydric stress are necessary.

·Are you aware of any research or studies on the role of pulses in climate change adaptation or mitigation? Please share them with us.

Portugal has an institute (INIAV) for germplasm resources and plant breeding studies. This institute has produced several bred varieties well adapted for different climatic conditions such as: five varieties for chickpea, two for peas, one for fababean, one for lentil, one for cowpea, and one for white lupine.

·The International Year of Pulses also includes a call for recipes to provide ideas and inspiration on how to consume these nutritious seeds. Would you like to share yours?

Soup with beans:

Boil in water the beans (about 350 g already cooked) with some potatoes (4 big ones), one onion, two carrots and a radish, with a piece of salt. When cooked, crush everything and add about 150 g (cooked) beans, 250 g of (boiled) spinach and some sliced spicy sausage. Adjust the water content and salt, and let it boil for few minutes. Turn off the stove and add olive oil, as you like.

Chickpea flounder (dessert):

Filling content:

500 g of cooked and skinless chickpea (grain)
500 g sugar
2 egg yolks
½ teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 lemon peel

Pasta:

500 g flour
1 cup white wine
½ cup bathes
½ cup of warm water and salt

 

Dear FSN Forum,

My name is Mirjana Gurinovic MD PhD Nutrition, Scientific Research Advisor, working at the Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Serbia, Belgrade www.srbnutrition.info and I am also chair of the Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, CAPNUTRA,  Serbia www.capnutra.org

I happy to inform you that we had very succesful event related to International Year of Pulses in Serbia in Belgrade.

Please see below the agenda of the meeting held in Belgrade.

Best Regards

Mirjana Gurinovic

 

International Year of Pulses 2016   Celebration

  

AGENDA

Date:              Wednesday, 23 March 2016

Time:              15:30 - 18:00

Place:              Canadian Official Residence (Užička 33, Belgrade)

15:30-15:40  Arrival of guests and signing of the guest book

15:40-15:45  Welcome speech and introductory remarks

- H.E. Philip Pinnington, Ambassador of Canada to Serbia

15:45-16:05  Presentation: "Pulses for Nutrition, Health and Environment"

- Dr. Eleonora Dupouy, Food Safety and Consumer Protection Officer, Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia, UN FAO

16:05-16:25  Presentation: “Nutritional and Health Benefits of Pulses in the Diet”

- Dr. Mirjana Gurinovic, Scientific Research Advisor, Center of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade

16:25-16:45  Presentation:“Canadian Pulse Industry”

- Mr. Erik de Franciosi, Executive Vice President, Agro-Haribec Inc.

16:45-18:00  Cocktail

Programmes barely touch the surface on what they could be doing with pulses. 

In Malawi only a few hybrid foreign varieties are promoted including artificial and unnecessary 'biofortified' varieties.  Instead we should be looking deeper into Malawi's natural biodiversity to value and increase what we already have but what we aren't growing or using enough of.  A lot more local multiplication for high quality yields of food and seed, seed banks / libraries / businesses, and value addition.

There are so many ways to use the diversity as well - help people see how to use pulses in dried, powdered, fresh, mashed, and integrated into all sorts of recipes for meals, snacks, baked goods, sprouts, drinks - we need a lot more creativity.  

All of the input programmes could balanced the kgs of staple vs. pulses given - aid is often 10 kg of grain and 2 kg or pulses - when we already have too much grain in the diet and not enough protein.  Giving the opposite:  10 kg pulses and 2 kg grain, or at least equivalent amounts of each sends a message to the recipients that pulses are important.  Partnering the inputs with Agriculture and Nutrition Extension and Advisory Services and seed pass on programmes aids in understanding, feedback mechanisms and sustainable growth and dvelopment.

--
Stacia Nordin, RD (Registered Dietitian)
NeverEndingFood, PDN x-124 Crossroads, Lilongwe, Malawi.
https://www.facebook.com/nordinmalawi
https://twitter.com/NeverEndingFood
 

Malnutrition is one of the major problems in Pakistan is mainly due to protein deficiency in our diet. Pulses are the major and cheaper source of protein as compared to animal protein. The production of pulses which are high yielding, disease resistant and environmentally adaptable is the key to overcome the malnutrition problem. The development of high yielding pulses cultivars needs an ample and diversified gene bank of pulses germplasm. The poor yields and overall production of many food legumes (pulses) in many parts of the world is attributed to several major constraints which include; strong competition from other food and cash crops which gave better economic returns, lack of effective research programmes and shortage of experienced personnel, and so the inevitable constraints on varietal improvement, plant introduction, and germplasm evaluation, lack of production technologies designed to maximize resource use and so ineffective crop management, inadequate extension services whereby information about new technologies can be channeled to the farming community, and the poor state of seed multiplication, certification and distribution systems. Pulses crops, because of their several unique features, including biological nitrogen fixation ability, as a rich source of vegetable proteins, adaptability to stress conditions, amenability to varying cropping patterns and multipurpose use, such as food, feed and fuel, constitute an extremely important group of crops for increased and sustained food production and food security. Because of the high N concentration in their tissues, pulses crops can increase soil N for subsequent crops or inter-crops. The high protein concentration of pulses products makes them very valuable food for humans and animals. In countries where the price of meat is too high for most people, legumes are the best protein substitute. Food legumes have an important role to play not only in increasing the quantity of food but in improving the quality of cereal based diets in many parts of Asia and Africa. The low yield potential of the existing cultivars of pulses crops (chickpea, lentils, mung bean, black bean, common bean, cow-pea and pigeon pea etc.) and the negative impact of climate change (biotic and abiotic stresses) are the major constrains for increasing availability of pulses. Efforts should therefore be made to improve the yield of pulses especially under stressful conditions.

 

Please also find enclosed an article on Effect of tillage and phosphorus interaction on yield of mungbean
(Vigna radiata L., Wilczek) with and without moisture stress condition