Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum)

Member profile

Prof. Dr. Amanullah

Organization: Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture Peshawar
Country: Pakistan
I am working on:

Dr. Amanullah is currently working as Professor in the Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Production Sciences, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan. Dr. Amanullah has published/edited more than 25 books/reports, and more than 300 research papers/chapters in peer reviewed journals including more than 130 papers in the impact factor journals.

 

Some of Dr. Amanullah field of interests includes: Agronomy, Field Crops Production, Crop Physiology & Growth Analysis, Inter-Cropping & Plants Competition, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Food Security, GHGs Estimation in Field Crops, Crop Nutrition, Fertilizer and Water Use Efficiency, Dryland Agriculture & Drought, Organic Farming, Crops Management under Stressful Environments, Sustainable Crop Production, Sustainable Soil and Water Management, and Farmers training etc.

Dr. Amanullah is currently working as Professor in the Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Production Sciences, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan. Dr. Amanullah has published/edited more than 25 books/reports, and more than 300 research papers/chapters in peer reviewed journals including more than 130 papers in the impact factor journals.

Dr. Amanullah is the co-author in few books published by UN-FAO e.g. (1): Soil and Pulses: Symbiosis for Life (2016) (2): Unlocking the Potential of Soil Organic Carbon (2017), (3): Soil Pollution: a hidden reality (2018), (4): Measuring and modelling soil carbon stocks and stock changes in livestock production systems – Guidelines for assessment (2019), and (5): Water use of livestock production systems and supply chains – Guidelines for assessment (2020), etc.

Dr. Amanullah is the co-author of a chapter on the assessment report of The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) on land degradation and restoration (2018). Dr. Amanullah worked as review editor of The United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Special Report on Climate Change and Land (SRCCL), also known as the "Special Report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems (2019).

Dr. Amanullah also edited few books with Intech Open e.g.: (1): Rice - Technology and Production (2017), (2): Nitrogen in Agriculture-Updates (2018), (3): Corn: Production and Human Health in Changing Climate (2018), (4): Agronomy - Climate Change & Food Security (2020), etc., and a recent book with MDPI-Agriculture on Fertilizer Use, Soil Health and Agricultural Sustainability (2022).

Dr. Amanullah has been awarded with three Research Productivity Awards by the Pakistan Council for Science and Technology (PCST), Islamabad in 2011-12, 2012-13, and 2015-16. Dr. Amanullah represented Pakistan in the FAO Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soil (ITPS) in the Global Soil Partnership (2015-2018).

Some of Dr. Amanullah field of interests includes: Agronomy, Field Crops Production, Crop Physiology & Growth Analysis, Inter-Cropping & Plants Competition, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Food Security, GHGs Estimation in Field Crops, Crop Nutrition, Fertilizer and Water Use Efficiency, Dryland Agriculture & Drought, Organic Farming, Crops Management under Stressful Environments, Sustainable Crop Production, Sustainable Soil and Water Management, and Farmers training etc.

This member contributed to:

    • In my opinion the Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems (CFS-RAI) for improving food security and nutrition varies in different parts of the world. Investment in agriculture is easy for developed countries where all facilities (e.g. marketing, storages, farmers eduction, laws and rules of the governments etc.) are good. Unfortunately, in underdeveloped and poor countries there are a lot of problems. Here investment is difficult. Yes the intenational organizations of UN having funds can play their role. Also advanced/developed countries for their own benefits (hidden agenda) invest in poor countries, but most of the time this investment is not stable.

      Investment in agriculture is the need of the hour, because the world is facing food security and also water security problems. It is because of the use poor agriculture practices, that there are serious threats to our natural resources (e.g. soil, water, and the environnment). The decline in our natural resources is the major reason that has a negative impact on productivity and food security.

      Therefore, I encourage huge investment to safe and restore our natural resources, which is important for sustainability, better agriculture and nutrition, thanks. 

    • Child labour is a huge problem in Pakistan. Poor families in this part of the world generally having more children than rich families. Due to the very high costs of food, education and clothes, the poor families are not able to send their children to schools. Unfortunately here schools for poor and rich peoples are different. Because of the food security issue and no financial support to poor families by the government, child labour is imporant for poor families. Here the elder labour (2-3 elders per family) is not sufficient to feed their big families because of the higher food (items) prices. Therefore, for the sustainbility point of view child labour is must for the support of poor & joint family system. 

      Moreover, the high cost of agriculture inputs (tractor, chemicals etc.) the child labour is also dominant in agriculture sector. The childs are mostly involved in weeding, grass cutting for animals, and grazing livestock etc. in villages, But due to the COVID the number of child beggers has increased significnatly in towns. 

      The UN organizations must help and support the poor families to stop child labour and send their children to schools in low income countries. Poor policies or no policies regarding the child labour is also a big issue. The policies regarding child labour must be designed according to the need of each country. 

      As their is huge gap in crop yield, in my opinion best agronomic practices (including high yielding varites etc, ) could increase crop productivity per unit area will definetely reduce the food security issue. Reduction in food insecurity could reduce the costs of foods items and will definitely reduce the child labour in agriculture sector, thanks.

    • 1-improving food security, so no of kids to go for work

      2-improving yield per unit area, if yield increases food security improve, so no need of kids to go for work

      3-development of high yielding and stress resistant varieties, will increase yield and improve food security, so kids will go to schools not work

      4-more employment apportunities in agriculture sector for elders so they send kids to schools

      5-policies in poor countries are poor too, they dont care about kids school

      6-the richers are interested in their own kids, they don't like that the kids of poor tanents/farmers go to school

      7-because poor farmers don't have their own land for cultivation, they cultivate for lords, and self living hand to mouth, and all familiy including kids may work in the field

      8-education in poor countriers are very costly for poors, they are not able to buy the costly books, pencils, sharpners, erasors etc. needed every day. But from where the poor will bought it.

      10-the school fees in these days are even diffult for 20 grade officers including me, how poor will pay.

      11-different schools for differnt peoples so different teachers in different systems schools, even teachers discourage kids to come to school

      12-unfortuantely, the international organizations like FAO and IFPRI etc. dealing with food security and agriculture policies are located in advanced countries. They do not very well about the education, food security and kids problems in poor countries.

      13-They have small international offices in poor countries but the officers enjoy everything. These high grades dont know the real problems indeed, because thre is no merit in most of the poor countries.

      Being agronomist, my suggestion is to improve yield first in poor countries. Advance countries yield 10 t/ha and poor coutries yield 2 t/ha. This decrease in yield is the major cause of food security, and food security problem is responsible for child work in field and other places, thanks.

       

    • Very good topic indeed. SSM is very important everywhere and every time. The role of both women and men are important. In some parts of the world women are not allowed to work in the field. So in these areas awareness and training of girls in school is very important. I will suggest that SSM practices lessons needs to be included in science books at school level. In some back ward and neglected areas awareness of both women and men are important. The importance of SSM even not clear to policy makers, extension officers and field assistants etc. The training of field assistant and extension officers are very important because they have close links with male formers. In Islamic point of view, the importance of soil is reported in many places in the Holy Book of Quran. I think ulema/imam/and religious people also play a significant role in the training of all communities through loud speakers and mass media etc., thanks.

    • In my opinion, in developing countries the smallholders are not aware about the modern production technology of field crops cultivation. The farmers use toxic chemicals, degrade soils, and they don’t know the soil and water conservation practices. Moreover, the smallholders are cheated by the middlemen because they don’t have direct access to big markets to sell their produce. About 50-80% of the smallholder’s income goes to the middlemen. I recently completed a two years project (2017 and 2017) entitled: Transfer of Modern Production Technology of Field Crops Cultivation to Farmers through Field Days and Trainings in remote areas of two districts (Malakand and Swat). I trained farmers there in different union councils. I will also suggest the attention of governments to make good policies regarding smallholders in neglected/remote areas.

      Livestock play important role in sustainable farming system. However, the genetics of our livestock are low yielding and therefore the farmers are not in much advantage by keeping livestock’s. Government should work and introduce high yielding livestock’s in the country for the betterment of farming community. On the other hand, the dominant cereal based cropping system in the country i.e. rice-wheat or maize-wheat reduce the fertility of the soils. Moreover, cereal based system results in low proteins per unit area and so the farmers are having malnutrition and poor health problem (e.g. Zn deficiency). The government must encourage the introduction of pulses in the cropping system which could increase soil fertility and protein per unit area. Here the farmers apply so many sprays on orchids (e.g. peach orchids) which is the major cause of hepatitis, skin problem, and cancer etc. The livestock health is also under severe stress due to lack of balanced and less feed availability.

      Detailed file already sent by email.

    • Climate Smart Agriculture Practice (CSAP) and Best Agronomic Practices (BAP) including integrated crop management, integrated nutrients management, integrated water management, integrated weed and pest management practices improve soil health, soil fertility, soil sustainability, crop productivity, crop quality, growers income; and reduce water and soil pollution thus improve health of small and poor growers. The FAO and other international organizations must sponsor the projects of faculty and researchers in poor countries to achieve the sustainable development goals, thanks.

       

      Dr. Amanullah

    • In developing and under develped countries the cost of chemical fertilizers is very high. But the growers / smallholders are very poor. The growers are not able to buy the chemical fertilizers. As the soil fertility in theses countries is also low because of low organic matter in soil. Therefore, yield is very low which is the main casuse of food security issue in these countries. The UN organizations need to think about the high prices of chemical fertilizers. Better if FAO or other organizations try their best to reduce the higher prices of chemical fertilizers. The govevernments must give the fertilizers to growers on subsidized rates. Otherwise, decline in soil fertility and food security problem will further increase, thanks.

    • On phosphatic fertilizers P2O5 is written on bags but the recommendations for growers is in the for of P not P2O5. The fertilizers industries just deceived the uneducated farmers in developing countries. I mean if the fertilizers industries write P on the bags instead of P2O5 the amount percent on bags will decrease and the growers will know the actual amount of P. Likewise the problem of K2O on bags deceived farmers for K required in the form of MOP and SOP. 

      MY CONCERN IS ALSO ABOUT AMMONIUM SULPHATE AND CAN HAVING LESS NITROGEN. BUT THE PRICE OF AMMONIUM SULHATE AND CAN IS HIGHER THAN UREA IS NOT JUSTICE WITH THE GROWERS. IN PAKISTAN THE GOVERNMENT FERTILIZERS INDUSTRY PRICE WAS 50% LESS THAN THE PRIVATE INDUSTRY FERTILIZERS. PRIVITAZATION OF FERTILIZERS INDUSTRY FURTHER INCREASED THE COST OF PRODUCTION AND NEGATIELY AFFECTED YIELD DUE TO HIGHER FERTILIZERS COST. ADULTEATION OF FERTIZERS IS ALSO A BIG PROBLEM. THE GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITY IS TO CHECK THE FERTILIZERS AND HELP THE GROWERS. SOME OF THE BIG PEOPLE MIX DIFFERENT LOW QUALITY FERTILIZERS AND MAKE THEIR OWN NPK FERTILIZERS OF LOW QUALITY. IN NORTHWEST PAKISTAN THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY GIVE K FERTILIZERS AT HIGHER PRICE TO THE GROWES OTHERWISE THEY WILL NOT BUY THE TOBACCO FROM GROWERS. 

      THANKS 

      AMANULLAH AGRONOMIST PHD 

    • Amanullah, M. Asif and L.K. Almas. 2012. Agronomic efficiency and profitability of P-fertilizers applied at different planting densities of maize in Northwest Pakistan. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 35: 331-341.

      The use of appropriate source of phosphorus (P) fertilizer at different planting densities has
      considerable impact on growth, grain yield as well as profitability of maize (Zea mays L). Field
      experiment was conducted in order to investigate the impact of P sources [(S0 = P not applied, S1 =SSP (single super phosphate) S2 = NP (nitrophos), and S3 = DAP (diammonium phosphate)] on
      maize growth analysis, yield and economic returns planted at different planting densities (D1 =
      40,000, D2 = 60,000, D3 = 80,000, and D4 = 100,000 plants ha−1) at the New Developmental
      Agricultural Research Farm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan,
      during summer 2006. This paper reports the profitability data with two objectives: 1) to compare
      agronomic efficiency and profitability of P-fertilizers, and 2) to know whether plant densities affect
      agronomic efficiency and profitability of P-fertilizers. Application of DAP and SSP resulted in higher
      partial factor productivity (PFP) (63.58 and 61.92 kg grains kg−1 P), agronomic efficiency (AE)
      (13.01 and 13.71 kg grains kg−1 P) and net returns (NR) (Rs. 16,289 and 16,204 ha−1), respectively,
      while NP stood at the bottom in the ranking with lower PFP (57.16 kg grains kg−1 P),
      AE (8.94 kg grains kg−1 P) and NR (Rs. 4,472 ha−1). Among the plant densities, D3 stood first
      with maximum PFP (69.60 kg grains kg−1 P), AE (18.21 kg grains kg−1 P) and NR (Rs. 21,461
      ha−1) as compared to other plant densities. In conclusion, the findings suggest that growing maize
      at D3 applied with either SSP or DAP is more profitable in the wheat-maize cropping system in the
      study area.

      Nitrogen Rates and Sources Affect Yield and Profitability of Maize in Pakistan

      Nitrogen is one of the most important factors affecting maize yield and profitability. To investigate the impact of N fertilizer sources (urea, calcium ammonium nitrate [CAN] and ammonium sulfate [AS]) applied in various amounts (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1) on grain yield and profitability of maize genotypes, local cultivars (Azam and Jalal) versus hybrid (Pioneer-3025) field experiments
      were done during summer 2008–09 (Year 1) and 2009–10 (Year 2). The N yielded 41 and 26% more grain than the check in Year 1 and Year 2, respectively. In both years, grain yield increased in response to the increase in N application. Application of CAN and AS resulted in more grain yield than urea in Year 1, while no differences in yield were observed in Year 2. The hybrid (P-3025) yielded 30 and 24% more grain than the average of local cultivars in Years 1 and 2, respectively. In Year 1, the net returns (NR) of PKR16262 ha-1 (one US$ = 95 Pakistani Rupees) was obtained with CAN but value cost ratio (VCR) of 3.7 was noticed with urea; in Year 2, both NR (PKR14271 ha-1) and VCR (3.1) was greatest with urea. In both years, the greatest NR was obtained with 100 and 150 kg N ha-1. Application of urea at 150 and 200 kg N ha-1, CAN at 100 and 150 kg N ha-1, and AS at 50 and 100 kg N ha-1 was economical in terms of NR in both years.

      Influence of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Hybrid Rice in Northwestern Pakistan

      Field experiments were conducted to assess the impact of various organic sources, inorganic
      nitrogen (N) and the different combinations of inorganic N (urea) + organic source on the yield
      components (YC) and grain yield (GY) of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L., Pukhraj) under rice-wheat system. The experiments were conducted at Batkhela (Malakand), Northwestern Pakistan, in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed that YC and GY ranked first for the hybrid rice when applied with sole inorganic N (urea), followed by the application of N in mixture (urea + organic sources), while the control plots (no N applied) ranked in the bottom. Among the six organic sources (three animal manures: poultry, sheep and cattle; three crop residues: onion, berseem and wheat), application of N in the form of poultry manure was superior in terms of higher YC and GY. When applying 120 kg/hm2 N source, 75% N from urea + 25% N from organic source resulted in higher YC and GY in 2011, while applying 50% N from urea + 50% N from organic sources caused higher YC and GY in 2012. Therefore, the combined application of N sources in the form of urea + organic source can produce good performances in terms of higher YC and GY of rice under rice-wheat cropping system.

       

    • In drylands under arid and semiarid climates, globally there is problems of (1) food security and (2) malnutrition. The soils in these climates are under severe threats. These soils are low in organic matter, low soil fertility, and low water holding capacity etc. Sustainable soil management practices, which decrease soil degradation and increase soil fertility, increase nutrients, use efficiency, increase water use efficiency could reduce the problems of food security and malnutrition.  Any good practice, which increase the following, are important in these areas:

      1. Increase in soil organic matter
      2. increase in soil organic carbon
      3. increase in soil biodiversity
      4. increase in beneficial soil microorganism
      5. increase in water use efficiency
      6. increase nutrients use efficiency
      7. increase in below and above plant biomass
      8. increase leaf area index and crop growth rate
      9. increase in crop yield & its quality
      10. increase in growers income and decrease in costs of production etc.

      Dr. Amanullah

      Associate Professor of Agronomy

      The University of Agriculture Peshawar

    • Agricultural extension and advisory services play an important role in realizing gender quality and improved nutrition in developing and underdeveloped countries where the majority of population and especially women are uneducated. Proper training of females in these countries regarding balanced nutrition is very important. The health of women is very low because of 6 to 10 are even more births to children. However the women are unaware of their own and their new born kids. I think the training of women is most important than men in these areas.

      Thanks

      Amanullah