Just some thoughts on the annotated outline of the 2018 SOFA that I would like to share.

On the bi-directional linkages of rural migration and agriculture and rural development:

Rural migration can adversely affect agriculture and rural development due to declining availability of labour and productivity, and the lack of opportunities in agriculture and rural areas can drive migration as well. This may be viewed as a bi-directional linkage but perhaps this may be viewed as a reinforcing loop, wherein each intensifies the effects along the process. The effects of this loop create off-shoots of additional drivers such as conflict, which also creates an environment that drives rural migration. A holistic and systems perspective in viewing rural migration might be helpful in identifying key causes and formulation of key strategies for policies.

On Moving Forward:

There may be a need to explore the role of municipal and territorial planning in rural migration, agriculture and rural development. Economic opportunities, or lack thereof, can drive rural migration. The creation of economic opportunities in a specific jurisdiction and improving the welfare of its constituents are the responsibility of a city/municipal/territorial government. However, migration transcends boundaries and the adverse effects and benefits that come along with it are transferred to the jurisdiction of local or national governments. This can leave some jurisdictions as better off while others may be worse off. Developing policies to moving forward especially for safe, orderly and regular migration may have to consider this. This will require a change in the process of municipal and territorial planning adopted by governments.