全球粮食安全与营养论坛 (FSN论坛)



Pollination is responsible for providing us with a wide variety of food, mainly horticultural crops. In fact, pollinators such as bees, beetles, birds and bats affect 35 percent of the world's crop production, increasing outputs of 87 of the leading food crops worldwide (FAO), as well as many plant-derived medicines. It is critical for food production and human livelihoods, and directly links wild ecosystems with agricultural production systems. Without this service, many interconnected species and processes functioning within an ecosystem could collapse.

Human activity has put a large pressure on pollinators by both increasing their demand while at the same time removing their habitat. Horticulture has rapidly expanded over the last decades, while the landscape has become more uniform due to intensive agriculture. Lack of pollination has increased awareness of the value and management requirements of this service. Effective pollination requires resources, such as refuges of pristine natural vegetation. Where these are reduced or lost, pollinators are becoming scarce and adaptive management practices will be required to sustain food production.

What are the main issues concerning pollinator services and food security?

1) They increase food quantity

Bees and other pollinating insects are currently improving the food production of two billion small farmers worldwide, helping to ensure food security for the world's population. Research shows that if pollination is managed well on small diverse farms, with all other factors being equal, crop yields can increase by a significant median of 24 percent

2) They increase food quality

Foods richest in micro nutrients such as fruits, vegetables and seeds depend on pollination. If a plant has been well pollinated, meaning that it received quite a large amount of pollen, a larger and more uniform fruit will develop. Round apples for instance, would imply sufficient pollination, whereas misshaped apples would imply insufficient or imbalanced pollination. Generally, plants put more of their resources into pollinated fruits, increasing quality and taste.

3) Bees and pollinators need favourable environments to be productive

Pollinators need good foraging resources, places that are rich in flowers pollen and nectar. They need a place to nest and to eat, and a natural, non-toxic environment. One hundred years ago, small, diverse and pesticide-free farming systems proved very favorable for pollinators. Such environments can still be found today in developing countries such as Kenya.

4) Their biggest threats

The absence of an appropriate habitat for bees and other pollinators could lead to a continuous decline in pollination. Mono-cropping, pesticides, diseases and higher temperatures associated with climate change all pose problems for populations and, by extension, the quality of food we grow. Declining pollination can also pose an immediate threat on nutrition.

5) Protection measures for farmers and governments

For farmers:
Recommended practices include leaving some areas under natural habitat, creating hedgerows, reducing or changing the usage of pesticides, leaving nesting sites and planting attractive crops such as cassava around the field. The latter is often applied by farmers in Ghana and has yielded more than satisfactory results.

On a policy level:
Based on a report by the intergovernmental platform of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service (IPBES), governments should support a more diverse agriculture and depend less on toxic chemicals in order to facilitate an increase in pollination, leading to improved food quality and a surge in food quantity.


Given the importance of pollination services for both environmental and agricultural benefits it is vital that active steps are taken to help protect pollinators.

Your experience will help us take stock of challenges faced by pollinators and, more importantly, of ways to protect their important role in providing us with food. A summary brief of the comments and inputs you share will be widely circulated in order to raise awareness and prompt further exchanges.

  1. What activities are you aware of that are successfully promoting pollinator insects in your area? Share examples of best practice.
  2. What more needs to be done to encourage pollinator friendly practices?
  3. What training, support or information do you need to take up pollinator friendly practices?

Thank you for your comments and look forward to learning more.

James Edge, Communications specialist


FAO's TECA Beekeeping Exchange Group

  • 阅读 36 提交内容
  • 扩展所有

The activities that I know that successfully promote pollinator insects in my area are:

1.      Flowering plants  that are coming out at different times of the year

2.      A variety of crops that are grown in the fields and gardens

3.      Agroforestry practices in my area where we have macadamia being grown in maize fields

4.      Growing of perennial and annual plants that provide food for the insects

5.      Ridging and leaving other areas fallow where insects can nest

6.      Conservation farming where the land at times is not tilled as this will disturb the underground nests of the insects

7.      Use of integrated pests management systems in farming

What needs to be done to encourage pollinator friendly practices?

1.      Awareness programs to be intensified in the communities

2.      Stop the wild fires in the communities that destroys vegetation and the habitats of insects

3.       Stop deforestation that destroys the habitat of pollinators as well as the food source

4.      Encourage people to start projects such as beekeeping so that they conserve forests and vegetation areas

5.      Encourage communities to carry out conservation and organic faming

6.      Establishing nurseries of multipurpose trees and plants in the community

7.      Minimize the use of chemicals

What training, support or information do we require?

1.      The community will need more awareness training on the importance of pollinators to our lives. This will have to cover the whole of my community and must be driven by the citizens themselves.

2.      Raising of tree and plants seedlings that can be planted to increase the food and habitat base for pollinators. This needs funding.

3.      Community members to start on beekeeping project (inclusive of women and youths). This call for little start- up capital to support this project.

4.      Government alone cannot address this. Communities must be engaged to participate and they must be motivated to take part through incentives such as starting projects like beekeeping. 


Cher Modérateur FSN,

Voici la contribution des autorités françaises au forum FSN Comment pouvons-nous protéger les pollinisateurs et souligner leur importance dans les pratiques environnementales et agricoles ?, fruit d’un large travail de consultation interministérielle.

En vous remerciant par avance de bien vouloir le publier sur le forum, nous vous serions reconnaissants de la valorisation de ce travail.

Bien cordialement,


Conseillère agriculture et sécurité alimentaire

Représentation permanente de la France auprès de l’OAA / FAO
Corso del Rinascimento, 52
00186 Rome – ITALIE

Para una solución duradera a la situación de los polinizadores, es necesario una respuesta global vinculada a un desarrollo territorial más incluyente, integrado y sostenible, y un sistema alimentario sostenible, como señala ADHAC Centroamérica.

Por lo que, para fomentar las prácticas respetuosas con los polinizadores, podría ser pertinente:

  • Desarrollar prácticas productivas respetuosa con el medio ambiente, donde el resultado sea: + biodiversidad + cobertura forestal + agua - temperatura - contaminación = +a biomasa útil para humanos y otros (polinizadores ...;
  • Desarrollar una economía rural construida sobre sobre la gestión de la biodiversidad con cobertura forestal en los sitios críticos como laderas y cuencas;

Concienciándonos que somos parte de la tela de la vida y lo que nos rige es igualmente válido para el resto de la vida, y viceversa.

Esto demanda una producción y fortalecimiento de la gestión de conocimiento para:

  • Comprender el deterioro de la biodiversidad como un deterioro en la estabilidad intra anual de disponibilidad alimentaria para los polinizadores, igual que los humanos;
  • Comprender el deterioro de la cobertura forestal como degradación (reducción de disponibilidad y estabilidad) de fuentes de agua e incremento de temperatura, y con ello, un acelerador del deterioro anteriormente mencionado;
  • Comprender el monocultivo y malas prácticas intensivas en agroquímicos como pérdida de la calidad alimentaria (poca diversificación alimentaria e inocuidad comprometida) para los polinizadores, igual que los humanos;
  • Desarrollar conocimientos técnicos económicos para cadenas de valor apoyadas en la gestión de la biodiversidad;
  • Fortalecer una cultura alimentaria, de consumo responsable, gestora de la biodiversidad y su estacionalidad

先生 Aqleem Abbas

Plant Pathology & Agriculture( https://www.facebook.com/plant.path.agric )

Bees are no doubt, the important and useful insects as they are acting as pollinators. They are in danger because of certain human activities. Today agriculture land in developing countries is depleting, as urbanization continuously dominating because of weak policies of their leaders. More vehicles, more fuel and more smoke, so the bees will be moving away from the agricultural lands, thus there would be drastic effect on pollination process of plants and farmers will get low yield.  The more problem, as I think are conflicts among the nations, from the world war 1, up to now, countries are bombing on one another. In my opinion, useful insects like bees are in danger because of smokes coming out from fireworks, bombs and nuclear bombs. These bombs are more dangerous to every organism. The radiations coming out from these bombs are actually mutating the honey production potential of bees. Climate change is also because of human activities. All what we see extinction, is because of human activities. About three centuries ago, we could say because of nature. Now humans are using diesel, water vehicles, small-scale earthquakes because of nuclear bomb experiments, all these activities are polluting our environment as well as weakening the upper surface of earth. The world leaders are gathering annually to discuss climate change. Why not they reduce their nuclear weapons?? In my opinion, every bullet having chemical is mutagen for any organism. There is no solution, we cannot protect bees, to discuss such topic here seem to be futile, the only solution is use water as a fuel, stop preparation of nuclear bombs or other lethal bombs, everything will be ok. Use wind or water energy as a source for electric city, every organism even bees will be safe. 

Con el crecimiento explosivo de la población humana mundial, los polinizadores, en general, y las abejas de la especie Apis mellifera, en particular, son parte fundamental de la oferta de alimentos de excelente calidad nutritiva para esta población humana que crece exponencialmente, contribuyendo a la inexistencia de grandes problemas de salud pública mundial. En tal sentido, la preocupación por los polinizadores debe ser considerada como una de las políticas públicas esenciales del mundo contemporáneo.

La salud de las abejas, a diferencia de las otras especies pecuarias de importancia económica para el hombre, está afectada tanto por factores internos a la apicultura como factores externos a ella. Solo siete son las enfermedades de las abejas: loque americana (Paenibacillus larvae), loque europea (Melisococcus pluton), nosemosis tipo A (Nosena apis), acariosis traqueal (Acarapis woodi), varroosis (Varroa destructor), nosemosis tipo C (Nosemosis ceranae) y el pequeño escarabajo de las colmenas (Aethina tumida). Las virosis debemos considerarla como enfermedades oportunistas por estar muy asociadas a varroosis.

La irrupción de varroosis (Varroa destructor) como una panzootia mundial desde mediados del siglo XX es el principal problema interno de la apicultura. La prescindencia de la dependencia obligada a los tratamientos antivarroa es el mayor desafío que posee las ciencias veterinarias contemporáneas desde que se crearon las primeras escuelas de medicina veterinaria en el mundo occidental a partir de mediados del siglo XVIII, en Europa.

De acuerdo a análisis api-epidemiológicos la solución de varroosis está más cerca que lejana lo cual la mirada está dirigida a los factores externos a la apicultura que afectan a la salud de las abejas donde la pérdida de hábitat por la deforestación y la contaminación del medio ambiente por los agroquímicos y las malas prácticas en su uso son los más importantes.

Un aporte para proteger a las abejas melíferas es poner en práctica a uno de los cinco objetivos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud Animal (O. I. E.), el Bienestar Animal, que desde el año 2004 ha comenzado a aplicarse en animales terrestres y acuáticos donde cuya definición hace mención a la protección y seguridad que deben tener los animales como uno de las características para hacer frente a su entorno. La deforestación trae consigo un déficit nutricional de las abejas y los agroquímicos desprotegen y no le dan seguridad a las mismas.


James Edge

International Fund for Agricultural Development

Thank you everyone who has taken part in this interesting discussion on the role of pollinators and promoting their role in environmental and agricultural practices. Responses were received from all over the world – pollination is clearly an issue that is widespread and topical. The result is a diverse range of priorities and practical solutions to promoting pollinators in agriculture – many of which can be adapted to a range of local conditions.

Information about how we can protect pollinators seems to be available, but more work needs to be done to raise awareness, answering questions such as What is pollination? Which species are pollinators? Why is pollination so important?.

In addition, more training and support is needed to promote pollinator-friendly practices. These issues, and, in particular, the question how we can tackle the human-induced challenges to pollinator species – especially the use of pesticides, habitat loss and climate change – need to be raised at a policy level.

These lessons will be shared through FAO networks and remain online as a valuable resource.

Thank you again for all your contributions.

James Edge


Reducing the use of agrochemicals plays a key role in protecting and promoting pollinators. This, however, is a joint responsibility of farmers, scientists, businesses, policy makers, retailers and consumers. Various measures have been identified to reduce the use of pesticides in agriculture, including agro-ecological farming system design, crop rotations and mixed cropping, setting conducive policies and promoting organic farming (for details see the briefing paper: Reducing pesticide use and risks - What action is needed? http://assets.helvetas.org/downloads/briefing_paper_pesticide_reduction…).

A very promising approach is to replace pesticides by biocontrol means. Recently there have been major developments in this sector (see http://www.ibma-global.org/). In a panel discussion with representatives from the biocontrol industry, civil society, retailers and policy makers we look at the potential of biocontrol to reduce pesticide use, and how to further enhance its use (see www.helvetas.ch/pesticides). Check the site for updates on this topic!


Frank Eyhorn

Senior Advisor Sustainable Agriculture

HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation

Dear facilitator,

On the question of what more needs to be done to encourage pollinator friendly practices - I would like to give a generic answer on the need for more work to be done in the collection of information, data, case studies and research to understand the extent of human activities that affect pollinators. this information needs to be analysed and used to develop context specific solutions for those that produce food (farmers) and those that perform activities that affect pollinators and the pollination process - industry, town planners, and many other sectors. The issue is complex and requires a multi sectoral approach. The work being under taken reflects this complexity and it is commended.