Base de Datos Género y Derecho a la Tierra

En esta página encontrará una lista de estadísticas junto con sus definiciones en el cuadro de abajo. Las estadísticas están relacionadas a la tenencia de la tierra, las cuales están desglosadas por género. Éstas incluyen datos específicos sobre la propiedad agrícola de hombres y mujeres. Los datos se muestran en el mapa interactivo y también están disponibles en el formato de gráficos y tablas.

Estadísiticas de Género y Tierras

What is Indicator 3? Indicator 3 measures the incidence of female agricultural landowners as a proportion of the total female adult population (3.F) and the incidence of male agricultural landowners as a proportion of the total male adult population (3.M). Separate indicators are created for sole ownership and for any ownership, whether sole or joint. It is created as follows:     


Joint ownership, e.g. a situation where a man and a women owns land together, is prevalent in many country contexts and is therefore important to report. However, there is evidence from some countries that joint ownership does not confer equal rights on men and women; thus, it is useful to know the extent to which women have their own sole land rights as well.  

Advantages and challenges. The indicator sheds light on how common it is for men or women to own land and as such depicts how widespread ownership is in a given population which may obviously differ substantially across country contexts. It is important to compare 3.F with 3.M: a national female landownership incidence of e.g. 3% may sound like a very small figure when quoted alone, but if the corresponding figure for men is 4%, the implications are quite different. There are challenges with collecting data on land ownership that affect this indicator.  One is the reliability of people’s response about whether they are owners.  One approach is to confirm documented ownership with the enumerator requesting to see the documents, but this is difficult to implement if for instance these documents may not be available at the time when the survey is conducted, or don’t exist.  In addition, there is some evidence that the responses about land ownership will differ, depending on who within the household is interviewed. Different country definitions of ownership and data collection years also pose a challenge for cross-country comparability of the indicator. Hence, this caveat should be kept in mind when interpreting the data above.

Data sources. The data used to construct Indicator 3 are large-scale household surveys that include questions on individual land ownership.  There are currently two key sources of such data.  The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) surveys ask both male and female individual respondents whether they own land themselves.  The surveys are nationally representative for adult men and women of reproductive age. Men and women are asked whether they own any land; however the question is not limited to only agricultural land and could also include e.g. residential plots. Another important data source for is the Living Standard Measurement Study (LSMS) surveys and the LSMS-ISA (LSMS-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture) where ownership information is collected at the plot level.  The indicator is nationally representative insofar as the household survey data are nationally representative. Data displayed in the database is taken from household surveys analysed in academic papers. Links to household survey sources and papers below.

Ownership - notes

  1. Documented ownership is when the respondent reports that some type of ownership documents exist for the land. In most surveys, however, these documents are not verified. 
  2. Reported ownership is when the survey respondent identifies him-/herself or someone else in household as an owner of land. Ownership documents may or may not exist for this type of ownership and fully relies on the respondents own report of ownership.
  3. Certified land use rights means ownership is defined through the respondent’s name on a Land Use Certificate (LCU). An LCU is not an ownership document per se, but it grants long-term user rights, typically including rights to sell, bequeath, rent or mortgage the land. 
  4. Right to sell/use as collateral means ownership is defined through the ability to sell the land or use it as collateral. This is used as a proxy for ownership where direct ownership questions were not asked in the surveys.

For more details on individual country definitions, please refer to sources as quoted in the table above.