Sistemas Importantes del Patrimonio Agrícola Mundial (SIPAM)

Saffron Heritage of Kashmir

GIAHS since 2011


Detailed Information



Site location:  Pampore Karewas, Kashmir

Area of GIAHS: 3,200 hectares

Population working for this system: 17,000 farm families

Topological Characteristics: fertile lands

Climatic Classification: tropical conditions

Ethnic Groups/Indigenous People: -

Primary Income Sources: agriculture


Global importance

Saffron cultivation is typical in the Kashmir region. This plant is mentioned in the 5th century B.C in Kashmiri records and is still part of the agricultural economy. Known over the world, Saffron became a cash crop for farmers resulting of a long traditional heritage.

However, Saffron cultivation has been facing severe challenges of sustainability and livelihood security with urgent need to adopt appropriate technologies, to address water scarcity, productivity loss and market volatilities.

Food and livelihood security

Saffron is not the only one crop cultivated in the Kashmiri lands. First of all, rice is the most important staple crop and maize the second-most important. Other important summer crops are millet, pulses. Wheat and barley are the chief spring crops. Many temperate fruits are grown with orchards in the Kashmir valley orchards including almonds, apples, cherries, pears, peaches, and walnuts.

Of all the items, Kashmir is famous for its traditional heritage of saffron. However, Saffron is also a cash crop. With respect to occupation, only 1 per cent of saffron growers are dependent on any other agriculture, while rest of the farmers have subsidiary source of income in addition to agriculture.

Biodiversity and ecosystem functions

Practicing intercropping and agro pastoralism, Saffron Kashmiri systems promote a high cultivated biodiversity: rice, maize, millet, lentils, wheat, barley, almonds, apples, cherries, rape seed, mustard, linseed, sesame, toria, and cottonseed etc. Moreover, sheep and goats are bred within this agricultural system providing a source of manure for the soils.

Concerning the Saffron, its cultivation has been under threat of extinction whereas it is as an endemic plant from the Region. Last but not least, farmers do not use chemical fertilizers or pesticides which is an encouraging point for the wild flora, fauna and soils.

Knowledge systems and adapted technologies

During the differentiation of floral and vegetative buds takes place, growers prepare the corms for fresh plantation after digging followed by sorting and cleaning to rejuvenate their saffron crop. In Kashmir, saffron is traditionally cultivated in September by planting saffron corms after plough by hand dropping as a mixture of grades under traditional system for longer economic benefits.

In existing fields the soil is hoed twice in June and September to facilitate aeration to the corms and to allow corm sprouts to emerge out of soil. Saffron fields are attended for control of rodents during vegetative phase (November to May) and dry foliage is harvested in May as fodder for livestock. Saffron is generally followed with linseed/oats/wheat under crop rotation. However, in some villages, rajmah/lentil is also being cultivated.

Cultures, value systems and social organizations

Saffron is part of the cultural heritage of the Region, according to the Kashmiri legends; saffron was brought to the region by two sufi ascetics, Khawja Masood wali. Saffron has traditionally been associated with the famous Kashmiri cuisine, its medicinal values and the rich cultural heritage of Kashmir. Besides, during the plucking of the blossoms, the lilt of women voices wafts through the air as they sing their folk songs.

Looking at the social organization, Kashmiri women are behind the whole saffron story. They till the soil, and, most importantly, pick and gently dry the flowers. Once dried, tossed and sorted, it is time for the flowers to be handed over to the men folk. Stripping away the insides of the flowers, the men grade the saffron, now ready to be packed in moisture-proof containers.

Remarkable landscapes, Land and Water resources management features

Saffron cultivation has really shaped the landscape of Kashmir Region. This shape can be seen effectively when saffron flowers are opened and all the view of the landscape is purple. Besides, Pampore Karewa soil are specially made as square beds. Each bed measures l.5m and is provided with narrow trench on all sides to prevent the accumulation of water.