Economic and Policy Analysis of Climate Change


Measuring progress towards sustainable agriculture

Technical papers

This paper presents a new methodological approach aimed at measuring progress towards sustainable agriculture in countries and across agri-food systems typologies, by measuring socio-economic and environmental dimensions with available national statistics, with sixteen indicators defined and constructed from FAOSTAT data. A trend analysis is carried out at country level over the time series 1961-2018, with country results aggregated by four agri-food systems typologies: traditional; land-intensive and capital-intensive mixed systems; and modern food systems. The analysis provides a novel framework for [...]

Leveraging social protection to advance climate-smart agriculture: evidence from Malawi

Working papers

In many developing countries the adoption of climate sustainable practices is hindered by resource and risk barriers. This paper assesses the interactions between participation in Malawi’s largest public works programme, the Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF), and three widely promoted climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices. The underlying hypotheses to be tested are: (a) that participation in the MASAF programme reduce both the budget and the risk constraints to the adoption of sustainable management practices; and (b) the joint treatment effect of [...]

Reducing agriculture-led forest loss in Viet Nam: the role of land use constraints

Policy briefs

This brief reviews some of the main land use contraints to reducing agriculture-led forest loss in Viet Nam. We find that agricultural land use constraints increase agriculture-driven pressure on forests. Farmers producing high-value crops have more incentives to deforest, and this increase when operating in areas with land use constrains. Removing land use constraints, repurposing agricultural support and reinforcing environmental regulations would improve agricultural productivity, sustainability and climate resilience, while reducing pressure on forests. The findings in this brief have [...]

Adapting to rising temperatures: farm practices and policy options in Uganda

Policy briefs

Climate change is leading to a rise in global temperatures, which poses a major threat to agriculture production, and to the welfare of smallholder farmers. Identifying sustainable farming practices to reduce the sensitivity of Ugandan agriculture to rising temperatures is critical for safeguarding the livelihoods of farmers. This brief provides evidence on the positive impacts of organic fertilizer application, coffee-banana intercropping and cereal-legume intercropping on crop production value under conditions of high temperatures, and considers policy options to support their [...]

Public expenditure analysis for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agriculture sector: a case study of Kenya

Technical papers

This document presents a proposed methodology for public expenditure review and analysis for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agriculture sector (PERCC) and its application to a case study of Kenya. The document starts by explaining the basic methodological concepts, classification, and labeling of public expenditures that allow calculating spending in agriculture-related to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Next, the document applies the methodology to public expenditures in Kenya to analyse how agricultural spending policies help, or hinder, Kenya’s [...]

Does receiving food aid influence the adoption of climate-adaptive agricultural practices? Evidence from Ethiopia and Malawi

Journal articles

Abstract This article provides evidence on the relationships between food aid and the adoption of climate adaptive agricultural practices (CAPs) in the context of smallholder households in Ethiopia and Malawi. Using bivariate and mixed recursive models, and drawing on three waves of nationally representative panel survey data, we find that receiving food aid significantly increases the probability of adopting soil and water conservation structures in both countries and increasing livestock holdings in Ethiopia. We argue that food aid influences the adoption [...]

B-INTACT guidelines: Biodiversity Integrated Assessment and Computation Tool

Manuals and guidelines

Biodiversity loss is accelerating at an unprecedented rate across the planet putting a great number of species on the brink of extinction. A decline in the plants, animals, and microorganisms threatens food security, sustainable development, and the supply of vital ecosystem services. In order to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda, there is an urgent need to take action to halt biodiversity loss and consequently ecosystem degradation. Since the introduction of the Aichi targets, released by [...]

The challenge of making climate adaptation profitable for farmers: evidence from Sri Lanka’s rice sector

Working papers

Increased incidences of drought and water scarcity due to climate change is an important challenge facing Sri Lanka’s agricultural sector. Identifying farm practices that can reduce its adverse impacts on agricultural production and farmers’ livelihoods is a key policy objective in Sri Lanka. This paper makes use of household survey data collected in Anurādhapura District to evaluate the impacts of 11 drought adaptation practices adopted by farmers in the district. The impacts of the practices are estimated simultaneously along two [...]

Adapting to high temperatures: evidence on the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices in Uganda

Working papers

Rising temperatures due to climate change pose a significant threat to agricultural systems and the livelihoods of farmers across the globe. Identifying farm management strategies that reduce sensitivity to high temperatures is, therefore, critical for moderating the adverse effects of climate change. In this paper, we use spatially granular climate data merged with four waves of household survey data in Uganda to examine empirically the relationships between high temperatures, agricultural production outcomes, and the adoption (including its duration) of three [...]

EX-Ante Carbon-balance Tool for value chains - Assessing environmental and socio-economic potential of agri-food value chains

Policy briefs

By analyzing agri-food value chains, policy makers and researchers are able to better understand how economic, social and environmental dimensions are intertwined. This is an important step, which allows for identification of areas for potential improvement along an agri-food value chain. EX-ACT Value Chain (EX-ACT VC) is derived from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) EX-Ante Carbon-balance Tool (EX-ACT). The tool is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology to account for GHG [...]