Post-harvest technologies

Mango is an important fruit for inhabitants of the tropics, with India being the largest producer. The trees require a frost-free tropical or sub-tropical climate, are 10 to 40 m in height and evergreen. The fruit is produced seasonally and eaten fresh or used in various recipes. In recent years, mangoes have become well established as fresh fruit and processed products in the global market.

Author: De La Cruz Medina, J. & García, H.S.
Technical Editor: Danilo Mejia, FAO
Last Reviewed: 05/06/2002
(pdf - 69pp - 1.3Mb)

Millet is a collective term referring to a number of small-seeded annual grasses that are cultivated as grain crops, primarily on marginal lands in dry areas of temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. It is regarded as a subsistence grain grown for food and animal fodder. The largest production is in India and Nigeria. Total world production in 2007 was 31 million tonnes (FAOSTAT).

Author: Silas T.A.R. Kajuna
Technical Editor: Danilo Mejia, FAO
Last Reviewed: 04/05/2001
(pdf 49pp 2.5Mb)

Oilseeds such as mustard, Niger seed, rape, sesame, soybean or sunflower offer a range of opportunities for small farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Oilseed crushing can range from a large industrial scale to manual processing on farm as a small scale agro-enterprise. Home utilization of the edible oils is of great nutritional value and the protein rich by-product “cake” is fed to livestock.

Author: O.G. Schmidt
Technical Editor: Danilo Mejía, FAO
Last Reviewed: 04/03/2014
(pdf - 16pp - 0.2Mb)

Onions are an important crop worldwide with China the biggest producer. They are grown in both tropical and temperate regions at all scales of production. Improving post-harvest techniques in small and medium farming can particularly enhance efficiency and quality.  If dried and packed properly, the bulbs can be stored and transported for considerable distances without deteriorating. Onions are primarily for human consumption and have a wide range of uses in fresh, dried, frozen, canned and pickled forms across the world’s cultures.

Author: Linus U. Opara
Technical Editor: Danilo Mejía, FAO
Last Reviewed: 28/08/2003
(pdf - 16pp - 0.4Mb)

Papaya (Pawpaw) is an early-bearing, space-conserving, herbaceous crop requiring a tropical climate. It is fast growing and has a single straight or sometimes branched stem reaching 2-10 m height. With the development of better cultivation techniques, new varieties, improved crop handling and post-harvest technologies, papaya is gaining importance in the world tropical fruit market.

Author: De La Cruz Medina, J., Gutiérrez, G. V. & García, H.S.
Technical Editor: Danilo Mejia, FAO
Last Reviewed: 04/03/2014
(pdf - 70pp - 1.9Mb)

Phaseolus Bean or the common bean is the most important food legume for direct consumption in the world and is a major source of dietary protein in many developing countries.  It is produced in a range of crop systems and environments in regions as diverse as Africa, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and United States as well as Canada and China. There are many different varieties of these bush or vine herbaceous annual plants producing a wide range of bean types, including Pinto, Kidney, Haricot, Navy and Mexican. The beans can be consumed by eating the fresh green pods but are more usually removed from the pods, dried and cooked.

Author: A.L. Jones
Technical Editor: Danilo Mejía, FAO
Last Reviewed: 14/10/1999
(pdf - 24pp - 0.6Mb)

Pineapple fruit is a member of the Bromiaceae family and grows in tropical and subtropical climates. The plant is around 1 m in height and width and the leaves have a concave form which allows the plant to collect water. It takes from 17 to 23 months to propagate and fruit depending on the cultivar and the climate of the growing region.  The fruit is eaten raw, canned or juiced. Pineapple is an important tropical fruit in world trade. Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand are among the largest producers.

Author: J. De La Cruz Medina, H.S. García
Technical Editor: Danilo Mejia, FAO
Last Reviewed: 03/11/2005
(pdf - 38pp - 0.8Mb)
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