Food guidelines offer opportunities to protect the planet, too

New study makes case for addressing sustainability, climate change when promoting good nutrition

19 May 2016, Rome -- What we eat matters not just for our health, but for the planet, too. Yet only a handful of pioneering governments have issued guidelines promoting “win-win” diets that can help tackle two of the most urgent challenges of our time: securing good nutrition for all and addressing climate change.

This is a key conclusion from a new study by the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the Food Climate Research Network (FCRN) at the University of Oxford published today.

The “Plates, Pyramids, Planet” report evaluates government-issued food guidelines from across the globe, looking in particular at whether they make links to environmental sustainability in addition to promoting good eating habits.  At the time the study was conducted, only four countries’ recommendations – Brazil, Germany, Sweden and Qatar – drew connections to the threats posed by modern food production systems and the dietary patterns that drive them. Two more – the Netherlands and the United Kingdom- have since taken steps to incorporate environmental considerations into their food guidelines. 

But the low number of countries overall signals a real missed opportunity for many countries to promote diets and food systems that are not only healthy but sustainable, the study argues.

A win-win for health and environment

Poor dietary habits, rich in meat and foods that are high in sugar and fat and low in whole grains, fruits and vegetables have been closely linked to noncommunicable diseases —a leading cause of premature death, not only in high-income countries but also many parts of the developing world. These diets are typically not only unhealthy, but environmentally unsustainable.

“Growing numbers of people now understand that diets rich in whole-grains, legumes, fruits and vegetables -- with reduced consumption of meat  and smaller quantities of high-fat and high-sugar foods -- are good for our bodies. There is also ample evidence showing that such diets have much lower environmental impacts than the unhealthy and unsustainable eating patterns that are increasingly prevalent today,” explains lead author Carlos Gonzales-Fischer of FCRN. “So by eating well for our own personal health, we’re also doing right by the planet – in essence, it’s a win-win.”

“Between the new Sustainable Development Goals –the SDGs -- and the Paris climate agreement, the international community is making a clear push to position sustainability at the heart of planning and decision making,” adds Anna Lartey, Director  of FAO’s Nutrition and Food Systems Division. “Specifically SDG 2 makes a clear link between the needs for healthy nutrition and sustainable agriculture -- and it’s time that dietary guidelines reflect that relationship.”

Guidelines around the world

More than 80 governments – just over a third of all countries in the world-- already issue advice to their citizens in the form of food based dietary guidelines: short, science-based, practical and culturally appropriate messages that guide people on healthy eating and lifestyles. Their numbers are growing, including in low and middle income countries.

Despite these encouraging developments, however, most governments have yet to issue national dietary advice, and this lack is particularly apparent in low income countries – only five countries in Africa have such guidelines, for example.

And most existing guidelines still fail to consider the environmental impacts of dietary choices.

The four countries that do include such issues of sustainability all highlight that a largely plant-based diet has advantages for health and for the environment. Notably, Sweden is providing more detailed advice on which plant-based foods are to be preferred, recommending for example root vegetables over salad greens. Most guidelines that include sustainability talk about the high environmental impact of meat. But the advice often lacks specificity and where maximum intake levels are given they are based only on health, rather than environmental concerns.

Brazil’s guidelines stand out for  emphasizing the social and economic aspects of sustainability, advising people to be wary of advertising, for instance, and to avoid ultra-processed foods that are not only bad for health but are seen to undermine traditional food cultures.

From guidelines to policies

The study emphasises that, to have a real effect on food consumption, dietary guidelines need to have clear links to food policies that are actually implemented – such as school and hospital meal standards and advertising and industry regulations.

“Dietary guidelines are an essential first step -- they provide a vision, at national level, of how we could and should be eating. But often the connection with practical policies on the ground is absent, or unclear,” says co-author Tara Garnett.

The report’s overarching suggestion is that countries that already have dietary guidelines should begin to consider a process of incorporating sustainability into them. “Those countries that do not already have them are in a unique position to develop integrated guidelines from the outset,” Garnett explains.


About FAO

FAO leads international efforts to defeat hunger. It helps countries to modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices and ensure good nutrition for all. FAO focuses special attention on developing rural areas, home to 70 percent of the world's poor and
hungry people. For more information visit: or follow FAO on Twitter @FAOnews

About the FCRN

The Food Climate Research Network is an interdisciplinary and international network operating at the intersection of food, climate, and broader sustainability issues. Its mission is to foster the informed dialogue and critical thinking needed to build mutual understanding and collective action on food systems sustainability. For more information visit or follow FCRN on Twitter @FCRNetwork

Characteristics of low environmental impact diets consistent with good health*

• Diversity - a wide variety of foods eaten.
• Balance achieved between energy intake and energy needs.
• Based around: minimally processed tubers and whole grains; legumes; fruits and vegetables - particularly those that are field grown, "robust" (less prone to spoilage) and less requiring of rapid and more energyintensive transport modes. Meat, if eaten, in moderate quantities - and all animal parts consumed.
• Dairy products or alternatives (e.g. fortified milk substitutes and other foods rich in calcium and micronutrients) eaten in moderation.
• Unsalted seeds and nuts.
• Small quantities of fish and aquatic products sourced from certified fisheries.
• Very limited consumption of foods high in fat, sugar or salt and low in micronutrients e.g. crisps, confectionery, sugary drinks.
• Oils and fats with a beneficial Omega 3:6 ratio such as rapeseed and olive oil.
• Tap water in preference to other beverages - particularly soft drinks.

* Adapted from: Garnett, T. (2014). Changing What We Eat: A Call for Research and Action on Widespread Adoption of Sustainable Healthy Eating. Food Climate Research Network    

Photo: ©FAO/ M. Griffin
Only a handful of countries have food guidelines promoting diets and food systems that are not only healthy but sustainable.