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This article addresses processes of livelihood diversification among pastoralists in the rangelands of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. It suggests a theoretical framework for addressing income diversification among pastoralists with reference to current literature and databases; presents a case study on pastoral income diversification based on preliminary field research in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia, and summarizes current understandings of pastoral diversification while pointing to additional empirical research needs. 

Year of publication: 2002
Organization: Individual authors 
Topic: Resilience
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Eastern Africa

The one-humped camel, or dromedary, is one of the world’s hardiest domesticated animals. This manual is the first practical guide to camel diseases designed for use in low technology environments. It details some 80 major camel diseases and conditions, ranging from abortions to wry neck syndrome. For each disease, the authors give the disease signs, its causes, and simple prevention and treatment methods. Both scientific and tried and tested traditional treatments are presented, thus enabling the veterinarian or livestock practitioner to make the most appropriate choice in the prevailing circumstances. A section on procedures explains how to examine a camel, take samples for laboratory analysis and apply various types of medicines.

Year of publication: 2001
Organization: Individual authors 
Topic: Indigenous knowledge
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Near East, North Africa, West Africa, Eastern Africa, South Asia

This book gives an overview of many topics concerning pastoralism, including pastoral systems; animal breeding, health and nutrition; pastoral products and marketing; rangelands and biodiversity; pastoral families and communities; and livelihoods and policies. Pastoralists make substantial contributions to the economies of developing countries, in terms both of supporting their own households and of supplying meat and milk to villages and towns. Many governments rarely respond to the contributions made by pastoralism and do not invest in this sector. Only a major policy reorientation can protect and support pastoralism during the next millennium. Some of the elements that are likely to become important include developing niche products; better crop-livestock integration; co-conservation of pastoral production and wild fauna; and ecologically sensitive low-volume tourism.

Year of publication: 2001
Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 
Topic: Economy, Food security, Participation
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Global

This source provides profiles of pasture and/or forage resources for a number of countries. Each profile provides a broad overview of relevant general, topographical, climatic and agro-ecological information with focus on livestock production systems and the pasture /forage resource and information concerning key institutions and personnel and their current research interests and selected references. 

Year of publication: 2000
Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 
Topic: Economy
Language: English, Français, Español
Type of document: Databases
Geographical coverage: Global

L’appui que les organismes extérieurs fournissent au secteur de l’élevage dans les régions semi-arides met de plus en plus l’accent sur la constitution de groupes de pasteurs afin de leur permettre d’avoir plus facilement accès aux services d’appui, et spécialement aux services vétérinaires, ainsi que d’améliorer la gestion des parcours et des ressources en eau, qui constituent la base de l’activité pastorale. Bien que plusieurs de ces projets aient été réalisés dans le nord et l’ouest de l’Afrique, rares sont ceux dont l’exécution et les résultats ont été évalués. Une récente étude consacrée par le Département de l’évaluation des opérations à l’un de ces projets — le Deuxième projet de promotion de l’élevage en Mauritanie — a dégagé un certain nombre d’enseignements qui pourront être exploités pour améliorer les résultats des futurs efforts d’aide aux pasteurs.

Year of publication: 1999
Organization: World Bank 
Topic: Economy, Organization
Language: Français
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: West Africa

L’appui que les organismes extérieurs fournissent au secteur de l’élevage dans les régions semi-arides met de plus en plus l’accent sur la constitution de groupes de pasteurs afin de leur permettre d’avoir plus facilement accès aux services d’appui, et spécialement aux services vétérinaires, ainsi que d’améliorer la gestion des parcours et des ressources en eau, qui constituent la base de l’activité pastorale. Bien que plusieurs de ces projets aient été réalisés dans le nord et l’ouest de l’Afrique, rares sont ceux dont l’exécution et les résultats ont été évalués. Une récente étude consacrée par le Département de l’évaluation des opérations à l’un de ces projets — le Deuxième projet de promotion de l’élevage en Mauritanie — a dégagé un certain nombre d’enseignements qui pourront être exploités pour améliorer les résultats des futurs efforts d’aide aux pasteurs.

Year of publication: 1999
Organization: World Bank 
Topic: Healthcare, Land, Organization
Language: Français
Type of document: Policies and legislation
Geographical coverage: West Africa

This field guide is the first practical manual of traditional animal health care practices in Kenya, and probably in all of Africa. Compiled by a team of 40 veterinarians and traditional healers, the manual includes information on the indigenous livestock health care practices of many of Kenya’s pastoral and farming communities. It covers more than 60 of the most important diseases and problems faced by livestock holders in camels, cattle, chickens, dogs, donkeys, goats and sheep. For each disease or problem, the manual gives the signs, causes, prevention measures and a range of traditional treatments. The treatments are in recipe format to enable readers to prepare and use the remedy themselves. The text is written in clear, simple language, and is amply illustrated with line drawings.

Year of publication: 1996
Organization: International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) 
Topic: Indigenous knowledge
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa

Recognizing the flexible and variable resource use in pastoral systems, this guidelines proposes a method for land evaluation to identify alternative land uses or changes in management that will better meet national or local needs of extensive grazing.It encourages the promotion of sustainable land uses that integrate land, livestock and people for their mutual benefit.

Year of publication: 1991
Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 
Topic: Economy, Environmental services, Food security, Indigenous knowledge, Indigenous peoples, Land, Organization, Resilience
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Global
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