## Results

**Tool**

2005

#### Impacts of policies on poverty: The definition of poverty. EASYPol Series 004

This conceptual and technical paper illustrates how poverty can be defined in the context of policy impact analysis. After reporting and discussing the definition of poverty as “the lack of, or the inability to achieve, a socially acceptable standard of living”, it discusses the mono-dimensional and multi-dimensional approaches to the definition of poverty. Furthermore, the module focuses on the absolute and the relative concept of poverty, also drawing some analogies and differences with the concept of food security. A step-by-step procedure, illustrated by real case examples, is then provided to guide the reader through the process of poverty definition for [...]

**Tool**

2005

#### Social Welfare Analysis of Income Distributions. Ranking Income Distributions with Crossing Generalised Lorenz Curves. EASYPol Series 003

This analytical tool illustrates how Crossing Generalised Lorenz (GL) curves can be used to identify the best income distribution on social welfare grounds within a set of alternative income distributions generated by different policy options.
It starts by illustrating two alternative income distributions resulting from policy changes that lead to income increases for some individuals and decreases for others. GL curves are then calculated for the alternative distributions to rank them on welfare grounds on the basis of Shorrocks’ Theorem. After observing that Shorrocks’ Theorem is not applicable, because GL curves cross once, necessary additional conditions, such as restrictions on the [...]

**Tool**

2005

#### Social Welfare Analysis of Income Distributions. Ranking Income Distributions with Generalised Lorenz Curves. EASYPol Series 002

This analytical tool illustrates how Generalised Lorenz (GL) Curves can be used to identify the best income distribution on social welfare grounds, within a set of alternative income distributions generated by different policy options, in many of the cases where ordinary Lorenz curves fail to work
After illustrating some pitfalls of ordinary Lorenz Curves, a cursory presentation of the step-by-step procedure to check for Generalised Lorenz dominance and to infer welfare judgements is provided and demonstrated with some simple numerical examples. This module also points out the limitations of the GL approach whenever GL curves cross each other. In addition, it [...]

**Tool**

2005

#### Social Welfare Analysis of Income Distributions. Ranking Income Distributions with Lorenz Curves. EASYPol Series 001

This analytical tool illustrates how Lorenz Curves can be used to identify the best income distribution on social welfare grounds, within a set of alternative income distributions generated by different policy options.
After highlighting some drawbacks of using specific functional forms of the Social Welfare Function (SWF) to infer welfare judgments, the rationale for using Lorenz Curves to rank income distributions is provided in a step-by-step procedure and is illustrated with some simple numerical examples. This module also points out the limitations of Lorenz dominance and highlights how, in some circumstances, it is necessary to use Generalised Lorenz (GL) Curves. Generalised [...]

**Tool**

2005

#### Charting Income Inequality. The Lorenz Curve. EASYPol Series 000

This analytical tool explains how to build Lorenz Curves for income distributions and discusses their use for inequality measurement. A short conceptual background, a step-by-step procedure and a simple numerical example illustrate how to calculate and draw Lorenz Curves. A discussion on the use of Lorenz Curves to represent inequality is also provided. It highlights that the Lorenz Curve is one of the most used ways of representing income distributions in empirical works thanks to its immediate comparability with a “natural” benchmark, the Equidistribution line, representing the most egalitarian distribution. The concepts of Lorenz dominance and intersection of Lorenz Curves [...]

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