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Issue paper

2021

Indigenous Peoples’ food systems. Insights on sustainability and resilience from the front line of climate change

This publication provides an overview of the common and unique sustainability elements of Indigenous Peoples' food systems, in terms of natural resource management, access to the market, diet diversity, indigenous peoples’ governance systems, and links to traditional knowledge and indigenous languages. While enhancing the learning on Indigenous Peoples food systems, it will raise awareness on the need to enhance the protection of Indigenous Peoples' food systems as a source of livelihood for the 476 million indigenous inhabitants in the world, while contributing to the Zero Hunger Goal.In addition, the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016-2025) and the UN Food [...]

Brochure

2021

Making extension and advisory services nutrition-sensitive. The link between agriculture and human nutrition

Human nutrition is vital for agriculture. Many smallholder farmers are food-insecure and suffer chronic or acute forms of malnutrition. This can permanently harm the physical and cognitive growth of children, while reducing productivity as household members are less able to carry out agricultural work.Agriculture is vital for human nutrition. Nutrition has long been considered mostly a health issue. However, agriculture plays an essential role in ensuring nutritional wellbeing not only for rural populations, but also for society as a whole.Beyond producing food in sufficient quantity, agri-food systems should also:    provide diversified, safe and nutritious foods;    improve rural incomes and resilience, [...]

Issue paper

2021

Scientific review of the impact of climate change on plant pests. A global challenge to prevent and mitigate plant-pest risks in agriculture, forestry and ecosystems

Climate change represents an unprecedented challenge to the world’s biosphere and to the global community. It also represents a unique challenge for plant health. Human activities and increased market globalization, coupled with rising temperatures, has led to a situation that is favourable to pest movement and establishment. This scientific review assesses the potential effects of climate change on plant pests and consequently on plant health. The evidence assessed strongly indicates that climate change has already expanded some pests’ host range and geographical distribution, and may further increase the risk of pest introduction to new areas. This calls for international cooperation and [...]

Report

2021

Population, food security, nutrition and sustainable development. Report of the Secretary-General

Population, food security, nutrition and sustainable development – why population growth, employment and urbanization lie at the heart of sustainable food systems development. Current food systems are facing paramount challenges: they must ensure equitable access to a healthy diet both in rural and urban areas while decrease burdens of malnutrition and environmental impacts. A new UN report - prepared with FAO’s support - explores the role of sustainable development for food security and  nutrition in the context of global population change.

Issue paper

2021

Biogas systems in Rwanda – A critical review

Identifying sustainable sources of renewable energy is key to ensuring that countries can grow on a sustainable path that also meets climate change targets as outlined in countries’ NDCs.Among renewables, bioenergy can attract investments in the rural sector and help farmers to improve their income by increasing agricultural production and diversifying markets for by-products, such as digestate. FAO’s Bioenergy and Food Security (BEFS) Approach assists countries in defining which bioenergy options can be both sustainable and viable while ensuring food security and protecting the environment.In Rwanda the agriculture sector plays a key role in its economy, contributing around one-third of [...]

Issue paper

2021

Applying blockchain for climate action in agriculture: state of play and outlook

The objective of this study is to provide insights into potentialities, steps, and best practices in applying blockchain technology (BCT) to use cases in agriculture in the context of climate change, to explore the opportunities and challenges in applying the BCT in agricultural sectors with the aims of reducing greenhouse gas emission, increasing carbon sequestration, as well as supporting farmers’ adaptation to climate change. Furthermore, this study also aims to shed light on policy options and propose policy guidance adapted to developing countries on blockchain applications.

Issue paper

2021

The state of social insurance for agricultural workers in the Near East and North Africa and challenges for expansion

Agricultural workers are exposed to many risks during their life cycle and are particularly vulnerable to covariate risks, such as droughts, armed conflict and pandemics. Despite the great potential of social protection policies to protect this segment of the population, agricultural workers are commonly excluded from social protection systems—especially from contributory schemes—due to legal, programme design, financial, administrative, institutional, participation, and information barriers. This paper analyses the availability of social insurance schemes for agricultural workers in the Near East and North Africa (NENA) region, including many types of insurance: old age, disability and survivors’, sickness and maternity, work injury, and unemployment, [...]

Issue paper

2021

Emissions due to agriculture. Global, regional and country trends 2000–2018

The FAOSTAT emissions database is composed of several data domains covering the categories of the IPCC Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector of the national GHG inventory. Energy use in agriculture is additionally included as relevant to emissions from agriculture as an economic production sector under the ISIC A statistical classification, though recognizing that, in terms of IPCC, they are instead part of the Energy sector of the national GHG inventory.FAO emissions estimates are available over the period 1961–2018 for agriculture production processes from crop and livestock activities. Land use emissions and removals are generally available only for [...]

Briefs

2021

Social protection and climate change

Climate change poses a major threat to reducing poverty, eradicating hunger, and achieving sustainable development. It accelerates the frequency and intensity of extreme natural hazards, thus affecting the lives and livelihoods of those living in rural areas. Protecting poor and vulnerable small-scale food producers from climate change-related risks is necessary for achieving FAO’s strategic objectives and Sustainable Development Goals 1 (ending poverty) and 2 (zero hunger). This brief stresses the important role social protection plays in supporting inclusive climate risk-management strategies that contribute to safeguarding livelihoods and increasing the resilience of households.

Tool

2021

International Year of Fruits and Vegetables (IYFV) 2021. Communications handbook and toolkit

At its 74th session, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 2021 the International Year of Fruits and Vegetables (IYFV). The primary role of the food and the agriculture sector is to adequately feed people by increasing the availability, affordability and consumption of varied, safe and nutritious foods that are in line with dietary recommendations and environmental sustainability. In this way, the IYFV is a unique opportunity to raise awareness on the important role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition, food security and health and as well in achieving the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Also available in French [...]