Portail de l'appui aux politiques et de la gouvernance

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Issue paper

2006

Food Security and Agricultural Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Building a Case for More Public Support. Policy Assistance Series 2

There are four main reasons for which agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) deserves more public support.  First is a moral imperative: SSA governments cannot and should not ignore a sector on which about 70 percent of their population directly depend for their livelihoods, if they are serious about their commitment to MDG1. Second, in spite of their generally poor performance, SSA countries do not have any realistic strategic option that they can rely upon for achieving sustainable economic development, other than agriculture. Third, there is evidence that appropriate policies and direct public sector investment have combined to trigger agriculture sector-led [...]

Tool

2005

Poverty Analysis. Poverty and Dominance. EAYSPol Series 035

This analytical tool illustrates how some simple poverty measures may be linked with dominance conditions between particular types of curves. This strongly resembles the dominance conditions already set out in the case of Lorenz curves1. In particular, dominance conditions will be derived for the headcount ratio and for the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) measures showing that, under certain conditions, the poverty line specification is not necessary. This module also introduces the concept of the Three I’s of Poverty (TIP) curve. As a way to analyse poverty, this module is based on a different approach to poverty measurement. Nor does it recourse to [...]

Tool

2005

Equivalence Scales: Objective Methods. EASYPol Series 034

This analytical tool illustrates how to use objective methods to derive Equivalence scales. The focus will be on the Engel method, on the Rothbarth method and on the Utility-based methods. The main difference between these methods is that the first two are based on proxy variables for the household well-being, while the last set of methods is based on the consideration of the overall preferences revealed by consumers. For further information, see also: Equivalence Scales: General Aspects. EASYPol Series 032 Equivalence Scales. Subjective Methods. EASYPol Series 033 This paper is part of a FAO Policy series: EASYPol-Resources for policy making (in agriculture, rural development [...]

Tool

2005

Equivalence Scales. Subjective Methods. EASYPol Series 033

This analytical tool illustrates how to use subjective methods to derive equivalence scales. Different methods exist, but the focus will be on parametric methods. These methods are based on the definition of two broad sets of parameters. The first defines the degree of economies of scale within any given household; the second defines how much any further member adds to the cost of running a family. As we will see, the two concepts are linked, giving rise to a variety of ways to parameterise equivalence scales. For further information, see also: Impacts of Policies on Poverty. The Definition of Poverty. EASYPol Series [...]

Tool

2005

Equivalence Scales. General Aspects. EASYPol Series 032

This analytical tool illustrates how inequality and poverty analysis may be carried out when the income distribution is defined over households (i.e. household incomes) and not over individuals (i.e. individual incomes). When household incomes are considered, a problem arises with regard to the possibility of comparing monetary incomes of different households with different numbers of inhabitants. In this case, and as described in this module, a correction should be made to meaningfully compare different situations. This correction is called an equivalence scale. An equivalence scale may be a simple per capita measure or a more sophisticated way to take into [...]

Tool

2005

Decentralization of Agricultural Services. Decentralization of Input Supply and Marketing Services. EASYPol Series 015

This paper examines the main characteristics of agricultural inputs and marketing services, including factors affecting demand and supply for major categories of services, namely fertilizers and chemicals, seeds and planting materials, agricultural machinery and equipment, and crop marketing. The main sources of market failure are outlined. The conceptual framework which underpin the main approaches to decentralization of these services and key factors that need to be considered are next discussed. The importance of the regulatory role and adoption of a regulatory strategy are highlighted. Policy implications, in terms of possible options for decentralization (divestment, deconcentration, devolution and establishing partnerships), and [...]

Tool

2005

Decentralization of Agricultural Services: Decentralization of Rural Financial Services. EASYPol Series 014

This paper first examines the characteristics of rural financial services, including demand and supply factors in rural financial markets. It draws attention to past failures of centralized and directed rural credit services, and the emergence of a new broader vision of rural financial services, based on liberal economics and decentralization policies. The conceptual framework for reform of rural financial services is discussed, and important principles of decentralization reiterated. Policy implications, in terms of options for decentralization, and the roles and responsibilities of the government are next examined. Various options which might be considered under deconcentration, devolution, and diversification of ownership of [...]

Issue paper

2005

Decentralization and Agricultural Development: Decentralization of Agricultural Services. EASYPol Series 013

This issue paper provides an overview of “Decentralization of Agricultural Services”. It first explains the range and importance of agricultural services; the traditional role that governments had assumed in their provision; consequences of public sector interventions; and the perceived need for institutional reform, including a reduced role for central government in service provision. It then examines the conceptual framework for policy decisions. Aspects highlighted are the economic rationale for government intervention; functional responsibilities for service provision; and challenges and risks in diversifying provision. Options for reforming agricultural services and how the reform process would need to be planned and managed [...]

Issue paper

2005

Decentralized Development in Agriculture. An Overview. EASYPol Series 012

This issue paper provides an overview of “Decentralized development in agriculture”. It explains what decentralization is about, including who is involved and the various forms and dimensions of the process. There are various practical expressions of decentralization in agricultural and rural development, including country efforts at: reform of agricultural services; natural resource and environmental management; and development or refinement of planning and management processes. This paper next examines the potential benefits of decentralization, possible drawbacks and risks associated. Conceptual and practical issues that have an important bearing on policy decisions on decentralization are discussed. This focuses on the changing roles and relationships, posing important questions on whether there is need for [...]

Tool

2005

Impacts of Policies on Poverty: Generalised Poverty Gap Measures. EASYPol Series 010

This analytical tool illustrates advanced ways to measure poverty. It belongs to a set of EASYPol modules that discuss how to measure poverty according to different perspectives. In particular, this module will deal with generalised poverty gap measures, i.e. those poverty measures based on the definition of the poverty gap. The Sen index, the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index, the Kakwani index and the Thon index will be discussed. Many public policies may have an impact on poor people. In policy work it is therefore important to simulate the impact of alternative policies on poverty and to rank policy options according to a wide range of poverty measures. This paper will [...]