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Tool

2006

Inequality Analysis: The Gini Index. EASYPol Series 040

This analytical tool addresses the most popular inequality index, the Gini index. It discusses its characteristics and the link with another popular graphical tool of representing inequality, the Lorenz Curve. Extended version of the Gini Index with different weighting schemes are also discussed. The use of the Gini Index and of its generalised versions is explained through a step-by-step procedure and numerical examples. For further information, see also: Charting Income Inequality. The Lorenz Curve. EASYPol Series 000 Impacts of Policies on Poverty. Basic Poverty Measures. EASYPol Series 007 Policy Impacts on Inequality: Inequality and Axioms for its Measurement. EASYPol Series 054 Policy Impacts on Inequality: [...]

Tool

2005

Monitoring Policy Impacts (MPI). The application of the logframe method. EASYPol Series 058

The LogFrame method is an instrument employed by analysts, planners and managers for: problem analysis, objective formulation, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of selected, objective-oriented interventions that aim at a change of reality from a situation which is perceived as negative towards a positive situation. Because of its general logic, the LogFrame method can be applied to any type of objective oriented tasks, irrespective of the nature, level of aggregation or complexity of the problem to be solved. Though originally developed as a method for project planning and management, the method and its methodological principles can analogously be applied to analysis, planning and management of programmes and [...]

Tool

2005

Monitoring Policy Impacts (MPI). Setting up and organizing MPI. EASYPol Series 059

Once a decision is taken to establish an MPI system, this module puts forward the aspects to be considered in organizing such a system and discusses possible institutional/organizational set ups. The following four organizational options are distinguished: Setting up an MPI capacity at central government level, but not directly affiliated to a line ministry; as a special unit in a line ministry (e.g. Ministry of Agriculture); as a separate project-type unit; as an external institution (research institute, NGO, consulting firm). Each of these options has special advantages and disadvantages. Which of the options is selected depends on the policy to be monitored, on the expectations from [...]

Tool

2005

Monitoring Policy Impacts (MPI). The eight methodo-"logical" steps for MPI. EASYPol Series 057

This paper presents the eight methodo-“logical” steps for monitoring policy impacts (MPI), comprising: Step 1: Initiation and preparation of MPI Step 2: Policy review and analysis Step 3: Development of the impact model Step 4: Selection of impact indicators Step 5: Research design Step 6: Information and data collection Step 7: Data compilation, processing and analysis Step 8: Feedback of results of MPI to policy makers, clients, public. It is pointed out that the eight steps represent a logical sequence but that the steps are closely interlinked and that there are likely possible feedback cycles to previous steps. In a concluding section, conditions for a practical application of MPI [...]

Tool

2005

Social Welfare Analysis of Income Distributions: Ranking Income Distributions with Generalised Lorenz Curves

This module documents calculation and use of Lorenz curves for inequality analysis. Specifically, it illustrates how Generalised Lorenz (GL) Curves can be used to identify the best income distribution on social welfare grounds within a set of alternative income distributions generated by different policy options where ordinary Lorenz curves fail to work. It is developed for capacity developent and operational purposes.

Tool

2005

Ranking Income Distributions with Generalised Lorenz Curves. EASYPol Series 002

This module illustrates how Generalised Lorenz (GL) Curves can be used to identify the best income distribution on social welfare grounds, within a set of alternative income distributions generated by different policy options, in many of the cases where ordinary Lorenz curves fail to work. After illustrating some pitfalls of ordinary Lorenz Curves, a cursory presentation of the step-by-step procedure to check for Generalised Lorenz dominance and to infer welfare judgements is provided and demonstrated with some simple numerical examples. This module also points out the limitations of the GL approach whenever GL curves cross each other. In addition, it illustrates [...]

Tool

2005

Equivalence Scales: Objective Methods. EASYPol Series 034

This analytical tool illustrates how to use objective methods to derive Equivalence scales. The focus will be on the Engel method, on the Rothbarth method and on the Utility-based methods. The main difference between these methods is that the first two are based on proxy variables for the household well-being, while the last set of methods is based on the consideration of the overall preferences revealed by consumers. For further information, see also: Equivalence Scales: General Aspects. EASYPol Series 032 Equivalence Scales. Subjective Methods. EASYPol Series 033 This paper is part of a FAO Policy series: EASYPol-Resources for policy making (in agriculture, rural development [...]

Tool

2005

Equivalence Scales. Subjective Methods. EASYPol Series 033

This analytical tool illustrates how to use subjective methods to derive equivalence scales. Different methods exist, but the focus will be on parametric methods. These methods are based on the definition of two broad sets of parameters. The first defines the degree of economies of scale within any given household; the second defines how much any further member adds to the cost of running a family. As we will see, the two concepts are linked, giving rise to a variety of ways to parameterise equivalence scales. For further information, see also: Impacts of Policies on Poverty. The Definition of Poverty. EASYPol Series [...]

Tool

2005

Equivalence Scales. General Aspects. EASYPol Series 032

This analytical tool illustrates how inequality and poverty analysis may be carried out when the income distribution is defined over households (i.e. household incomes) and not over individuals (i.e. individual incomes). When household incomes are considered, a problem arises with regard to the possibility of comparing monetary incomes of different households with different numbers of inhabitants. In this case, and as described in this module, a correction should be made to meaningfully compare different situations. This correction is called an equivalence scale. An equivalence scale may be a simple per capita measure or a more sophisticated way to take into [...]

Tool

2005

Impacts of Policies on Poverty: Generalised Poverty Gap Measures. EASYPol Series 010

This analytical tool illustrates advanced ways to measure poverty. It belongs to a set of EASYPol modules that discuss how to measure poverty according to different perspectives. In particular, this module will deal with generalised poverty gap measures, i.e. those poverty measures based on the definition of the poverty gap. The Sen index, the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index, the Kakwani index and the Thon index will be discussed. Many public policies may have an impact on poor people. In policy work it is therefore important to simulate the impact of alternative policies on poverty and to rank policy options according to a wide range of poverty measures. This paper will [...]