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Issue paper

2021

Aspirational principles and criteria for a sustainable bioeconomy

To promote the production, utilization, conservation and regeneration of biological resources in ways that support global food and nutrition security and sustainable development, it is necessary to have a holistic vision for a sustainable and circular bioeconomy. Through the International Sustainable Bioeconomy Working Group (ISBWG), a multistakeholder group established in 2016, FAO provides international support to increase national capacities to develop strategies and policies that can realize this vision for a transition towards sustainability.Aware that the implementation of bioeconomy involves potential synergies and trade-offs with regards to sustainability, the ISBWG proposes to mainstream a set of Aspirational Principles and Criteria [...]

Tool

2021

A guide for better governance of pastoral land tenure in the Niger

This guide constitutes a tool intended for actors on the ground in Niger. It aims to contribute to the improvement of pastoral land governance and in particular to the prevention and resolution of conflicts and to the development of inclusive consultation processes. The guide is unique because it is developed in collaboration with one for the breeders in Niger. It will be a concrete tool to help actors resolve conflicts related to access to natural resources at the local level.Also available in Arabic and French

Issue paper

2021

Coping with climate shocks: The complex role of livestock portfolios

Livestock portfolios play a significant role, as an income and consumption buffering strategy during severe droughts. The buffering potential of livestock varies by income quintile, length of the climate shock, animal species, and region. Households face trade-offs between using livestock assets to smooth the effect of the shock or protect future income generation. Livestock oriented resilience interventions should carefully consider the relationships among species, droughts, and socioeconomic groups. This study employs a unique dataset combining socioeconomic and livestock asset data from 150 000 households with a multi-scalar drought index.

Issue paper

2021

Immediate effects of COVID-19 on the global dairy sector

The dairy sector is an example of the challenges that food supply chains have faced due to COVID-19. The pandemic has impacted the sector depending on countries’ trade profiles, per capita income, and market structure. The study reveals that the pandemic has accelerated on-going structural changes taking place in the dairy sector. Despite the preliminary nature of the results, they provide important insights to inform sectorial policy discussions.

Issue paper

2021

Recommendations for the epidemiological investigation of SARS-CoV-2 in exposed animals

Acknowledging the zoonotic nature of SARS-CoV-2, investigations about potential animal hosts are of great importance to improve understanding of COVID-19 epidemiology and identify susceptible animal species as well as possible transmission between humans and animals. Positive findings by a polymerase chain reaction in dogs, cats, farmed mink, and wild feline in zoos have raised concerns about the possible role livestock and companion animals could play in the amplification and spread of the virus. Several studies looking at the binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 receptor in different animal species hypothesized a probable wide range of animal hosts especially mammals. Field studies need to [...]

Issue paper

2021

Investigating potential recombination of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 or other coronaviruses in camels. Supplementary recommendations for the epidemiological investigation of SARS-CoV-2 in exposed animals

Dromedary camels are the main reservoir for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Genetic analysis of MERS-CoV isolates from humans and dromedaries revealed that direction of transmission is from camels to humans. Furthermore, several studies reported evidence of camel infection by other human CoVs, animal CoVs or unknown coronaviruses. There is evidence of recombination between different betacoronaviruses in camels. Analysis of the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2) binding in dromedaries predicted potential binding affinity to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor binding domain (RBD), however some other studies predicted the contrary. With the pandemic spread of [...]

Issue paper

2021

Protecting livelihoods – Linking agricultural insurance and social protection

The aim of this study is to provide readers with an overview of how agricultural insurance and social protection interventions can complement each other, within the frame of disaster risk management for vulnerable agricultural actors. Specifically, it aims to underline the operational nuances, challenges, opportunities and constraints associated with employing agricultural insurance within social protection systems. Furthermore, it presents a number of practical lessons learned and considerations that can be used by relevant public stakeholders (such as local policymakers and development agencies) to introduce aspects of agricultural insurance in programmes and initiatives that seek to strengthen social protection for vulnerable [...]

Issue paper

2021

A technical review of select de-risking schemes to promote rural and agricultural finance in sub-Saharan Africa

In recognition of the well-understood challenges with promoting rural and agricultural finance, the need for a more systemic approach to promoting financial inclusion is gaining traction in the thinking and programming approaches of the community of practice. Within this system-level view, the concept of de-risking the overall operating environment of agricultural value chains is recognized as a critically important factor. Accordingly, numerous project-based and stand-alone “de-risking” arrangements have recently been launched or are at various stages of design throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The generation of evidence of performance, impact and cost effectiveness is critical to validating the relevance of these types of [...]

Briefs

2021

Digital finance and inclusion in the time of COVID-19. Lessons, experiences and proposals

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted digital financial inclusion trends across the world in many and complex ways. In developing and emerging contexts, this crisis also holds the potential to propel an unprecedented acceleration in the process of financial digitization and turn out to be a game-changer for digital financial inclusion. The aim of this study is to illustrate the opportunities and risks associated with the surge in uptake and use of digital financial service, providing ideas on how to leverage the paradigm changes affecting the overall approach and perspective towards digital financial services – on the part of various stakeholders – [...]

Report

2021

世界粮食和农业领域土地及水资源状况:濒临崩溃的系统

满足日益增长的粮食需求在世界范围内给水、土地和土壤资源造成压力。农业可为减轻这些压力贡献力量,助力实现气候和发展目标。可持续农业模式能够直接改善土地、土壤和水资源状况,产生生态系统惠益,减少土地来源的排放。实现上述目标需要精准的信息,更需要我们大刀阔斧地改革资源管理模式;此外还需要自然资源管理范畴之外的补充力量,以便协同增效,权衡取舍。 2021年版《世界粮食和农业土地及水资源状况》旨在介绍土地和水资源现状,着重指出风险,梳理相关机遇和挑战。此外,报告还强调了适当政策、机制与投资的重要作用。近期开展的评估、预测和情境分析表明,水土资源消耗加速,生物多样性损失愈加严峻。2021年版《土地及水资源状况》着重分析了土地、土壤和水资源的相关风险和发展趋势,提出了解决用户竞争、实现预期惠益的途径。报告介绍了最新的知识内容,提出了一整套应对措施和行动,可以帮助决策者做出合理决策,推动由退化和脆弱转向可持续和韧性发展。