Sustainable Development Goals

Indicator 2.3.1 - Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming / pastoral / forestry enterprise size

This indicator refers to the value of production per labour unit operated by small scale producers in the farming, pastoral and forestry sectors. Data will be produced by classes of enterprise size. The indicator will measure progress towards SDG Target 2.3.

Target 2.3

By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and nonfarm employment.

Agricultural output per labour day (PPP) (constant 2011 international $)

Impact

Together with indicator 2.3.2, it offers a complete breakdown of who small-scale producers are, what they earn and how much they produce. These indicators are vital for government efforts to drive the nation’s economy, eliminate hunger and poverty and reduce inequality.

Key results

The productivity of small-scale food producers continues to lag behind that of larger-scale producers, with more pronounced differences in higher-income countries. Among small-scale food producers, the labour productivity of production units headed by men and women are similar.  

Small-scale food producers provide key contributions to the resilience of agricultural and food production systems, which is important to combat hunger. While they account for significant shares of overall food production in several countries, they are often among the most vulnerable groups in rural areas and within the agrifood system.  

According to the latest available country figures, small-scale food producers’ labour productivity is less than USD 15 (constant PPP 2011) per day worked in all low- and middle-income countries where data are available. In addition, the labour productivity of small-scale food producers continues to lag behind that of larger-scale producers, with more pronounced differences in higher-income countries. In three quarters of the countries for which data are available, small-scale food producers earn an average income of less than half that of large-scale food producers. 

Among small-scale food producers, the labour productivity of production units headed by men and women are similar, with units headed by women achieving 90 percent or more of the labour productivity of those headed by men in most countries.  

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