Sustainable Development Goals

Indicator 5.a.1 - (a) Percentage of people with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land (out of total agricultural population), by sex; and (b) share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure

This indicator is divided in two sub-indicators. Part (a) is an incidence measure. It measures how prevalent ownership or secure rights over agricultural land are in the reference population. Part (b) measures the share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land. Therefore it can be used to monitor the under-representation of women among the owners or holders of agricultural land. This is a de facto indicator which will measure progress towards SDG Target 5.a.

Target 5.a

Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws.

 

(a) Proportion of total agricultural population with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land, by sex

and

(b) share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure

Impact

Indicator 5.a.1 measures the extent of women’s disadvantages in ownership of and rights to agricultural land. Together with indicator 5.a.2, it provides a basis for policy measures aimed at securing equal opportunities and access to rights and resources.

Key results

Gender equality in the ownership and secure tenure rights over agricultural land is far from achieved. 

The ability to access land is a key determinant of the socioeconomic conditions of individuals that earn their livelihoods from agriculture, directly affecting their income, food security and nutrition. While data on access to land remain scarce at the global level, the existing information shows that many men and women involved in agricultural production lack ownership and/or secure tenure rights over agricultural land. In 30 out of 36 countries, less than 50 percent of women have ownership and/or secure tenure rights over agricultural land, whereas in 16 countries, less than 30 percent of women have ownership and/or secure right. Meanwhile, the proportion of men with ownership and/or secure rights over agricultural land exceeds 50 percent in 18 out of 36 countries assessed. 

The available data from 36 countries show that in the vast majority of countries (28 out of 36), more men than women are owners or right bearers of agricultural land. This corroborates the conclusion that women are in a disadvantaged position compared to men within the agricultural population, as land plays a key role in individuals’ empowerment. In addition, the share of men among landowners reaches over 70 percent in nine countries. Therefore, it may be concluded that land ownership patterns are heavily skewed in favour of men in the vast majority of cases, and that gender equality is yet to be achieved in ownership and secure rights over agricultural land. 

Highlights

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