FODDER CROPS are crops that are cultivated primarily for animal feed. By extension, natural grasslands and pastures are included whether they are cultivated or not.

Fodder crops may be classified as either temporary or permanent crops. The former are cultivated and harvested like any other crop. Permanent fodder crops relate to land used permanently (for five years or more) for herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (i.e. wild prairie or grazing land), and may include some parts of forest land if it is used for grazing.

Temporary crops that are grown intensively with multiple cuttings per year include three major groups of fodder: grasses, including cereals that are harvested green; legumes, including pulses that are harvested green; and root crops that are cultivated for fodder. All three types are fed to animals, either as green feed, as hay, i.e. crops harvested dry or dried after harvesting, or as silage products. Silage, or ensilage, refers to green fodder preserved without drying by fermentation that retards spoiling. Some fodder crops are components of compound feeds.

Grasses contain crude fibres, crude protein and some minerals. Legumes are particularly rich in proteins and minerals. Root crops are high in starch and sugar and low in fibre, making them easy to digest. The fibre content of most fodder crops consists of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate polysaccharide that is indigestible for humans, but which is a good source of energy for animals, and particularly ruminants.

For reporting purposes, the aggregation of various fodder crops into "feed units" is expressed in different ways in different countries. For example, aggregations are reported in terms of metabolizable energy, digestible nutrients, starch equivalent, protein equivalent, or grain equivalent.

The FAO list includes 17 primary crops. The code and name of each crop appears in the list that follows, along with its botanical name, or names, and a brief remark where necessary.

PRODUCTS USED FOR ANIMAL FEED include: processed products from fodder crops; waste and residue; manufactured compound feeds, consisting of various mixed feeds of vegetal and animal origin to which minerals and vitamins have been added; and chemical preparations, such as vitamins and minerals and various additives.

The FAO list includes 21 products, in addition to products that are already listed under other headings. The code and name of each product is listed below.

Fodder crops and products

0636 MAIZE FOR FORAGE Maize cut green as grass.
0637 SORGHUM FOR FORAGE Usually sweet sorghum, so called for the sweet juice in the stem, which is cut green as grass.
0638 RYE GRASS FOR FORAGE Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum); English, perennial ryegrass (L. perenne) Quick-growing grasses.
0640 CLOVER FOR FORAGE Trifolium spp. Various species grown for pasture, green fodder or silage.
0641 ALFALFA FOR FORAGE Medicago sativa A deep-rooted perennial herb used for green fodder, for hay or silage, and for pasture.
0642 GREEN OILSEEDS FOR SILAGE Cut green as grass.
0643 LEGUMES FOR SILAGE Including inter alia: birdsfoot, trefoil (Lotus corniculatus); lespedeza (Lespedeza spp.); kudzu (Pueraria lobata); sesbania (Sesbania spp.); sainfoin, esparcette (Onobrychis sativa); sulla (Hedysarum coronarium) Includes species of pulses, if harvested for fodder.
0639 GRASSES NES FOR FORAGE Including inter alia: bent, redtop, fiorin grass (Agrostis spp.); bluegrass (Poa spp.); Columbus grass (Sorghum almum); fescue (Festuca spp.); Napier, elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum); orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata); Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana); Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense); Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) Includes species used for cereal production, if cut green for fodder.
0644 CABBAGE FOR FODDER Brassica chinensis; B. oleracea Especially cultivated for fodder.
0645 PUMPKINS FOR FODDER Cucurbita spp. Especially cultivated for fodder.
0646 TURNIPS FOR FODDER Brassica rapa var. rapifera Especially cultivated for fodder.
0647 BEETS FOR FODDER beet, beetroot, mangold (Beta vulgaris) Especially cultivated for fodder.
0648 CARROTS FOR FODDER Daucus carota Especially cultivated for fodder.
0649 SWEDES FOR FODDER rutabaga, swede, swede turnip (Brassica napus var napobrassica) Especially cultivated for fodder.
0655 VEGETABLES, ROOTS FODDER NES Any other crop of the vegetable group that is cultivated for fodder.
0857 Hay, Non-Leguminous Hay that is mainly from grasses.
0858 Hay (Clover, Lucerne, etc.) Hay from leguminous crops.
0859 Hay nes Hay from unspecified plants.
0862 Alfalfa Meal and Pellets Alfalfa (lucerne) dried, whole, cut, chopped, milled, pressed or pelletized.
0017 Bran of Wheat Defined broadly to include sharps and other residue from the milling, sifting or other working of the grain. Contains a little flour.
0035 Bran of Rice A by-product of polishing brown rice, comprising the pericarp, aleurone layer, embryo and some endosperm.
0037 Cake of Rice Bran A residue of the extraction of oil. Also known as de-oiled rice bran.
0047 Bran of Barley A by-product of the production of pot barley.
0059 Bran of Maize A by-product of the milling of shelled maize.
0061 Cake of Maize A residue of the extraction of oil from germ.
0073 Bran of Rye A milling by-product.
0077 Bran of Oats By-product of milling oats for human consumption, containing mainly hulls and fragments of the endosperm (oat millfeed), as well as residues from hulling, rolling, flaking, etc.
0081 Bran of Millet A milling by-product.
0085 Bran of Sorghum A milling by-product.
0091 Bran of Buckwheat A milling by-product.
0096 Bran of Fonio A milling by-product.
0099 Bran of Triticale A milling by-product.
0105 Bran of Mixed Grain A milling by-product.
0112 Bran of Cereals nes A milling by-product.
0213 Bran of Pulses Bran, sharps and other residues from the milling or working of pulses.
0238 Cake of Soybeans Oilcake and other solid residues (except dregs), whether or not ground, or in the form of pellets, resulting from the extraction of fats or oils.
0245 Cake of Groundnuts Residue from oil extraction.
0253 Cake of Copra Residue from oil extraction.
0259 Cake of Palm Kernel Residue from oil extraction.
0269 Cake of Sunflower Seed Residue from oil extraction. The cake is used for feed if it is from decorticated seeds, or for fertilizer if it comes from undecorticated seeds.
0272 Cake of Rapeseed Residue from oil extraction.
0273 Olive Residues Residues make up about 40% of the olives crushed for oil, but account for about 5% of the oil.
0282 Cake of Safflower Seed Residue from oil extraction.
0291 Cake of Sesame Seed Residue from oil extraction.
0294 Cake of Mustard Seed Residue from oil extraction.
0298 Cake of Poppy Seed Residue from oil extraction.
0314 Cake of Kapok Residue from oil extraction.
0332 Cake of Cottonseed Residue from oil extraction.
0335 Cake of Linseed Residue from oil extraction.
0338 Cake of Hempseed Residue from oil extraction.
0341 Cake of Oilseeds nes Residue from oil extraction.
0120 Potato Offals The residue and waste from the preparation of potatoes.
0169 Beet Pulp Residue from the extraction of sugar from the root of sugar beets. Used for animal feed.
0170 Bagasse Residue consisting of the fibrous portion of the sugar cane after the juice has been extracted. Used as a fuel in sugar mills, as an animal feed, and in paper production.
0628 Pulp, Waste of Fruit for Feed Waste of fruit, fruit pomace and marc, excluding marc of grapes.
0566 Marc of Grape Residues from the pressing of grapes. Used also for distilling.
0629 Beet Tops Beet tops, consisting of the leaves and upper part of the root, are used for feed. They account for about 25% of plant weight, though it is uncertain how much, if any, of this is included in national production statistics.
0630 Cane Tops The leaves and upper part of the stalks, which are used for feed. The tops represent about 10% of the weight of the plant.
0635 Straw and Husks Cereal straw and husks, unprepared, whether or not chopped, ground, pressed, or in the form of pellets.
0650 Leaves, Tops and Vines nes Vegetable products that are not specifically grown for animal feed, but are used for that purpose.
0651 Forage Products nes Plants specifically grown for animal feed.
0652 Vegetable Products for Feed nes Vegetable products, vegetable waste, residues and by-products from the industrial processing of vegetable materials.
0653 Food Wastes Sweetened forage and preparations of a kind used for animal feed, e.g. wine lees, argol.
1259 Food Waste, Prep. for Feed Same coverage as 0653.
1173 Meat Meal Flours, meals and pellets of meat and offal (including of marine mammals); greaves and tankage. Used for feed.
1174 Fish Meal Flours, meals and pellets from fish, crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates. Used for feed.
1175 Blood Meal Flours, meals and pellets obtained through dehydration of blood. Used for feed.
0840 Compound Feed, Cattle Prepared animal feed designed to provide a balanced diet (complete feed).
0841 Compound Feed, Poultry See 0840.
0842 Compound Feed, Pigs See 0840.
0843 Pet Food International trade classifications cover only dog and cat food. FAO trade data also cover food for other pets (i.e. fish, birds, etc.), whenever possible.
0845 Compound Feed nes See 0840. See general note in the introduction.
0846 Gluten Feed and Meal Generally, by-products of the wet milling of maize. Gluten feed consists of fibres, spent germ and steep liquor. Gluten meal contains endosperm protein fractions that remain following starch recovery (see Chapter 1.).
0849 Feed Yeast Inactive dried yeast.
0850 Feed Supplements Prepared animal feed that supplements the basic farm produced feed with organic or inorganic substances.
0851 Non-Protein Nitrogens A mixture of different nutrients or substances that are used in making complete or supplementary feeds.
0852 Other Concentrates nes See 0851.
0853 Vitamins See 0851
0854 Feed Additives See 0851.
0855 Feed Minerals See 0851.

© FAO 1994

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