APRC/96/4
May 1996

TWENTY-THIRD FAO REGIONAL CONFERENCE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

Apia, Samoa, 14-18 May 1996

WORLD FOOD SUMMIT: FOOD SECURITY SITUATION AND ISSUES IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

 

CONTENTS

Page
INTRODUCTION 1
I - WORLD FOOD SECURITY TRENDS1
II -FOOD SECURITY TRENDS, PROSPECTS AND ISSUES IN ASIA
AND THE PACIFIC3
1.Overall food supply situation3
2. Issues affecting food security4
Land degradation and water scarcity4
Lack of preparedness for acute and large-scale food shortages due to natural disasters 5
The risks of trade-based supply stabilisation5
Inefficient food marketing systems6
Vulnerable groups7
Malnutrition7
3.Prospects for enhancing food security through expanded food production8
4. The World Food Summit (WFS) and regional goals for food security9
III -ACTIONS TO ADDRESS REGIONAL FOOD SECURITY10
1.Priority actions10
Raising productivity and output in the food sector11
Arresting and reversing agricultural land degradation and water loss12
Improving preparedness for food shortages due to natural disasters13
Improving food marketing efficiency13
Minimising the risks of trade-based supply stabilisation14
Protecting vulnerable groups in liberalising food markets15
Alleviating malnutrition15
2. Responsibilities for implementing priority actions16
TABLES
1.Actual and projected self-sufficiency ratios in the region
2. Asia and the Pacific: Total availability of food supplies, cereal production and variability
3.Asia and the Pacific: Share of value of food imports to total merchandise imports/exports (percent)
4.World and regional indicators of food security

 

 


INTRODUCTION

1. The Committee on World Food Security expressed its wish to benefit from the perspectives of the Regional Conferences on the major, regionally specific, issues, policies and actions, as their contribution to the World Food Summit Plan of Action. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate regional-level discussions on the policies and priority actions needed to ensure food security in the member countries of the Asia and Pacific region. Similar papers have been prepared for the other Regional Conferences to be held in the course of 1996.

I - WORLD FOOD SECURITY TRENDS

2. Over the past three decades, world food production has grown faster than population. Per caput food production is today about 18 percent above that of 30 years ago. Food availabilities for direct human consumption are equivalent to some 2 700 Calories per person per day, up from 2 300 Calories 30 years ago. At the one extreme, in Western Europe per caput food availabilities stand at some 3 500 Calories and in North America at some 3 600. At the other extreme, average per caput food availabilities are only 2 300 Calories in Africa.

3. Despite the considerable progress achieved in increasing per caput food supplies, more than 800 million people in the developing countries were undernourished in the early 1990s. Millions more suffer debilitating diseases related to micronutrient deficiencies and to contaminated food and water. Every day, one out of five people in the developing world cannot get enough food to meet their daily needs; in 17 African countries, two or three out of five people do not have adequate food. The Western Europe, North America, Near East and Latin America and the Caribbean regions had the lowest percentage of undernourished. The largest numbers, though declining, are to be found in Asia but those in Africa have been increasing in total and, in many countries, as a proportion of the population.

4. In addition to the chronically undernourished, civil strife and wars have adversely affected millions of people. Although food assistance is provided to ease their plight, the per person amount provided is too often insufficient for good health. The sharp reduction in food aid availability over the past three years has reduced the capacity to face crisis situations.

5. To bring each undernourished person to his or her respective energy requirement level (2 200 Calories/day) would require, on average, an additional 570 Calories/day. This is obviously an underestimate of any realistic estimate to eliminate undernourishment. World food consumption in 1990-92 was short of such needs by about 3 percent. In more concrete terms, given that cereals represent around 60 percent of the calorie supply of the population of the developing countries, the gap in cereals would represent about 30 million tons of grains (to be compared with about 9-12 million tons of food aid in recent years). The food gap varies widely between regions, ranging from negligible in some Western industrialised countries to about 5 percent in the low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs), 10 percent in Africa and close to 5 percent in the developing countries as a whole.

6. The prospects for the future, as they emerge from FAO's World Agriculture: Towards 2010 study (1995) (AT2010), indicate that trends towards increasing per caput food supplies in most developing countries will continue. For the developing countries as a whole, average per caput food supplies are expected to reach 2 730 Calories in the year 2010 - a substantial increase from 2 520 in the years 1990-92.

7. Despite such progress, the number of undernourished in the developing countries by the year 2010 is still projected to be between 700 to 800 million. The two regions projected to have the largest number of undernourished remain South Asia and Africa. However, while in South Asia their number is forecast to diminish sharply, bringing their share of the total population close to the 12 percent average of developing countries as a whole, in Africa the number of undernourished is projected to increase by about 100 million to over 300 million, mostly in the in the LIFDCs.

8. The forecast level of undernutrition would exist alongside increasing food imports in the developing countries. Net cereal imports are projected to expand from the nearly 90 million tons of 1989-91 to some 162 million tons in 2010; and the aggregate cereal self-sufficiency ratio to decline from 92 percent to 90 percent. Although the largest increases are foreseen for the Near East and North Africa (33 million tons) and Latin America and the Caribbean (15 million tons), only a small number of countries in these regions currently face serious foreign exchange shortages.

9. The nearly doubling in the net cereal trade deficit (from 27 to 50 million tons) foreseen for Africa, on the other hand, is more ominous given the precarious balance of payments situation in many of the countries in the region and the unfavourable prospects for many of them, especially those that must continue to finance their growing food import requirements from agricultural export earnings.

10. The above prospects for a protracted incidence of undernutrition for hundreds of millions would be the likely consequence of a `business as usual' approach. By contrast, therefore, all efforts must be mobilised to reduce the incidence of undernutrition and malnutrition as fast and on as broad a geographical scope as possible, so as to achieve by the year 2010 a better outcome than that forecast in the AT2010 study.

11. The additional amount of food that would be required to increase the per caput consumption of the projected 700-800 million undernourished to the level of average requirements for a healthy life is small relative to the requirements of world populations. Therefore the issue is not only whether the world as a whole could produce such additional amounts of food, but even more how to ensure that the countries with the largest concentration of undernourished improve access to food for all. This would require substantial increases in food import capacity, international food assistance, incomes and food production in those countries projected to have low food supplies and high undernutrition in 2010. For the developing countries in this class, per caput food supplies are projected to be 2 360 Calories in 2010. If none of them were to have less than 2 700 Calories by then (which, assuming current income and food assistance distributions, would bring the incidence of undernutrition of the developing countries to a more moderate 6 percent, or 330 million people), their production would need to grow at 3.5 percent rather than the projected 2.7 percent annually. This would require a 10-12 percent increase in the world production growth rate from what is currently projected to 2010 (1.8 percent) to 2.0 percent annually. But where the additional food would come from is of greater importance. For those countries and regions with high rates of undernourishment, the task would represent a great challenge for both themselves and the world community. For example, if the food were to come from the region itself, African production growth would have to be at 4.0 percent per annum for 20 years, notwithstanding increased commercial or concessionary imports, instead of 2.0 percent during 1970-90 and 2.9 percent projected to the year 2010. Such a target may not be sustainable, economically or environmentally.

12. Raising world food production, primarily where natural conditions make it compatible with sustainability of the natural resource base; ensuring satisfaction at moderate cost of the growing food needs; raising and distributing incomes to enable the largest numbers to provide for their food needs; providing food assistance to poor and vulnerable population groups; and ensuring stability of food supplies and access, are the objectives which all countries, regions and the international community, have to strongly pursue to prevent dire predictions from materialising.

II - FOOD SECURITY TRENDS, PROSPECTS AND ISSUES IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

1. Overall food supply situation

13. AT2010 projections indicate that the Asia and Pacific region will continue to outperform all other regions into the next century in terms of economic growth. At the same time, the population growth rate will continue to decline. Thus, per caput incomes are expected to rise more rapidly than in any other region. This has far reaching implications for increasing food demand, both quantity and quality, for reducing poverty levels and the numbers of undernourished, for increasing trade, and for resource use and environmental and sustainability pressures on the resource base, which in turn will contribute to increasing levels of food security.

14. The dietary energy supply (DES) for the region as a whole improved steadily from 2 160 Calories per head per day in 1970-72 to 2 324 calories in 1980-82, and to 2 444 Calories by 1990-92 (see Table 2). These gains in aggregate food supplies were shared by most of the countries of the region. In 1970-72, only one developing country had a DES of 2 700 Calories or more - the rough threshold of the country average energy level needed to assure minimal undernutrition and distributional inequality.

15. Seven countries exceeded that mark by 1980-82 and 10 countries did so by 1990-92. Overall, the growth rate of aggregate per caput food supplies during the 1970-92 period was 0.7 percent per annum. Most countries of Oceania and the East Asian sub-regions have attained DES supplies well above the regional average. But those in South Asia continued to have relatively lower DES.

16. Food security for the vast majority of people in the region depends largely upon the performance of the cereals sector. During 1970-92, total cereal production in the region increased by 3.3 percent a year and on a per caput basis by 1.3 percent per annum (see Table 2). During this period, trends in per caput cereal production were positive in every cereal producing country except in Nepal, Malaysia and the Republic of Korea. By 1990-92, per caput cereal production in the region stood at 228 kilogrammes a year, up by 50 kilogrammes from the 1970-72 level. However growth in per caput cereal production slowed down during 1980-92, compared to the decade of the 1970s (0.92 percent per annum versus 1.34 percent).

17.As a result of the relatively good performance of cereal production in the region, the self-sufficiency ratio (SSR) remained high. According to AT2010, the SSR in East Asia (including China) decreased marginally between 1969-71 and 1988-90 from 97.9 percent to 96.2 percent, while in South Asia it increased from 98 percent to 102 percent during the same period. As regards other basic food commodities, SSRs have improved in East Asia: for pulses from 106 percent in 1969-71 to 109 percent in 1988-90; for vegetable oils from 132 percent to 146 percent during the same period. But those of sugar and meat remained stable at 96 percent and 102 percent, respectively. The situation for South Asia is somewhat different with SSRs for non-cereal commodities generally declining. Thus, the SSR for pulses declined from 100 percent to 94 percent from 1969-71 to 1988-90, for sugar from 102 percent to 96 percent, and for vegetable oils from 105 percent to 81 percent. The SSR of meat however remained stable at 100-101 percent in the same period.

18. The respectable performance of the domestic food sector lightened the weight of expenditures on food imports relative to other imports. The ratio of food imports to total merchandise imports declined from 15.1 percent in 1970-72 to 10.8 percent in 1980-82 and further to 5.1 percent in 1990-92 (see Table 3). Alternatively, the region as a whole has been spending only 5.1 percent of its export earnings on food imports in 1990-92 compared to over three times as much (16.1 percent) in 1970-72. By and large, most countries realised an improved import capacity for food. Only in seven countries, including some island economies, did export earnings rise more slowly than food imports.

19. To sum up, the region made considerable progress in improving aggregate per caput food supplies in the past two decades. This was achieved largely through domestic production. But imports and rising carryover stocks also helped. The majority of countries were able to reduce their food import dependency as well as strengthen their import capacity. Growth in real prices of food was contained. A deceleration in population growth contributed to these favourable food supply developments.

20. Improvements in regional food availability led to a decline in chronic undernutrition. The undernourished fell from 44 to 16 percent of population in East Asia and 34 to 24 percent in South Asia in the two decades ending 1990. However, the absolute number of chronically undernourished in the population remains large: about half a billion people accounting for some 67 percent of the worlds total.

21. In spite of the decline in undernutrition, large population groups still suffer from a variety of nutritional deficiencies. These were reviewed at the national and regional levels during the consultative process leading to the International Conference on Nutrition (ICN) in 1992. On the range of nutrition and health-related problems, the meeting noted, for example, that the proportion of under-weight children was 63 percent in South Asia, 39 percent in South East Asia, and 22 percent in East Asia. Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) was the most common form of micronutrient deficiency. Up to half a million new cases of VAD-related eye damage were estimated to occur each year. The problem of anaemia, often associated with iron and folate deficiencies, affected half of the children and two-thirds of the pregnant women in Asia.

2. Issues affecting food security

Land degradation and water scarcity

22. Asia and the Pacific, more than any other region, must contend with the issue of arresting land degradation and worsening water scarcity to enable sustained agricultural and food production growth.

23. A significant proportion of its land in crop production is fragile including arid and rainfed semi-arid areas, areas with unreliable rainfall, and areas with steep slopes and/or poor soils. Such areas tend to be the ones where environmental degradation and rural poverty are most severe.

24. There is also limited cultivable area for expansion while prime agricultural land is being converted to non-agricultural uses. According to AT2010, the balance of uncropped cultivable area in South Asia, at only 0.051 ha/person, would be almost halved to 0.029 in 20 years.

25. These two limitations mean that production growth would have to come mainly from yield increases and improved cropping intensity. The same study predicted that gross crop production growth would be 93 percent yield-cum-cropping intensity-derived in South Asia and 73 percent in East Asia in the two decades ending with the year 2010.

26. The needed yield improvements may not come about if the quickening pace of land degradation and water scarcity continues. The most damaging forms were soil erosion, nutrient mining, salinisation of soils and loss and contamination of water. The seriousness of the problem is indicated in just two estimates by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) for Asia: 452 million ha making up 40 percent of the Worlds total degraded soil are in the Region; and per caput water availability, which fell by half in the 30 years ending 1980, might fall by another 35 percent by the year 2000.

27. The extent of land degradation and water scarcity have also been disproportionately high in the LIFDCs. Though the linkage with yield loss may not be linear, most LIFDCs experienced slower cereal yield growth in the decade ending 1994 than in the previous decade.

28. If this issue is to be resolved, governments must be committed to a consistent strategy and comprehensive action plan bringing legal, fiscal and social instruments to bear on the problems of specific agro-ecosystems.

Lack of preparedness for acute and large-scale food shortages due to natural disasters

29. Owing to environmental degradation as well as rapidly rising population densities and migrations to vulnerable areas, Asia and the Pacific has become the most disaster-prone region in the World. By one estimate, 800 natural disasters were reported over a 22-year period giving an average of 35 occurrences per year. This represented 60 percent of the worlds reported natural disasters and eight out of ten of the worst of these.

30. Historically, cyclones, floods and droughts have caused the most damage to food and agricultural systems in the region. A large variety of other natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, volcanic eruptions, fire, deforestation, and frost have also caused damage to food systems in declining order of frequency. Their impact could be devastating. In Bangladesh, for example, the 1987 flood reduced rice production by 35 million tons or 17.5 percent of normal national output. Floods in the following year caused a further loss of 2.0 million tons. During the 1991 floods in China, 4 000 state grain warehouses were washed away and another 3 400 were swamped by water - in addition to 20 million tons or five percent of the annual national harvest were destroyed.

31. Such large-scale damage has had both short and medium term consequences. In the short-term, hunger and in extreme cases, starvation resulted. In the medium term, food security was usually set back because damaged production and marketing systems had to be rehabilitated and employment resumed. Preparedness for acute and large-scale food shortages due to natural disasters is thus a major food security issue in the region.

32. The essential elements of preparedness have been identified and adopted by developing countries of the region. These include: (i) a minimum adequate reserve stock; (ii) an effective national food information and early warning system; (iii) a standby natural disaster unit; and (iv) a food relief contingency plan. The degree of integration as well as the form and substance of these elements are however generally poorly developed among LIFDCs.

33. Meanwhile, the strains on preparedness plans and systems have increased with the rising frequency and scale of natural and man-made disasters; declining foreign aid; food and other state subsidy cuts; and the shift of peoples' livelihoods away from staple food production.

34. These new challenges mean that concerned governments must be committed to a long-term integrated programme for disaster prevention and mitigation based on self-reliance. They must also ensure that the programme is linked with other environmental and rural development programmes.

The risks of trade-based supply stabilisation

35. Many cereal-deficit countries continue to depend on imports for supply stabilisation. These include the 17 non-wheat producing countries as well as the traditionally large cereal importers like Bangladesh, China, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Pakistan and the Republic of Korea.

36. The AT2010 study projected aggregate cereal self-sufficiency rates to fall marginally from 1.02 to 0.97 in South Asia and to stagnate at 0.96-0.97 in East Asia in the 20 years ending 2010. This means a sustained rise in import volume of wheat in the tropical countries, rice in the high-cost producing countries, and maize in countries with fast-growing livestock sectors.

37. The growth in domestic cereal stocking for supply stability, meanwhile, might slow down. The high costs of stocking as well as stagnating government price support procurement have already caused the governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and others to trim and fix maximum stock levels.

38. Stabilising supplies through trade may be a cost-saving alternative to self-sufficiency and domestic stocking. But there are risks and uncertainties in the longer term. International market supplies may be disrupted by exporter production shortfalls, run-down of exporters' stocks, sudden increases in demand, price manipulation, politically motivated decisions to withhold supplies, shipping difficulties, war, and other problems. Importing countries could also suffer sudden declines in foreign exchange earnings and import capacity.

39. These risks may be heightened in the short to medium term given that the Uruguay Round Agreement of the General Agreement of Trade and Tariffs (GATT) is now in force. Preliminary studies have indicated that cereal prices may rise, albeit slightly. Import bills of cereal-deficit countries may increase. The regional pattern of trade is likely to change towards more exports by the four non-subsidising exporting countries, and more imports by the majority of the rest of the countries in the region. Adding to the risk is the probability that more countries may be net losers rather than gainers in the trade of tropical and temperate products under the new rules. For the LIFDCs with raw materials-based economies these findings are worrisome.

40. But there are measures that can be taken to minimise these risks. They include strengthening early warning systems; creating incentives for increasing private trader and farmer-held stocks; pre-positioning government stocks in deficit areas; making long-term food import agreements; and developing collective food security reserves.

41. Concerned governments practising trade-oriented self-reliant policies may wish to implement such measures to enhance stability of food supplies. Indeed Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries have already developed some of these stability-enhancing instruments namely sub-regional emergency food reserves, food loans, and food information exchange.

Inefficient food marketing systems

42. Food marketing systems in many LIFDCs are fragmented, technologically backward and lack competition. These weaknesses have led to irrational temporal and spatial price differentials, high food losses, poor product quality and excessive marketing margins. National and household food security is constrained to the extent that producers do not get remunerative prices, traders and processors lack business volume and profit incentives and poor consumers cannot afford the high retail food prices.

43. The structural and functional weaknesses of the market derive from inadequate public sector investments in basic infrastructure such as transportation networks and market places; neglect of market planning, administration and regulation; and restrictive state price, movement and distribution interventions. Together they precluded a fertile investment environment in the food sector.

44. These shortcomings must be corrected to improve the technical and pricing efficiency of the food marketing system. An efficient market raises the productivity of farmers especially among those in high potential areas with marketable surpluses. It generates employment and incomes in the marketing sector. It also improves quality, convenience and lowers price for the consumer. For all of those involved in the market, better allocative efficiency means a higher level of food security in terms of adequacy, stability and access.

45. Most LIFDC governments especially the transition economies have undertaken reforms to liberalise and privatise the food distribution system. They have taken tentative steps towards a private-sector-led efficient food market by improving the business environment. For these reforms to work, there should be a commitment to strengthen the three basic components of a price-driven market, namely physical infrastructure, institutions and support services.

Vulnerable groups

46. The hub of vulnerable group protection programmes was the public distribution system (PDS). Using a combination of domestic price-support procurement, stock administration and levied imports as necessary, most PDS sought to alleviate undernutrition through general or targeted price subsidies.

47. The scale of PDS operations have been huge - estimated, for example, at 25 percent of apparent consumption in China, 12 percent in India, 8 percent in Indonesia, 9 percent in the Philippines and a significant 35 percent in Malaysia during 1987-89. They benefited large sections of the populations especially those living below the poverty line.

48. In the recent economic restructuring programmes and thrusts towards deregulation, liberalisation and privatisation of food markets, PDS has been gradually down-sized in many countries. This exercise involved a reduction in the volumes procured, stocked and distributed, raising distribution prices and permitting inflation to erode income transfers. As a result, food prices escalated in some food-deficit areas particularly in transition economies which in turn increased the numbers of the undernourished. Many governments had to take quick corrective measures like food-linked wage increases and temporary revival of the PDS. More significantly, staple food market liberalisation may have accentuated the hardship faced by the poor who were already unable to afford full rations at subsidised PDS prices.

49. A renewed commitment to protect the very poorest in increasingly liberalised food markets is crucial to national and household food security. Commitment may be accompanied by a reorientation of strategy and a new action plan based on the current thinking that poverty alleviation rather than general food price subsidy would be the lasting cost-effective solution.

Malnutrition

50. In spite of improvements in food security, the region continues to suffer widespread malnutrition and health related problems. Among the poor, the scale, persistence and adverse impact of the more common problems like underweight children, Vitamin-A deficiency and VAD-related eye damage, and iron and foliate deficiency-caused anaemia, paralleled and even overshadowed that of inadequate access to food. Beyond food security, there is the need for balanced nutrition and health.

51. This was the consensus at the ICN of 1992. Participating countries agreed to formulate National Plans of Action for Nutrition (NPAN) as a follow-up to the Conference. The main thrust of NPAN is to incorporate food, nutrition and related health considerations into development policies and programmes effectively.

52. Most countries have prepared NPANs. In fact by 1996, 20 of the 27 developing countries had done so - the majority with technical support provided by FAO and the World Health Organization (WHO). The difficulty is in their implementation owing to the multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary and multi-participant nature of the task. Operationally, mobilisation of funds, coordination and collaboration of the concerned participants and getting client support is hard because so many parties and sometimes conflicting interests are involved.

3. Prospects for enhancing food security through expanded food production

53. According to the AT2010 study projections, growth rates of per caput regional agricultural production is likely to be lower during the next two decades ending in the year 2010 than those attained during the previous two. The slowdown was expected to be more pronounced for the East Asian sub-region than for South Asia. However, growth in per caput demand was also projected to decline. Therefore, the supply-demand balances were not expected to fall significantly out of line.

54. For cereals, demand was expected to grow more or less at about the same rate as production, especially for East Asia. Hence self-sufficiency rates would probably remain stable (see Table 1 below). At these SSRs, net cereal imports in the year 2010 may increase by only 2 million tons in East Asia; but could double to 10 million tons in South Asia.

Table 1: Actual and projected self-sufficiency ratios in the region

Food staples1969-711988-902010
East Asia
Wheat0.790.810.86
Rice1.031.031.04
Maize1.030.990.95
All cereals0.980.960.97
South Asia
Wheat0.880.920.91
Rice1.011.100.99
Maize1.051.021.00
All cereals0.981.020.97

Source: FAO estimates.

55. Average food supplies for the projected 2 billion population of East Asia may exceed 3 000 Calories per day. As a result, the incidence of undernutrition may fall by year 2010 to about 4 percent of the total population, the lowest among developing regions of the World. In South Asia, the starting conditions are such that by the year 2010 daily food supplies per person would still be in the low-middle level of 2 450 Calories/caput/day. The absolute numbers of persons affected would remain high. Still, the possible halving of the percentage of the population chronically undernourished to 12 percent by the year 2010 in this sub-region denotes significant, though insufficient, progress.

56. It may however be possible to better this "most likely" AT2010 food security scenario by expanded production combined with greater import capacity and where required, cost effective food assistance. Since the potential for arable land expansion is limited, this could be achieved by boosting yields and cropping intensities beyond expected levels.

57. In the case of cereals for example, recent developments in hybrid rice, the new International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) ultra high-yielding dwarf rice, single cross maize hybrids and sorghum and pearl millet hybrids among others, provide new options for LIFDC productivity improvement programmes. These high-yielding varieties of different growth durations opened the way for productivity-enhancing changes in cropping patterns - like the introduction of pulses between rice crops in several LIFDCs. These and other developments could be extended throughout the region to achieve an annual cereal production growth rate of at least 2.5 percent per annum to the year 2010 instead of the 2.0 percent projected by the study. This growth rate is thought to be feasible as it is targeted against a backdrop of 3.4 percent per annum during 1970-90.

58. For other important food staples like pulses and roots and tubers, similar stepped-up technology transfers could close yield gaps between experiment stations and farmers' fields. The aggregate production growth of pulses could be raised from the marginal 1.0 percent in the past decade to a more respectable 1.5 percent per annum to the year 2010; and that of roots and tubers from 0.9 percent to 1.5 percent per annum.

59. The prospects for raising productivity and output in the livestock sector are also good. Improvements in disease control through EMPRES (FAOs Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Plant Pests and Animal Diseases) and other programmes, conservation and use of animal genetic resources, feed formulation and livestock management are likely to propel meat production growth above the projected 4.5 percent in the region - perhaps closer to the 7.5 percent experienced by the developing countries during the period 1984 to 94.

60. In fish production, inland capture fisheries and aquaculture constituted half the total catch in the 27 developing countries. They are the main sources of growth of the fisheries sector. In the decade ending 1993, inland fisheries grew at 9.0 percent per annum and aquaculture at 12.0 percent per annum. These phenomenal production growth rates are however thought to be unsustainable owing to severe strains on the environment and problems of disease control. Improvements in environmental assessment and management, health diagnosis and disease control, feed formulation and stock selection may bring about a more sustainable rate of growth of eight percent for aquaculture.

4. The World Food Summit (WFS) and regional goals for food security

61. The World Food Summit (WFS) is intended to raise public awareness and political commitment at the highest level in taking concerted actions to improve world food security. It is expected to lead to the adoption of policies at international, and national levels and to a Plan of Action.

62. In preparation for WFS, FAO has stressed from the outset, the need for each country to choose its own strategy and action plan to attain food security. This emphasis on individual country response is especially important for the Asia and Pacific region where highly diverse social, economic and food situations prevail.

63. Thus among the 27 developing and three developed countries of this region, there are groups of net food importing and exporting countries representing almost diametrically opposite views concerning trade and investment policies. There are also newly industrialising economies and fundamentally agricultural economies with contrasting views on food self-sufficiency, and food subsidy. Furthermore, among LIFDCs, the differences in resource endowments, balance of payments positions and market systems have led to widely varying performances and prospects for food security.

64. The sum of all the country policy and programme responses to these diverse food situations is the Asia-Pacific contribution to the WFS Plan of Action. It will be useful to identify common causes and initiatives to present a regional position in forging concerted actions in pursuance of food security.

65. Unlike other developing regions of the South, aggregate food supply for the region as a whole may not be an obstacle. FAO projections show that by the year 2010 the regional population of 3.8 million will have a DES of 2 715 Calories/caput/day. At this level 378 million persons or 9.9 percent of the population will remain undernourished. Each undernourished person will be short of an average of 510 Calories daily. This translates into a regional food supply deficit of less than one percent of which the cereals component is 12 million tons, as against 17.5 million tons in 1990-92.

66. It would not be difficult to make up this marginal deficit at the aggregate level. The real challenge is in working towards a more equitable distribution of food supplies at the country and household levels.

67. In practical terms this means that regional member countries would individually and collectively work towards the following goals:

68. These regional food security goals are increasingly within reach given recent developments in trade and investment cooperation. Thus the fast-rising intra-Asian investment flows on top of surging capital inflows from outside the region promise higher effective demand for food and processed agricultural products. Furthermore, the gathering momentum in the transition of centrally planned economies points to increased intra-regional food and agricultural trade prospects. Indeed, China and Vietnam for example, now rank among the main agricultural produce importing and exporting nations in the region. Moreover, the benign environment for regional cooperation is demonstrated in the establishment of seven formal and informal sub-regional economic growth zones within the past decade: the three sub-ASEAN, the Indochinese Golden Quadrangle, Mekhong, Greater China and North East Asia economic/trade cooperation zones.

III - ACTIONS TO ADDRESS REGIONAL FOOD SECURITY

[The following text is provided to facilitate discussion by the Regional Conference on the targets and priority actions for food security.]

1. Priority actions

69. FAO considers feasible and likely that the percentage of the regional population which is undernourished will drop from 18 to 10 percent in the year 2010. This prospect is encouraging but still unsatisfactory considering that the number of undernourished will remain large at 378 million. Most of them will be concentrated in South Asia and other LIFDCs of the region. Furthermore, rising income disparities within countries will accentuate hunger and malnutrition among the very poorest poor including rural landless workers, subsistence farmers, small fishermen, tribals, remote peoples and the urban unemployed and underemployed.

70. The main objective of the region would be to improve on the likely performance levels projected in the AT2010 study. This would entail raising the regional DES beyond the 2 700 Calories/caput/day forecasted for the year 2010, if possible leaving no country below this level. Among others, this may require gross agricultural output to rise faster than the 2.7 percent per year projected for the two decades ending in 2010. The declining growth rate of regional cereal production, in particular, will need to be arrested and reversed.

71. It is proposed that member countries, individually and collectively carry out the following priority actions to achieve sustainable food security within the proposed framework of the WFS Global Plan of Action.

Raising productivity and output in the food sector

Basis for action

72. The prospects for agricultural area expansion especially for cereals, livestock and fishery production are limited. But the potential for yield and cropping intensity improvements is substantial. Raising food output through productivity gains from improved technology, management and efficiency of capital-use is the appropriate and necessary course of action for the LIFDCs.

Objectives

73. For the 27 developing countries as a group to the year 2010:

  1. To raise the past decade's (1984-94) low production growth rates of staple food commodities particularly cereals from 2.1 to a minimum of 2.5 percent, pulses from 1.0 to 2.0 percent and roots and tubers from 0.9 to 1.5 percent, primarily through yield and cropping intensity improvements;
  2. To continue the past decade's high meat production rate of 7.5 percent and milk production growth rate of 4.9 percent per annum, mainly through improvements in technology and management;
  3. To increase aquaculture output at the more sustainable yield-derived growth of 8 percent against the explosive area-cum-intensity-led growth of 12 percent per annum of the past decade.

Actions to be taken

At the national level:

74. a)Identify high potential areas which may also include rainfed and upland areas for accelerated cereal, livestock and aquaculture production and also other food commodities which may be important to the concerned country like roots and tubers, pulses, and fruits and vegetables;

b) Develop intensive support services to raise productivity especially input supply, credit, marketing, and extension for these high potential areas;

c) Extend water control facilities and improve the management of water control systems through participatory methods and the small command area approach;

d) Strengthen National Agricultural Research Systems stressing the development of environmentally-friendly policies and technologies such as integrated pest management, integrated plant nutrition systems, farmer-centred resource management, biotechnology and others;

e) Remove barriers to technology adoption and investments such as exploitative tenancy arrangements, irrational taxes, transportation bottlenecks and inefficient marketing systems;

f) Strengthen agricultural policy regimes to improve the terms of trade of producers paying special attention to input supply and producer prices;

g) Improve the investment climate in the food sector giving high priority to rationalising interest, exchange, and labour rates and general price levels, tax relief, infrastructure support and other investment benefits;

h) Introduce the participatory approach to intensive production planning and implementation to mobilise contributions from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and concerned communities; and

i) Develop a technology-based and farmer-driven food security and nutrition strategy and action plan from the existing fragmented versions, and simultaneously build an enabling environment, i.e. the technical, managerial and investment capacity for the plan to be implemented effectively.

At the sub-regional and regional levels:

75. a) Strengthen Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries and Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC/ECDC) through existing crop, fishery and livestock research and development agencies in the region;

b) Promote intra-regional private sector investment flows for food production and trade by setting up appropriate rules and regulations for foreign investment in this sector.

Arresting and reversing agricultural land degradation and water loss

Basis for action

76. Land degradation and water loss caused largely by deforestation, soil erosion, nutrient mining, salinisation of soils, contamination of water and housing and industrial encroachment in the fragile Asia-Pacific ecosystems have reached alarming proportions especially in the overpopulated LIFDCs. Unless these basic agricultural resources are conserved and improved, the needed yield-derived increases in food production will not materialise.

Objective

77. To conserve and improve agricultural land and water resources by implementing a comprehensive action plan to follow-through with commitments made at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development's Earth Summit.

Actions to be taken

At the national level:

78. a) Empower and fund adequately the authorities responsible for land and water conservation and improvement;

b) Decentralise land and water resource management and ensure peoples' participation;

c) Refine and improve property or user rights and obligations for public and private resources;

d) Establish and enforce sustainable limits and conditions for agriculture, fishery and forestry resource utilisation;

e) Develop and extend environmentally-friendly farming systems and methods based on biological and software technologies;

f) Strengthen the system for changing water-use and penalties for pollution;

g) Formulate and implement regulations to prevent the loss of prime agricultural land to housing and industry; and

h) Provide tax relief and subsidies in cash and kind for reclamation of degraded land through reforestation and other rehabilitation measures.

At the sub-regional and regional levels:

79. a) Promote TCDC/ECDC in land and water resource management and improvement through FAO, UNEP, the Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and other international agencies and NGOs;

b) Establish and strengthen riparian and water-shed communities for joint management of the resources; and

c) Encourage foreign investment and technology transfer in land and water improvement projects by liberalisation and privatisation of the sector and by providing tax and other development incentives.

Improving preparedness for food shortages due to natural disasters

Basis for action

80. Each year an average of 35 natural disasters including floods, droughts, earthquake, tsunami, landslides, volcanic eruptions, fire, deforestation and frost occur in this highly disaster-prone region. They cause hunger, destitution and severe damage to the food system. Unless preparedness for acute food shortages due to natural disasters is improved, the large populations living in disaster-prone areas will remain vulnerable to transitory and chronic food shortages.

Objectives

81. a) Reduce the incidence and impact of natural disasters;

b) Limit the vulnerability of populations to natural disasters;

c) Avoid hunger and malnutrition due to natural disasters; and

d) Ensure the quick and effective rehabilitation of farming systems and livelihoods following natural disasters.

Actions to be taken

At the national level:

82. a) Commitment to a long-term integrated programme for disaster prevention and mitigation based on self-reliance which should include among other measures minimising deforestation, reforestation, protecting watersheds and drainage systems and undertaking other conservation measures;

b) Restrict settlement in disaster-prone localities and undertake resettlement programmes;

c) Strengthen the basic elements of preparedness namely the, emergency foodgrain reserve stock, the early warning system, the standby natural disaster unit and the food relief contingency plan; and

d) Make long-term investments in physical infrastructure, education and employment and income generation in disaster-prone areas.

At the sub-regional and regional levels:

83. a) Improve national early warning systems and establish sub-regional/regional early warning systems; and

b) Strengthen the ASEAN and SAARC collective emergency food reserves and establish other reserves where feasible and cost effective.

Improving food marketing efficiency

Basis for action

84. Inefficient food marketing systems in most LIFDCs cause high food losses, poor product quality excessive marketing margins, unaffordable consumer prices and producer disincentives. This should be corrected to raise the productivity of farmers, stability of supplies and economic access to food by the poor.

Objective

85. To improve the technical and pricing efficiency of food marketing systems.

Actions to be taken

At the national level:

86. a) Appropriate deregulation of food markets to improve the business environment subject to food security safeguards;

b) Build a network of regulated wholesale markets and improve transportation systems and other post harvest facilities for the food sector;

c) Strengthen marketing institutions, particularly the independent private firm and cooperative; and

d) Improve marketing support services especially information, credit, research, training and extension.

At the sub-regional and regional levels:

87. a) Organise TCDC in food marketing systems' improvement through regional associations such as AFMA (Association of Food Marketing Agencies in Asia and the Pacific); and

b) Promote technology transfer from developed countries in the important areas of grading, packaging, storage, processing and other post-harvest operations.

Minimising the risks of trade-based supply stabilisation

Basis for action

88. The 19 LIFDCs and several other developing countries in the region are highly dependent on cereal imports to meet domestic demand. Import needs are expected to rise. There are risks and uncertainties concerning the availability of international supplies and the deficit countries' capacity to import. These must be minimised to ensure the stability of supplies.

Objectives

89. a) To ensure regular and reliable foreign sources of supply for food import requirements;

b) To enhance the capacity to finance food import needs; and

c) To improve domestic marketing efficiency.

Actions to be taken

At the national level:

90. a) Liberalise food trade in line with the provisions of the Uruguay Round Agreement;

b) Maximise foreign exchange earnings by reaping the full benefits of comparative advantage in commodities' production;

c) Strengthen domestic market mechanisms for price and supply stability including among others, early warning and market information systems, public and private stocking, and marketing infrastructure, institutions and services.

At the sub-regional and regional levels:

91. a) Promote food trade liberalisation within the seven formal and informal sub-regional trade and investment cooperation zones;

b) Pursue long-term food trade arrangements such as the ASEAN Principle of First Refusal, Indonesian-Filipino food loans, Malaysian palm oil credit facility, Thai rice credit facility and the Chinese-Sri Lankan food for rubber barter.

Protecting vulnerable groups while liberalising food markets

Basis for action

92. The majority of the poor in many LIFDCs continue to depend on the public distribution system (PDS) to meet basic foodgrain requirements. But on-going structural adjustments and transitions towards market-driven food systems have necessitated cutbacks on food subsidies and down-sizing, even elimination, of the PDS. The need to find new cost-effective ways and means to protect the hardcore urban poor is urgent. In this exercise, attention should also be given to destitute and subsistence farmers in upland and rainfed areas and other groups who had no access to the PDS.

Objectives

93. a) To protect food entitlements of the households living at or below nationally-drawn poverty lines;

b) To alleviate poverty among the hardcore poor such as rural landless workers, subsistence farmers, fishermen and deprived urban households; and

c) To provide basic staple food needs to the destitute especially women and children in such households.

Actions to be taken

At the national level:

94. a) Maintain cost-effective PDS targeted at the very poorest and the destitute households;

b) Establish a lean income protection scheme including food-based minimum wages, food stamps, food-linked wage increments and employees provident funds;

c) Develop off-farm employment and income-generation programmes based on investment incentives for the private sector in vulnerable rural communities;

d) Improve farming systems in rainfed and upland areas to raise the production and incomes of subsistence farmers;

e) Promote non-governmental community welfare and self-help programmes funded by contributions and company set-asides; and

f) Actively pursue strategies defined at both the Cairo Population Conference and the Beijing Conference on Women as applicable to each country.

At the sub-regional and regional levels:

95. a) Collaborate in the development of vulnerable group protection models covering, among others, household food security indicators, identification and monitoring methodologies, employment and income-generation programmes and public distribution schemes;

b) Promote legal and orderly mechanisms for inter-country labour migration;

c) Secure adequate food aid flows including contributions from the more affluent developing countries.

Alleviating malnutrition

Basis for action

96. Malnutrition and health related problems are widespread and getting worse in the region. The ICN in 1992 agreed that balanced nutrition is an integral component of food security.

Objective

97. To implement the national plan of action on nutrition (NPAN) in accordance with the commitments made at the ICN 1992.

Actions to be taken

At the national level:

98. a) Formulate and refine NPANs if not already carried out; and

b) Ensure multi-party participation in the implementation of the NPAN including local governments, NGOs, community leaders, private enterprises and the beneficiaries.

At the sub-regional and regional levels:

99. a) Pool skilled manpower resources and facilities for nutrition research and development; and

b) Exchange experiences in the implementation of NPANs.

2. Responsibilities for implementing priority actions

Responsibilities at the country level:

100. The national governments have the primary responsibility for creating the conditions required for food security in their countries. National governments are responsible for creating an economic and social environment conducive to fast, sustainable and equitable growth in which agricultural and rural development must play a central role. More specifically, national governments will achieve food security through strong policy commitment to the priority actions outlined above. This will require the building of appropriate structures and mechanisms and the involvement, not only of all relevant public entities but also of the private sector and civil society in general.

101. Governments in the region also have shared responsibilities with other countries within and outside the region, international and non-governmental organisations, in the pursuance of food security goals.

Responsibilities at the sub-regional and regional levels:

102. The governments of the region should act collectively to:

a) Reinforce regional cooperation mechanisms in agriculture and food policies for food security, including the strengthening of Asian inter-governmental organisations and research institutions;

b) Promote the exchange of technologies for food and agricultural production, including the establishment of technical cooperation networks;

c) Facilitate intra-regional trade and investment flows especially in food and agriculture, fisheries and forestry;

d) Promote investments and technology transfer from developed countries especially in the advanced sciences of biotechnology, environmental protection and rehabilitation and management of water resources, soils improvement and others.

Responsibilities at the international level:

103. The international organisations and the donor community should:

a) Help to define the scope and modalities for global cooperation in the critical areas of food security including, among others, managing fragile ecosystems, reforestation, promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development, improving household food security, food safety and balanced diets and developing a fairer growth-oriented trading environment with appropriate safeguards for LIFDCs;

b) Improve the global monitoring system for food security and nutrition at both regional and international levels;

c) Support an investment programme for food security and nutrition projects in LIFDCs;

d) Increase food aid and logistics support to LIFDCs to counter possible production shortfalls resulting from structural adjustment and market reforms as well as from the expected rise in world food prices in the post Uruguay Round trading environment;

e) Extend sources and channels for investment assistance and technology transfer by involving private-sector companies and NGO networks;

f) Ensure implementation of the Uruguay Round Decision on Measures Concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme on Least Developed and Net Food Importing Countries; and

g) Assist national governments to achieve macro-economic stability and food system efficiency in keeping with social objectives.

The expected role of civil society

104. Individuals, private institutions, and NGOs are expected to work towards:

a) The realisation of sustainable agriculture and rural development;

b) Protection of vulnerable groups including the rural landless, subsistence farmers, tribals, remote communities, shifting cultivators, small fishermen, urban unemployed and underemployed and other deprived groups;

c) Empowerment of women leading to an enhanced role in household food security and nutrition;

d) Basic education in food security, nutrition and health; and

e) Compliance with laws, rules and regulations deriving from international agreements and/or commitments made at the UNCED/Earth Summit, the ICN, the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, the Beijing Women's Conference and others.

Among others, these duties of individual members of society and their organisations have taken on added importance as regional member governments increasingly liberalise and privatise economic activities, especially in the food sector.

Table 2 : Asia and the Pacific : Total Availability of Food Supplies, Cereal Production and Variability

 

Total Calories/caput/day

Total cereal production

 

Average

1970-72

Average

1980-82

Average

1990-92

Trend

1970-79

Trend

1980-92

Trend

1970-92

Trend rates

(per caput)

Coeff. of

variation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1970-79

1980-92

1970-92

1970-79

1980-92

1970-92

BANGLADESH

BHUTAN

CAMBODIA

CHINA (MAINLAND)

CHINA (TAIWAN)

FIJI

INDIA

INDONESIA

IRAN, ISLAMIC REP.

KOREA, DEM. P.REP

KOREA, REP.

LAOS

MALAYSIA

MALDIVES

MONGOLIA

MYANMAR

NEPAL

PAKISTAN

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

PHILIPPINES

SAMOA

SOLOMON ISLANDS

SRI LANKA

THAILAND

TONGA

VANUATU

VIETNAM

RAPA (developing 26)

AUSTRALIA

JAPAN

NEW ZEALAND

2017

-

2350

2029

2681

2499

2042

2090

2125

2493

2903

2111

2490

1687

2242

2070

1853

2171

2194

1783

2276

2274

2249

2195

2651

2542

2211

2157

3213

2706

3343

1892

-

2029

2404

2722

2737

2061

2510

2713

3065

3065

2349

2700

2172

2394

2421

1817

2140

2414

2219

2540

2275

2286

2224

2881

2590

2117

2324

3083

2753

3356

1994

-

2101

2707

3077

3080

2330

2698

2763

2928

3275

2213

2831

2506

2102

2487

2084

2340

2610

2293

2827

2240

2233

2376

2935

2740

2205

2444

3177

2902

3628

-0.9

-

-9.9

1.3

0.8

0.3

0.4

0.9

3.2

2.0

1.4

-0.8

1.0

2.2

0.8

0.8

-0.1

0.3

0.7

2.6

1.2

-0.1

0.3

0.1

0.8

0.2

-1.3

0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.3

0.5

-

0.5

1.1

1.3

1.1

1.3

0.7

0.2

-0.2

0.7

-0.9

0.4

1.4

-1.3

0.1

1.4

0.9

1.0

0.4

1.2

-0.2

-0.4

0.7

0.2

0.5

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.5

0.9

0.0

-

0.5

1.6

0.5

1.0

0.8

1.4

1.0

0.9

0.4

0.6

0.5

2.2

-0.2

1.4

0.6

0.3

0.9

1.1

1.2

-0.1

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.5

0.3

0.7

0.1

0.4

0.2

0.1

-

-14.4

2.3

-1.1

-1.9

0.4

1.2

1.5

3.1

0.9

-3.1

-1.9

-

-0.2

1.3

-2.5

1.1

-

2.7

-

-

1.1

-0.2

-

-

-1.7

1.3

5.2

-1.2

1.1

0.0

-

1.0

1.4

-2.5

3.3

1.0

2.0

0.6

-2.0

-1.5

-0.6

-2.0

-

1.5

-2.2

1.4

-1.1

-

0.3

-

-

-1.0

-0.5

-

-

2.3

0.9

-0.6

-0.4

-1.7

0.2

-

1.3

2.0

-2.2

0.9

0.8

2.5

0.2

0.3

-2.0

0.9

-2.3

-

1.9

1.2

-0.3

0.2

-

0.9

-

-

1.5

0.4

-

-

1.3

1.3

1.2

-1.5

0.2

5.6

-

65.3

3.7

6.2

15.4

6.3

10.2

7.7

8.6

10.9

17.1

9.5

-

23.2

4.6

10.2

4.3

-

6.9

-

-

13.1

8.1

-

-

12.6

3.4

18.5

5.0

13.5

2.6

-

16.9

4.6

3.8

14.2

5.4

3.1

7.8

10.0

7.4

10.2

8.2

-

28.2

11.4

10.5

5.2

-

4.0

-

-

11.1

8.9

-

-

6.8

3.1

21.7

6.8

19.7

4.2

-

45.3

4.2

5.0

14.8

5.9

7.1

8.1

9.6

9.5

13.9

8.8

-

26.3

10.6

10.5

4.9

-

5.5

-

-

12.7

8.8

-

-

9.9

3.2

20.4

6.3

17.4

Source: FAO; Cereal Production in Maldives, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu: either no data or production negligible.

Table 3 : Asia and the Pacific : Share of Value of Food Imports to Total Merchandise Imports/Exports (percent)

Food Imports/Merchandise Imports

Food Imports/Merchandise
Exports

Trends rate (70-92)
Food Merchandise

1970-72

1980-82

1990-92

1970-72

1980-82

1990-92

Imports

Exports

BANGLADESH

BHUTAN

CAMBODIA

CHINA (MAINLAND)

CHINA (TAIWAN)

FIJI

INDIA

INDONESIA

IRAN,ISLAMIC REP.

KOREA,DEM.P.REP.

KOREA, REP.

LAOS

MALAYSIA

MALDIVES

MONGOLIA

MYANMAR

NEPAL

PAKISTAN

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

PHILIPPINES

SAMOA

SOLOMON ISLANDS

SRI LANKA

THAILAND

TONGA

VANUATU

VIETNAM

RAPA (developing 26)

AUSTRALIA

JAPAN

NEW ZEALAND

29.5

-

19.2

15.9

11.7

13.6

15.9

21.4

8.2

12.5

14.8

20.0

15.2

46.8

13.0

5.2

10.4

10.7

14.2

11.9

21.1

18.1

43.1

3.2

23.1

16.8

49.8

15.1

2.2

14.1

4.6

20.6

-

36.0

18.9

7.3

11.9

8.6

9.4

17.9

11.1

8.9

28.3

9.4

27.6

8.8

5.7

12.9

10.3

15.2

6.1

17.9

12.7

16.6

2.7

22.4

14.7

15.4

10.8

2.0

8.3

4.3

16.8

-

8.7

5.0

4.3

11.0

3.9

4.5

9.9

11.2

4.3

7.8

5.5

12.4

7.8

14.5

9.9

11.7

13.0

6.2

16.6

13.7

13.9

1.5

20.3

13.2

4.2

5.1

2.8

8.1

5.2

44.5

-

63.9

14.1

10.5

24.1

16.6

18.4

5.9

18.7

29.0

288.3

13.4

46.8

16.3

7.7

12.7

15.9

31.9

12.7

60.9

24.0

47.4

4.9

64.8

23.5

235.1

16.4

2.0

12.2

4.4

62.0

-

615.3

18.4

6.8

20.7

14.9

5.4

13.9

14.4

10.7

109.2

8.9

98.0

12.5

8.3

34.5

20.7

18.0

9.3

78.4

13.4

30.2

3.8

113.8

30.7

42.5

11.3

2.0

8.2

4.3

32.7

-

49.7

4.5

3.7

13.2

4.6

3.8

11.1

18.7

4.7

15.9

4.6

37.1

11.6

19.1

28.4

15.4

12.7

9.5

124.2

17.1

21.2

2.0

85.3

56.5

4.6

5.1

2.7

6.0

5.0

5.1

-

2.5

9.4

11.5

5.5

3.4

4.9

9.9

5.4

10.4

-0.8

9.7

12.4

5.5

8.0

11.8

11.5

7.0

7.9

6.9

9.4

3.9

12.1

9.5

5.4

-6.8

7.8

11.7

8.2

9.6

8.4

-

2.4

16.8

19.1

9.1

10.3

13.5

4.3

8.2

21.4

17.2

15.1

16.8

8.6

6.1

5.9

12.8

10.5

9.5

4.0

11.0

8.9

17.1

6.2

1.4

14.0

14.3

9.7

13.2

9.7

Source: FAO