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D.F. Lovemore1


1.1 The Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Programme of Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe, hereinafter referred to as the RTTCP, has as its possible overall objective the eventual eradication of tsetse flies from a discrete fly-belt of approximately 322,000 square kilometres within the Zambezi, Rio Púngoè, Rio Buzi and Rio Save drainages. This infested area extends into four countries as the project name implies, namely those mentioned above, and is usually referred to as the common fly-belt (see Map 1).

1.2 The RTTCP is unique amongst tsetse and trypanosomiasis control activities in Africa, both in scale and cost of the eventual operations envisaged, and in the implications that these operations could have on rural development and the affected areas.

1.3 The programme has generated a great deal of interest amongst tsetse and trypanosomiasis control and rural development workers throughout tsetse-infested Africa, who are concerned with this problem. It has also aroused considerable controversy and criticism, not always well informed, both in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Africa. Much of this criticism has centred on the possible direct effects on the environment of the control measures employed and of the indirect effects which might follow as a result of the possible unplanned and, therefore, uncontrolled exploitation of the areas cleared of tsetse. These issues are complicated by the complex nature of the RTTCP, which means that the exact nature and scope of its activities are not always well understood by its critics.

1.4 The Preparatory Phase of the RTTCP was implemented during 1986 with the start dates varying considerably between the four countries for a number of reasons, including delays in recruiting Technical Assistance and procurement of equipment. Funds are now almost exhausted, other than in the case of Zambia, which started exceptionally late for reasons which will be explained below, but a number of objectives have not yet been achieved. An extension of the Preparatory Phase is therefore being sought.

1 Regional Coordinator
Regional Tsetse and
Control Programme (RTTCP)
Harare, Zimbabwe


MAP 1.


2.1 The RTTCP Concept

2.1.1 The concept of the RTTCP arose originally out of concern felt by the Government of Zimbabwe for the viability of livestock associated agricultural production systems in Mashonaland East Province, see Map 2. This is a densely settled area, previously cleared of tsetse flies, which suffered an extensive reinvasion of tsetse and concomitant spread of trypanosomiasis between the years 1973 and 1980 and subsequently, following the abandonment of control measures during the War of Liberation. Mashonaland Central and Manicaland provinces were also seriously affected (again see Map 2).

2.1.2 In response to this concern, the Agricultural and Rural Development Authority of Zimbabwe decided that, in order to sustain local settlement, agriculture in the Province must be developed. Also, recognising the importance of livestock in any agricultural development project, especially draught animals, a study of the tsetse and trypanosomiasis situation in the area was commissioned. This was undertaken by the same consultants responsible for the European Development Fund-funded study “Study for the Agricultural/Rural Development of the Communal Areas of Mashonaland East Province”, namely PTA Consulting Services (Pvt.) Limited, Zimbabwe, in association with Minster Agriculture Limited, United Kingdom. Their report entitled “A Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Study: Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe” was presented in 1983. This formed the basis of the RTTCP.

2.1.3 Previous efforts to control tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis in the common fly-belt were described in detail in the report. The majority of these operations had taken place in Zambia and Zimbabwe. In the latter country emphasis had been placed initially on clearance of tsetse from limited areas and protecting these areas and that infested prior to the rinderpest panzootic of 1896 from reinvasion. A major objective had been to reduce contact between tsetse and domestic stock. However, more recently, a policy of progressive tsetse eradication had been adopted. On the other hand, in Zambia, in recent years, increasing emphasis had been placed on prophylactic drugs to control the problem with only limited vector control being undertaken, primarily to try and contain or limit tsetse advances. The difficulties encountered by the respective veterinary and tsetse control services in pursuing a policy of control only were described. A change in emphasis from that largely of containment to a policy of progressive eradication of the vector, as adopted by Zimbabwe, was advocated. This was seen as being the only permanent solution to the trypanosomiasis problem.

2.1.4 It was also emphasised in the report that, since the area of infestation crossed national boundaries and affected four countries, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe, the objective of eradication could be achieved only through close cooperation of the veterinary and tsetse control services involved, i.e. that a coordinated regional approach was essential if tsetse flies were to be eradicated successfully.

2.2 Objectives

2.2.1 The RTTCP consists essentially of two phases, the first or Preparatory Phase and a second, the Eradication Phase. The Preparatory Phase has been concerned largely with the operations and to permit their detailed planning prior to their implementation in the Eradication Phase.



2.2.2 The Preparatory Phase, as envisaged originally, and which was to have been of three years duration only (Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and several regional projects have already gone on longer supported by savings) had the following specific objectives, with some variation between regional and national components and between national components themselves:

  1. To determine the distribution of those species of tsetse present within the common fly-belt as a prerequisite to the detailed planning of appropriate control and/or eradication measures. These surveys were to be supplemented by bovine trypanosomiasis surveys and routine monitoring of cattle depastured in or near the tsetse infested areas. Human trypanosomiasis surveys were also to be carried out where appropriate.

  2. To develop improved tsetse survey measures for the detection of tsetse at low population densities; primarily through the development of more efficient trapping mechanisms.

  3. To develop and improve the main technique advocated then for eradication of tsetse, namely aerial spraying, and to develop new techniques if appropriate. The latter refers mainly to the development of odour-baited, insecticide-treated targets and the implementation of associated field trials.

  4. To assess the environmental impacts of chemical eradication methods and to develop protocols whereby candidate insecticides could be approved for use in eradication operations which might be instituted under the RTTCP.

  5. To provide means for the control of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis in cattle in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe as an interim measure prior to the advent of the proposed Eradication Phase. It was envisaged that this would take the form of parasite control in the first two countries named and vector control in the two latter countries.

  6. To strengthen the operation capabilities of the tsetse and trypanosomiasis control services of the four countries.

2.3 Inputs and Activities Required

2.3.1 The following inputs and activities were required to achieve the specific objectives of the RTTCP:

In the case of objectives 1, 2, 3 and 4:

The provision of appropriate inputs in the form of vehicles, equipment and Technical Assistance expertise to assist the veterinary and tsetse control services concerned in the mounting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis surveys and in supporting the other components of the RTTCP.

In the case of objectives 2 and 3:

The provision of appropriate back up laboratory and support services to the Research Section of Zimbabwe's Branch of Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control to continue its research into the development of odour attractants and the design of tsetse traps and targets.

In the case of objective 3:

The creation of an appropriate research capability to establish and develop the effectiveness of the aerial spraying technology as an eradication measure against the four tsetse species occurring in the common fly-belt, namely Glossina morsitans morsitans, G.pallidipes, G.austeni and G.brevipalpis and to assess its limitations with regard to these species in the different types of terrain occurring in the common fly-belt. In particular, special attention was to be given to the first two named species because of their greater economic importance. Funds were to also be provided for large-scale target trials to be carried out in Malawi and Zimbabwe in order to continue the testing and refinement of target technology for the purpose of eradication.

In the case of objective 4:

The creation of an appropriate research and monitoring capacity to monitor and assess the environmental impact of the application of insecticides for tsetse control and eradication purposes. This requirement related primarily to aerial spraying, but there was also the need to ascertain the environmental impact of the odour-baited, insecticide-treated target. Another requirement was the development of appropriate protocols whereby alternative insecticides to endosulfan, in the case of aerial spraying, and deltamethrin, in the case of targets, could be tested for their possible impacts on the environment prior to their being approved for use in future operations.

In the case of objective 5:

This involved the following: the provision of funds necessary to enable the veterinary services of Malawi and Zambia to procure trypanocidal drugs to protect livestock populations as an interim measure prior to tsetse clearance; and the provision of funds necessary to enable the veterinary and tsetse control services of Zimbabwe and Zambia to conduct tsetse eradication operations in certain affected areas of their respective countries, which, because of their strategic positions or economic importance, could not await the proposed Eradication Phase. Such proposed operations were termed emergency operations in the respective Financing Agreements. The areas proposed for attention were that part of Zambia's Gwembe District known as Gwembe North, where some 80,000 head of cattle were at serious risk to trypanosomiasis and Zimbabwe's northeastern districts where approximately 20,000 square kilometres of previously reclaimed land had been reinvaded by tsetse. It was intended to use aerial spraying alone in the first mentioned area and aerial spraying supported by targets in the latter area.

In the case of objective 6:

The provision of funds for the undertaking of a comprehensive regional training programme in various specialised fields directly or indirectly associated with the planning, implementation and monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control activities, including environmental monitoring of insecticide usage.

In the case of all objectives:

The creation of the post of Regional Coordinator to supervise and coordinate all the activities, both regional and national, of the RTTCP and the post of Regional Trypanosomiasis Expert to act as an assistant to the Regional Coordinator and advise him on all matters relation to bovine trypanosomiasis in the region. The Regional Coordinator was to establish an office in Harare, Zimbabwe comprising various support staff.

2.4 Financing Agreements and Financial Allocations for the RTTCP

2.4.1 The Preparatory Phase of the project has been funded largely by the European Development Fund. Exceptions to this were Zambia's Choma/Kalomo Tsetse Control Operation and all funding for Mozambique. The Financing Proposal was prepared in March, 1985.

2.4.2 Initially, five Financing Agreements were involved covering a regional programme (Financing Agreement No. 3511/PR) and four national programmes (Financing Agreements nos. 3509/MAL, 958/84/MOZ, 3510/ZAM and 3480/ZAM/P for Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively). In addition, Zambia's Department of Veterinary and Tsetse Control Services received a grant (Agreement No. 958/ZAM/2) from the EEC under its Second Special Action Programme for the Fight Against Hunger in the World. This was to control tsetse advances in the Choma, Kalomo and Namwala districts. Originally, this project was not a part of the RTTCP as the tsetse infestations involved lay outside the common fly-belt. However, following a request by the EEC Delegation in Lusaka, the project was incorporated into the RTTCP at the Second Meeting of the Regional Standing Committee held in Maputo, Mozambique in July, 1986.

2.4.3 Funding for the Regional Programme was provided from designated Regional funds and that for the Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe national programmes from their respective National Indicative Programmes. However, in the case of Mozambique, funding was provided from the EEC's 1984 Aid Programme. This was because Mozambique was not a signatory to the Second Lomé Convention in accordance with whose principles the Financing Agreements for the Regional Programme and the Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe national programmes were made.

2.4.4 The signatories to the Financing Agreement for the Regional Programme were Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe only. Mozambique was not included for the same reason explained under 2.4.3 and, as a result, received no allocation of funds from this source. However, Mozambique has benefited considerably from the Regional Programme in many ways, especially in the areas of research, training and general assistance from the Office of the Regional Coordinator.

2.4.5 All funding took the form of grants excepting that provided under the Zimbabwe Agreement, No. 3480/ZIM/P, which was a special loan.

2.4.6 The agreed contributions of the four Governments concerned were primarily the provision of personnel for project activities. However, Zimbabwe has provided considerable additional support, especially in the form of office and laboratory accommodation for the Office of the Regional Coordinator and research projects, other research facilities, especially in the form of the free use of Rekomitjie Research Station, and access development equipment.

2.4.7 All the Financing Agreements, other than that for Mozambique, were subject to a number of special conditions, the most notable being those relating to the need for autonomy of the respective projects, the setting up of revolving funds to meet the cost of trypanocidal drugs, no use of insecticides banned in EEC countries and the need for land-use planning of areas to be cleared of tsetse flies.

2.4.8 An overview of the financial allocations for the main components of the RTTCP is provided in Table 1.

2.5 Basic Structure and Organisation of the RTTCP (see Fig. 1)

2.5.1 The RTTCP was endorsed by the Council of Ministers of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC).

2.5.2 Overall technical and financial responsibility for the Regional Programme's Financing Agreement 3511/PR is vested in the Regional Authorising Officer for the European Development Fund, the Permanent Secretary of Zimbabwe's Ministry of Finance, Economic Planning and Development. Responsibility for the national programmes in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe is vested in the respective National Authorising Officers. In Mozambique, responsibility is vested in the Comissâo Nacional do Plano.

2.5.3 The RTTCP as a whole is supervised by the Regional Standing Committee. Membership of the Committee includes two nominated representatives from each Member Country, the Regional Authorising Officer, the SADCC Sector Coordinator for Livestock Production and Disease Control, the Regional Coordinator and the Donor. The Committee was scheduled to meet up to twice a year and is responsible for monitoring the activities of the RTTCP and its overall direction. In this context the Committee approves the annual work programmes and cost estimates for all components of the RTTCP.

2.5.4 Responsibility for the day to day management of the Regional Programme and the coordination of the activities of the RTTCP as a whole is entrusted to the Office of the Regional Coordinator. The Regional Coordinator has also a direct technical and financial responsibility in the national programmes. He was required to assist the respective Governments draw up their initial work programmes and cost estimates.

2.5.5 Implementation of the national programmes is carried out by the staff of the tsetse and trypanosomiasis control services of the individual countries concerned. Essentially, this involves tsetse and trypanosomiasis surveys in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia and aerial spraying and target operations in Zambia and Zimbabwe. These services are also responsible for the implementation of various aspects of the Regional Programme, including target trials in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, treatment of animals with trypanocides in Malawi and Zambia and tsetse and trypanosomiasis surveys in Zimbabwe.

Figure 1 Structure and Organization of the RTTCP

Figure 1

Notes: 1. The link with the Donor is as follows : In the case of the Regional Programme, it is through the Regional Coordinator and the Regional Authorising Officer, in that order, to the EEC Delegation, Harare, Zimbabwe; and in the case of National Programmes, it is through the respective National Authorising Officers to the respective EEC Delegations in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe

2. The Regional Coordinator maintains a close liaison with the EEC Delegations in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe concerning National Programmes

3. The training component of the Regional Programme has not been shown. This is the responsibility of all relevant components of the Regional Programme

Table 1: Original allocations with some modification in heading descriptions

HeadingAllocation in ECU
Regional Project 3511/PR 
Regional Coordination (0. Regional Standing Committee ECU45 000 and Office of the Regional Coordinator, 1. Regional Coordination ECU870 000 and 2. Office accommodation ECU205 000)
1 120 000
3.Aerial spraying development527 000
4.Regional training487 800
5.Environmental impact study750 000
6.Large-scale field trials (odour-baited, insectincide treated targets) 
6.2 Zimbabwe171 500
6.3 Malawi184 200
6.4 Zambia53 700
6.5 Development of odour baits200 000
7.Programme evaluation and miscellaneous605 800
8.Zambia programme (Treatment of animals)1 100 000
Zimbabwe programme (9.1 Regional visits; 9.2 Tsetse and trypanosomiasis survey; and, 9.3 Northeastern eradication project - baited target operations)
2 750 000
10.Malawi programme (Treatment of animals)400 000
 Sub-total8 350 000
Malawi Project 3509/MAL1 900 000
Mozambique Project 958/84/MOZ1 500 000
Zambia Project 
 Grant 3510/ZAM5 000 000
 Special Action 958/ZAM/22 000 000
Zimbabwe Project 3480/ZIM/P3 900 000
 Total22 650 000

2.5.6 Implementation of other aspects of the Regional Programme is carried out by the following organisations under various contractual arrangements as indicated:

  1. Development of aerial spraying technology by the Natural Resources Institute (NRI), Chatham, United Kingdom, through the Aerial Spraying Research and Development Project (ASRDP).

  2. Odour-bait and associated trap and target development by NRI through the Identification of Host Odour Attractants of Tsetse Flies Project in close collaboration with the Research Section of Zimbabwe's Branch of Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control and the Tsetse Research Laboratory (TRL), University of Bristol, United Kingdom.

  3. Environmental monitoring of insecticide applications in aerial spraying and odourbaited, insecticide-treated target trials and operations by the Scientific Environmental Monitoring Group (SEMG) through the Scientific Environmental Monitoring Group Project. The SEMG was established in November, 1985 to provide an independent authoritative body of experts to monitor and advise on activities proposed under the RTTCP which involved application of insecticide in the environment. It has comprised eight members from inception, all senior scientists. They represent eight renowned European scientific institutions, including the Institut für Biogeographie, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, the coordinating and executing agency for SEMG, whose Head also acts as Chairman of the Group. These institutions were nominated by the governments of the Member Countries of the European Economic Community in response to a request by the Commission of the European Communities to collaborate in this manner. The SEMG was vested with considerable power to the extent that the Regional Coordinator and relevant national authority responsible for tsetse control are obliged to implement strictly any recommendations made by it under its terms of reference during any EEC-funded operations or trials involving insecticides. This could include the suspension of insecticide applications in situations where its field monitoring team judges that unacceptable environmental contamination may occur or is occurring.

2.5.7 Training and staff development for the RTTCP involves the collaboration of all associated institutions and organisations. The SADCC Regional Training Centre for Middlelevel Personnel for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis executed by FAO and located in Lusaka, Zambia has been heavily involved in training activities.


(The sequence followed below is essentially that of Table 1, excepting that Regional Project 3511/PR/9, Zimbabwe programme, is considered at the end in conjunction with Zimbabwe Project 3480/ZIM/P because of their close relationship and Zambia Project (Grant 3510/ZAM and Special Action 958/ZAM/2) are dealt with in chronological order).

3.1 Regional Project, Grant 3511/PR

3.1.1 Regional coordination: This has been effected through meetings of the Regional Standing Committee, extensive and frequent travel throughout the region by technical staff of the Office of the Regional Coordinator and their attendance and participation in meetings, workshops and seminars. Other major activities of the Office of the Regional Coordinator have included: assisting Member Countries with the preparation of contracts, annual work programmes and cost estimates, and, more recently, their proposals for the extension of the programme; and, disseminating research findings and relevant technical information to all persons and organisations concerned with the RTTCP.

3.1.2 Aerial spraying development: Studies have been conducted by the ASRDP on the navigational requirements, meteorological parameters and methods of application of aerial spraying using fixed-wing aircraft and non-residual insecticides. Special emphasis was placed on adapting the fixed-wing technique to achieving tsetse eradication in rugged terrain. Helicopters were also tested on a limited basis for this purpose. Other work included: larval development studies to determine the optimum inter-spray period more precisely; and, a laboratory investigation to determine why many G.pallidipes survived insecticide applications during Zimbabwe's 1987 and 1988 aerial spraying operations. However, although the ASRDP made useful contributions to the development of aerial spraying technology in this project, including confirming its efficiency against G.m.morsitans in flat country, it did not achieve its objectives fully. Uncompleted work includes that relating to the successful eradication of G.pallidipes in all forms of terrain and the possible use of helicopters against G.m.morsitans and G.pallidipes in rough country.

3.1.3 Environmental impact study: through a scientific programme coordinated by the Technical Steering Committee of the SEMG, the environmental impact of the application of non-residual insecticides was studied. The major findings of extensive and detailed studies were: the correct application of endosulfan and deltamethrin has low or negligible effects on the generic composition and functions of the ecosystems in the operational areas; no adverse effects on humans in treated areas were detected; residual levels of insecticides used during the operations did not indicate any risk to the various elements of the ecosystemic foodweb; and, a need exists for a flexible eco-technological team to monitor spraying operations, particularly when increased dosages of insecticides may have to be applied to cope with, for example, the presence of G.pallidipes.

3.1.4 Regional training: Limited progress was made with training, due largely to the shortage of experienced senior personnel to conduct courses. In addition to the 46 trainees who attended courses at the SADCC middle-level training school in Zambia, a small number of personnel received in-service training in environmental monitoring, aerial spraying and tsetse and trypanosomiasis survey techniques. To meet the training needs at professional level, a part-time postgraduate training scheme was devised with assistance from a training consultant.

3.1.5 Large-scale field trials (odour-baited, insecticide-treated targets): In order to test the effectiveness of the target technique in broken terrain as opposed to the flat terrain of the Rifa Triangle, a trial area of 2,000 square kilometres was selected in the Zambezi Escarpment area of northern Zimbabwe for this purpose (Angwa-Hunyani Large-scale Target Trial). Targets were deployed in different densities to determine the optimum level under these conditions. Spectacular results were achieved for G.pallidipes in those areas where targets had been deployed at the rates of one to four targets/square kilometre, although elimination was never obtained due to reinvasion. On the other hand, in the case of G.m.morsitans, elimination was achieved in those situations where four targets had been deployed, but for lower densities, results were disappointing. Impressive results were also achieved against G.m.morsitans in a trial in the Kasungu National Park, Malawi (Kasungu Target Trial), although this was only started after a long delay. However, in the case of the trial which was to have been conducted in Zambia under regional funding, this was never implemented.

To develop odour-baits and improve the efficacy of tsetse surveys and control, collaborative research was commissioned with NRI to identify new attractants. Of the many chemicals examined, two new attractants, 3-n-propylphenol and 4-methylphenol were found, which are now in wide use in the region and elsewhere in Africa.

3.1.6 Programme evaluation and miscellaneous: An independent two-part evaluation of the programme took place in the middle of the third year. The final report for the first part prepared by S.N.H. Putt, A.M. Jordan, J.H.Koeman, P.Mulder and A.P.M. Shaw of Pan Livestock Services Limited, United Kingdom and the Centre for Development and Cooperation Services of the Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, entitled “Evaluation of the EEC-funded Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Projects in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe” made the broad recommendation for a three-year extension of the Preparatory Phase of the RTTCP. The report on the second part of the evaluation concerning land-use remains to be finalised.

Grants were made from the miscellaneous provision in support of : the Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Information News Service publication, Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Information Quarterly; the Symposium on Wildlife Management and Sustainable Development in sub-Saharan Africa, held in Harare in 1987; and, the joint IUCN/EEC-funded study entitled “Land-use Implications of the Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Programme of Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe”.

3.1.7 Zambia and Malawi programmes (Treatment of animals): The use of regional funds of purchase trypanocidal drugs to treat and prevent animal trypanosomiasis in the first year of the Preparatory Phase was linked to a Special Condition of the Financing Agreement. This required the establishment of revolving funds in Malawi and Zambia. The inability of both countries to comply with this requirement precluded utilization of these provisions, although small quantities of a sanative drug were obtained for use during surveys.

3.2 Malawi Project, Grant 3509/MAL (see Map 3)

Tsetse surveys were conducted throughout the country to update knowledge of the vector's distribution. An important finding, as a result of using odour-baited traps, was the widespread distribution of G. pallidipes in the Lengwe National Park and the Vwaza Marsh, Majete and Mwabvi game reserves. Surveys of bovine trypanosomiasis were completed in the latter part of 1988 and the results will be used to refine trypanocide regimes. Hitherto quiescent foci of human trypanosomiasis were revealed during the national survey conducted by the Ministry of Health staff attached to the RTTCP, Malawi.

During the Preparatory Phase, the target trial in Kasungu National Park was initiated, see 3.1.5, and a trial to control tsetse in a part of the Lower Shire Valley by deltamethrintreatment of cattle began. Although the former trial is still in progress, the latter was halted prematurely for financial reasons. However, this trial had the effect of depressing the incidence of tsetse and trypanosomiasis significantly, but the objective of full control at the centre of the project area was never achieved.

Limited in-service training was conducted.

3.3 Mozambique Project, Grant 958/84/MOZ.1 (see Map 4)

The deteriorating security in Mozambique seriously curtained activities in this country. This led to the project being redesigned to take into account prevailing and anticipated constraints. The project's activities focussed mostly on the establishment of a base at Chimoio and field activities in the relatively secure and economically important Beira Corridor. Field work entailed surveys of the distribution of tsetse and animal trypanosomiasis. Baseline data were also collected in the preparation for tsetse control trials with bait techniques. During the tsetse surveys all four of the species known to occur in Mozambique were recorded, namely G.m. morsitans, G. pallidipes, G.brevipalpis and G. austeni. G. pallidipes and G. austeni were found within five kilometres of the Zimbabwe border, near Manica. In addition, lower and middle-level training courses were conducted.

3.4 Zambia project, Grant 3510/ZAM and special Action Grant 958/ZAM/2 (see Map 5)

The need to undertake an aerial spraying operation in the Choma/Kalomo area as a Special Action project delayed the start of the RTTCP Zambia appreciably. This arose due to the shortage of experienced professional and technical staff and insufficient transport to implement both projects concurrently. The aerial spraying of the 4,500 square kilometre Choma/Kalomo block was completed early in October, 1987, and surveillance results indicate that tsetse were successfully eradicated from this important agricultural area.

The main activities of the RTTCP, Zambia were reviewed in November, 1987, and the project was restructured. Implementation started in early 1988. A Project Implementation Unit was established and construction works relating to a headquarters complex for this unit were completed in early 1991. Surveys of tsetse and trypanosomiasis were conducted in the southern, central and eastern provinces, the results of which formed the basis for the emergency target eradication operations in the Gwembe Valley and Lusaka East and Kabwe East areas. A target trial was started in Eastern Province adjacent to the operational area of the Belgian-funded tsetse control project.

To expand the region's field research capacity, the tsetse field station at Kakumbi in the Luangwa Valley has been upgraded and developed into a field research station. Current research includes studies of tsetse population dynamics and trypanotolerance in goats.

Surveys have still to be completed and target eradication operations continue.



(Redrawn from the final report of Mr. G. Davison, Technical Assistance Expert entitled “National Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Survey, 1987–1989, Final Report, 30 March, 1990”


3.5 Zimbabwe Project, Grant 3511/PR, 9 and Special Loan 3480/ZIM/P (see Map 6)

The RTTCP Zimbabwe has been funded jointly by European Development Fund regional funds and a special loan, which supplemented Government expenditure on tsetse control of some Zimbabwe $15 million annually.

The project began in 1986 and, through a series of aerial spraying operations and a large-scale target operation, tsetse were cleared from some 15,000 square kilometres of mixed farming land in the northeastern districts of Zimbabwe which had been reinvaded by tsetse during the Liberation War years of the late 1970s. Complementary operations were and deltamethrin treatment of cattle. Surveys of tsetse and trypanosomiasis have been maintained to monitor the degree of control achieved.

A key element of the Zimbabwe project has been the increasing use of bait technology to control tsetse. The Regional Programme has greatly assisted the development of this new control method, see 3.1.5, which has enabled the Branch of Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control to reduce its usage of persistent insecticides very considerably. In the 1970s and early 1980s, before the RTTCP began, Government-funded control operations used DDT for ground-spraying of some 5,000 to 10,000 square kilometres annually, applying approximately 25 kilograms per square kilometre. European Development Fund funding has accelerated the development of bait technology very significantly : spectacular control of tsetse has been achieved in several parts of northeastern Zimbabwe using only four targets per square kilometre. This is equivalent to the application of ten grams of deltamethrin, a non-residual insecticide, per square kilometre, each year. By early 1991, targets were being used to treat 6,000 square kilometres in Zimbabwe as a whole and the emphasis had shifted away from ground-spraying. Further research conducted through the Regional Programme will enable the costs of target operations to be drastically reduced, by altering design and materials.

Control operations have continued in order to protect the significant gains made and to safeguard farming in northeastern Zimbabwe.


4.1 The mission responsible for the first part of the evaluation, evaluated the technical, administrative and economic aspects of the RTTCP in detail, the results of which were presented in its report, see 3.1.6. In addition, for the sake of completeness, so that the report could stand on its own in the first instance, prior to completion of the report on the second part of the evaluation, this mission also considered briefly the issue of sustainable land-use following tsetse eradication in the four Member Countries.

4.2 The mission was complimentary about the RTTCP. It was also positive concerning its future development. As a result and as stated previously, see 3.1.6, it recommended that the Preparatory Phase should be extended by three years with a review after the second year to decide on whether the Eradication Phase of the Programme should be implemented. This proposed extension was partly to enable completion of the original objectives of the Preparatory Phase, but more especially to facilitate planning of the Eradication Phase.

4.3 The mission stated that the prime objective during the proposed extended Preparatory Phase should be the development of a comprehensive strategic plan for an integrated strategy for the eradication and/or control of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis from the area of the common fly-belt for implementation during the Eradication Phase.





4.4 The mission emphasised that such a plan should not look at only technical issues involved in the control of tsetse, but should also pay attention to the environmental and economic issues concerned with large-scale eradication activities which might be undertaken. It said that such a plan should also consider in detail the budgetary, staffing and training implications in developing the operational capabilities of the tsetse and trypanosomiasis control services of the governments concerned to a level necessary to undertake the largescale control activities envisaged. In addition, the mission stated categorically that such a plan must be developed to the satisfaction of all concerned before the Eradication Phase was implemented.


The report was endorsed by the Regional Standing Committee at its Sixth Meeting held in Harare, Zimbabwe from 31 October to 3 November 1989. Only minor reservations were recorded, all relating to the proposed expansion of the Office of the Regional Coordinator. The Committee agreed that a three-year extension was necessary in each of the Member Countries. Furthermore, it was agreed that regional coordination and certain elements of the other regional activities which had been undertaken should be continued and where necessary, intensified, since these were essential for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in the region. In particular, the need to incorporate the subject of economic and land-use implications of the RTTCP into the national and regional programmes was acknowledged unanimously.


6.1 Proposals for a three-year extension of the regional and national components of the RTTCP were discussed with the Donor at a special meeting of the Regional Standing Committee held in Harare on 23, 24 and 25 April 1991. The response was favourable and financing proposals are now being prepared. If these are approved by the European Development Fund Committee, it is envisaged that funding would become available in the closing months of 1991.

6.2 Objectives of the RTTCP in the Extension Period of the Preparatory Phase

6.2.1 Main objectives of the RTTCP as a whole

The prime objective during the extension period is to develop a comprehensive strategic plan for an integrated strategy for the eradication of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis from the common fly-belt. Eradication would only begin in a second phase, subject to the outcome of feasibility studies be to completed in the extended Preparatory Phase. However, in accordance with recommendations of the evaluation mission, the plan will be less ambitious than that envisaged previously. Instead, it will involve eradication of tsetse from a reduced area taking advantage of natural tsetse-free zones such as lakes, mountain ranges and expanding areas of human resettlement, which could be used as permanent barriers against reinvasion of cleared areas. Nevertheless, the ultimate goal remains the eradication of tsetse from the common fly-belt.

The second main objective is to complete work started in the first three years.

6.2.2 Specific objectives of the regional and national components of the RTTCP Regional component

The regional programme will have six specific objectives in the extension period, namely:

  1. To maintain and strengthen the regional coordination of the RTTCP.

  2. To research and develop techniques for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control for use in the RTTCP and elsewhere.

  3. To increase regional manpower capability and capacity to control tsetse and trypanosomiasis in the region.

  4. To monitor the environmental impact of existing tsetse control methods involving the use of insecticides and to approve new methods which incorporate insecticides.

  5. To assess the economic and land-use implications of the RTTCP in conjunction with the national programmes.

  6. To evaluate tsetse eradication as envisaged under the comprehensive strategic plan with emphasis on its technical feasibility and environmental acceptability and, in particular, on the economic sustain ability of the land-use to be adopted following clearance of the fly.

Fulfilment of these objectives will achieve the following:

  1. In addition to minimizing duplication of effort, promoting dissemination of research findings and harmonising the different national activities within the RTTCP, together with maintaining the collaboration and liaison with other projects and institutes, regional coordination will enable contributions of Member Countries to be combined to produce the comprehensive strategic plan.

  2. Research and development will provide improved survey methods, particularly for G.morsitans, and animal trypanosomiasis and tsetse control will be improved by refinement of bait technology and aerial spraying for G.pallidipes.

  3. Training will provide sufficient manpower, particularly at the professional level, to enable implementation of tsetse eradication for the common fly-belt to begin.

  4. Environmental monitoring and assessment of existing and new tsetse control techniques involving the use of insecticides will ensure that their impact is environmentally acceptable.

  5. Studies of the economic and land-use implications of the RTTCP will indicate the most economic means to eradicate tsetse from the common fly-belt consistent with sustainable use of the cleared areas.

  6. An evaluation of the comprehensive strategic plan by an independent expert mission will indicate whether or not to proceed with the Eradication Phase of the RTTCP. Malawi component

The RTTCP Malawi will have four specific objectives in the extension period, namely:

  1. To increase national capability and capacity to control tsetse and trypanosomiasis and to implement the necessary operations for this purpose.

  2. To control tsetse and trypanosomiasis mainly by the odour-baited, insecticide-treated target technique in selected priority areas.

  3. To strengthen surveillance and control of bovine trypanosomiasis in the selected operational areas.

  4. To encourage those Government ministries concerned with rural development to collaborate in the preparation of a comprehensive strategic plan for an integrated strategy for the eradication of tsetse from all foci in Malawi in accordance with the goal objective of the RTTCP.

Fulfilment of these objectives will achieve the following:

  1. Increased capability and capacity will enable Malawi to deal with its tsetse and trypanosomiasis problem effectively.

  2. Control of tsetse and trypanosomiasis in selected operational areas, namely Kasungu National Park and Nkhotakota Game Reserve, will reduce the danger of human trypanosomiasis in these areas appreciably. It will also be of considerable benefit to cattle owners in the surrounding areas who have experienced considerable losses from bovine trypanosomiasis amongst their herds in the past.

  3. Strengthening surveillance of bovine trypanosomiasis in these operational areas will enhance confidence in results obtained in tsetse control operations. It will also ensure early detection of infected animals. Similarly, strengthening of control of the disease will minimize losses.

  4. Coordination of Government ministries concerned with rural development for the purpose of preparing the national comprehensive strategic plan will ensure its completeness and acceptability in Malawi. The plan will be incorporated in the regional plan. Mozambique component

The RTTCP Mozambique will have eight specific objectives in the extension period, namely:

  1. To increase national capability and capacity to control tsetse and trypanosomiasis and to implement the necessary operations for this purpose.

  2. To complete the establishment of the operations base at Chimoio.

  3. To conduct surveys of tsetse and bovine trypanosomiasis distribution, mainly in the Beira Corridor, although, in the event of an improvement in the security position, these activities would be extended along the Zimbabwean and Zambian borders.

  4. To conduct research into the biology of G. austeni and G. brevipalpis.

  5. To conduct trials to control tsetse mainly with bait techniques.

  6. To help to identify foci of human sleeping sickness particularly in resettlement areas of the common fly-belt in Mozambique.

  7. To train staff from the National Directorate of Livestock in survey and control methods.

  8. To coordinate the activities of Government ministeries concerned with rural development to prepare a comprehensive national strategic plan for an integrated strategy for the eradication of tsetse from the common fly-belt in Mozambique.

Fulfilment of these objectives will achieve the following:

  1. Increased capability and capacity will enable Mozambique to deal with its tsetse and trypanosomiasis problem effectively.

  2. The completion of the operations base at Chimoio will initially serve the needs of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control activities within the Beira Corridor, but subsequently, as peace is restored to the country, will serve other, more distant operational areas.

  3. Survey data will enable plans to be made for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  4. Increased knowledge of the biology of G. austeni and G. brevipalpis will enable appropriate survey and control methods to be used in areas infested with these species of tsetse.

  5. Trials to control tsetse with bait techniques will provide: information on their effectiveness under Mozambican conditions; information for use in planning future tsetse control programmes, particularly related to costs; and, opportunities to train staff from the RTTCP Mozambique, and from other parts of the country, in the application of control techniques.

  6. The identification of foci of human sleeping sickness in resettlement areas will enable the Ministry of Health to implement surveillance and control measures at an early stage, to pre-empt serious outbreaks.

  7. Staff trained in tsetse and trypanosomiasis control methods will be available to implement work programmes of the RTTCP Mozambique, as well as those of other parts of the country.

  8. The national strategic plan to remove tsetse from the common tsetse fly-belt of Mozambique will form an integral part of the comprehensive strategic plan for the RTTCP as a whole. Furthermore, the compatibility of tsetse control with economically advantageous and environmentally sustainable land-usage will be determined. Zambia component

The RTTCP Zambia will have five specific objectives in the extension period, namely:

  1. To strengthen capabilities and capacities of the national institutions involved in the project's execution by the recruitment and training of personnel at the middle and professional levels.

  2. To complete the activities initiated under the Preparatory Phase and protect areas cleared of tsetse through the various emergency operations.

  3. To research the behaviour of tsetse flies occurring in the common fly-belt for survey and control purposes.

  4. To implement tsetse and trypanosomiasis control trials in selected areas of the common fly-belt.

  5. To collaborate with national institutions concerned with rural development to develop the following: model land-use plans for adoption in areas cleared of tsetse; and, a comprehensive national strategic plan for an integrated strategy for the eradication of tsetse and trypanosomiasis from the common fly-belt in Zambia.

Fulfilment of these objectives will achieve the following:

  1. Recruitment and training will increase and strengthen the manpower required at the middle and professional levels for the improvement of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  2. Completion of preparatory activities will provide the necessary infrastructure and information on tsetse and trypanosomiasis distribution required for future eradication operations. Similarly, protection of areas cleared of tsetse will ensure that these areas remain in that state pending the start of the proposed eradication phase.

  3. Increased knowledge of tsetse behaviour will contribute to the efficacy of tsetse survey and control techniques used in the common fly-belt and elsewhere in Africa.

  4. Results of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control trials will lead to improved application of the various techniques either in use or proposed for use in the common fly-belt.

  5. Model land-use plans will provide guidelines for land-use planners. Similarly, a comprehensive national strategic plan linking tsetse control and rural development will pave the way for sustainable land-use. Zimbabwe component

The RTTCP Zimbabwe will have six objectives in the extension period, namely:

  1. To consolidate the cleared areas in the northeastern districts, including strengthening of the target and deltamethrin-treated cattle barrier located along the Mozambique border.

  2. To strengthen trypanosomiasis surveillance in Zimbabwe's northern border districts.

  3. To support the research and development activities of the Regional Programme and associated projects, see

  4. To increase national manpower capability to control and eradicate tsetse and trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe.

  5. To enhance the close liaison between Member Countries developed during the Preparatory Phase.

  6. To coordinate the activities of Government ministries concerned with rural development in the preparation of a comprehensive strategic plan for an integrated strategy for the eradication of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis from the Zimbabwe component of the common fly-belt.

Fulfilment of these objectives will achieve the following:

  1. Consolidation of the cleared areas in the northeastern districts and strengthening of the target and deltamethrin-treated cattle barrier located along the Mozambique border will ensure freedom from trypanosomiasis throughout this economically important area with consequential benefits for peasant and commercial farmers. Facilities and infrastructure will also be upgraded and expanded; better staff accommodation will be provided and the operations area bases will be consolidated.

  2. Strengthening trypanosomiasis surveillance in Zimbabwe's northern border districts will enhance confidence in results obtained in tsetse eradication operations, but more especially, the early detection of tsetse encroachment from beyond Zimbabwe's northern border will be greatly improved.

  3. Research and development as proposed in the regional proposal and of associated projects will provide improved survey methods, particularly for G.m.morsitans and animal trypanosomiasis and tsetse control will be improved by refinement of bait technology and of aerial spraying for G.pallidipes.

    Table 2: Proposed allocation of funds for the three-year extension of the Preparatory Phase of the RTTCP

    HeadingAllocation in ECU
    1.Regional Coordination1 916 000
    2.Research and development1 157 900
    3.Regional training1 059 100
    4.Environmental monitoring250 000
    5.Economic and land-use implications1 482 000
    6.Evaluation and special study235 000
    7.Contingencies900 000
     Sub-total7 000 000
    RTTCPMalawi3 547 300
    RTTCPMozambique2 360 000
    RTTCPZambia4 000 000
    RTTCPZimbabwe6 000 000
     Total22 907 300

    Note : The exchange rate for the ECU/US$ for May, 1991 was 1 ECU = 1.16449 US$

  4. Training at the lower and middle-levels will result in greater efficiency in the prosecution of all aspects of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control and eradication operations.

  5. Increased liaison between Member Countries, especially through regional visits by professional staff will improve regional coordination and cooperation further. Moreover, it will facilitate development and maximum use of existing regional technical expertise.

  6. Coordination of the activities of Government ministries concerned with rural development for the purpose of preparing the proposed comprehensive strategic plan will greatly facilitate the completeness and general acceptance of this plan in Zimbabwe. It will also generate greater awareness of the importance of planning the development of areas to be cleared of tsetse flies generally.

6.3 A summary of the proposed allocation of funds for the regional and national programmes of the RTTCP in the three-year extension of the Preparatory Phase is given in Table 2 above:


This paper has been prepared with the concurrence of the Regional Standing Committee, the Regional Authorising Officer of the European Development Fund and the Commission of the European Community.



D.F. Lovemore

A la fin des années 70, la mouche tsé-tsé a envahi à nouveau une vingtaine de milliers de kilomètres carrés dans les districts du Nord-est du Zimbabwe, qui avaient été assainis auparavant. Les tsé-tsé, qui venaient du Mozambique, ont provoqué de graves pertes parmi le bétail, dans les exploitations tant communales que commerciales. Les médicaments trypanocides permettent de lutter contre la trypanosomiase, mais uniquement à tire palliatif. La solution radicale du problème consite à éliminer la mouche tsé-tsé. La Zambie s'est efforcée principalement de contenir l'infestation et de protéger les grandes zones agricoles. Plus tard, elle a utilisé de plus en plus de médicaments trypanocides. Par contre, le Zimbabwe a adopté une politique d'éradication progressive des tsé-tsé. Cela amène à se demander comment éviter que les zones assainies ne soient envahies par des mouches venant des pays voisins infestés. la seule solution consiste à instaurer une collaboration régionale pour éliminer les mouches tsé-tse dans les zones d'infestation contiguës.

En 1986, le Programme régional de lutte contre la mouche tsé-tsé et la trypanosomiase financé par la CEE pour le Malawi, le Mozambique, la Zambie et le Zimbabwe, a commencé à être exécuté. La phase préparatoire de trois and visait principalement à déterminer la faisabilité de l'objectif à long terme consitant à éliminer les tsé-tsé sur 322 000 Km2 d'une zone d'infestation commune aux quatre pays concernés, au titre d'une seconde phase appelée phase d'éradication. Au cours de la phase préparatoire, la composante régionale du programme incluait: coordination régionale, pour coordonner les programmes régionaux et nationaux; recherche et développement pour perfectionner les techniques de prospection et de lutte/éradication; formation pour accroître la main-d'oeuvre régionale; surveillance de l'environnement pour éviter les effets secondaires des insecticides; médicaments trypanocides pour soulager à court terme les animaux atteints de trypanosomiase. La coordination régionale était considérée comme la clef de voûte du programme. Elle devait permettre d'éviter le chevauchement des efforts, de diffuser les résultats des recherches et d'harmoniser les différentes activités nationales au sein du Programme. Toutefois, cette coordination a également été étendue aux diverses activités menées en collaboration avec d'autres projets financés par des donateurs en Zambie et au Zimbabwe et avec des instituts en Europe ainsi qu'en liaison avec des institutions et organismes étrangers et internationaux.

Après une évaluation du Programme en 1988, il a été recommandé de prolonger la phase préparatoire de trois ans. Le Comité permanent régional a estimé qu'une prolongation était nécessaire dans chacun des pays membres. En outre, il a été décidé que la coordination régionale et certains éléments des autres activités régionales entreprises jusqu'à cette date devraient être poursuivis et si nécessaire intensifiés, pour assurer la réussite du Programme de lutte contre les tsé-tsé et la trypanosomiase dans la région. En particulier, il a été reconnu à l'unanimité qu'il fallait inscrire dans les programmes nationaux et régionaux la question des conséquences du Programme sur l'économie et sur l'utilisation des terres.

Le financement nécessaire a cette prolongation de trois ans est actuellement négocié.

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