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Annotated bibliography

BARROW, E.G.C. (1983). Use of micro-catchments for tree planting in soil conservation for semi-arid areas. In: Thomas, D.B. and Senga, W.M. (eds) Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya. Proc. of the Second National Workshop, Nairobi, March 10-13, 1982: 324-331

BARROW, E.G.C. (ed) (1988). Forestry Handbook for Primary School Teachers in Turkana District, Forestry Dept., Min. Environment and Natural Resources, Kenya.

A simple introduction to tree planting in arid northern Kenya. Includes a practical guide to siting and construction of microcatchments.

BEN-ASHER, J. (1988). A review of water harvesting in Israel. (Draft) Working Paper for World Bank's Sub-Saharan Water Harvesting Study.

This review gives "state of the art" information on WH research in Israel, with considerable technical detail on hydrological aspects. It also discusses the extent of various systems, and their prospects for the future.

BEN-ASHER, J., ORON, G. and BUTTON, B.J. (1985). Estimation of runoff volume for agriculture in arid lands. Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev.

BERTON, S. (1989). Le point sur la maitrise des crus dans les basfonds. Petits et microbarrages en Afrique de l'Ouest. pp 220-277. GRET, Paris.

A detailed guide to specifications and use of permeable rock dams in West Africa. It is written in French.

BILLY, B. (1981). Water harvesting for dryland and floodwater farming in the Navajo Indian reservation. In: Dutt, G.R. et al (eds), Rainfall collection for agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions: 3-8, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, UK,

BOERS, T.M. and BEN-ASHER, J. (1982). Review of rainwater harvesting. In: Agricultural Water Management 5: 145-158.

A brief, but detailed review of 170 articles on RWH published between 1970 and 1980. Definitions are proposed and Microcatchment Water Harvesting (MCWH) and Runoff Farming Water Harvesting (RFWH) are differentiated. Designs and modelling are discussed.

BOERS, T.M. and BEN-ASHER, J. (1985). Harvesting water in the desert. Report of a research project; appendix 5, ILRI, Wageningen.

BRUINS, H.J. (1986). Desert environment and agriculture in the central Negev and Kadesh-Barnea during historical times. Ph.D. Thesis Agricultural University Wageningen. Midbur Foundation, Nijkerk, The Netherlands.

BRUINS, H.J. EVANARI, M. and NESSLER, U. (1986). Rainwater harvesting agriculture for food production in arid zones: the challenge of the African famine. In: Applied Geography 6 (I): 13-33.

A review of the role of rainwater harvesting agriculture (runoff farming) for arid Africa. Distinguishes five categories of runoff farming: micro-catchments, terraced wadis, hillside conduit systems, liman systems and diversion systems.

BRUNNER, U. and HAEFNER, H. (1986). The successful floodwater farming system of the Sabeans, Yemen Arab Republic. In: Applied Geography 6 (I): 77-89.

CLUFF, C.B. (1978). Engineering aspects of water harvesting at the University of Arizona. In: Frasier, G.W. (ed), Proceedings of the Water Harvesting Symposium, March 26-28,1974: 27-39, Phoenix, Arizona.

CRITCHLEY, W.R.S., (1986). Runoff harvesting for crop production: experience in Kitui District; 1984-1986. Paper presented to the Third National Soil and Water Conservation Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya.

CRITCHLEY, W.R.S., (1987). Some lessons from water harvesting in Sub-Saharan Africa. Report from a workshop held in Baringo, Kenya, 13-17 October 1986. World Bank, Eastern and Southern Africa Projects Dept., Washington DC.

The report of a small but international workshop on WH systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Contains country reports followed by a discussion of planning and design issues.

CRITCHLEY, W.R.S. and REIJ, C. (1989). Water harvesting for plant production: Part 2[ Case studies and conclusions from Sub-Saharan Africa. (Draft)

To be published in 1991 as the final report of the World Bank's Sub-Saharan Water Harvesting Study. Contains case studies of both traditional techniques and project involvement in WH. The conclusions cover engineering design, production aspects and socio-economic issues.

DUTT, G.R., HUTCHINSON, C.F. and GARDUNO, M.A. (eds) (1981). Rainfall collection for agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions. Proceedings of a workshop, University of Arizona and Chapino Postgraduate College. Commonwealth Agric. Bureaux, UK.

EVANARI, M., SHANAN, L. and TADMOR, N.H. (1964). Runoff farming in the Negev desert of Israel: 2nd Progress Report Avdat and Shivta farm project. 1962/65. Rehovot, Israel

EVANARI, M., SHANAN, L. and TADMOR, N.H. (1971). The Negev, the challenge of a desert. Harvard University press. Cambridge, Mass.

FALLON, L.E. (1963). Water spreading in Turkana, a hope for an impoverished people. USAID Nairobi, Kenya.

FAO, (1977). Crop Water Requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24. Rome.

FAO, (1979). Yield response to water. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 33. Rome.

FAO, (1986). Irrigation water needs. Training Manual No 3. (Provisional Edition). Rome.

Gives a simple, well illustrated explanation of crop water requirements.

FINK, D.H. (1986). Runoff farming. In: Rangelands 8 (2): 53/54

FINKEL, M. (1985). Turkana water harvesting manual. (Draft) NORAD, Kenya

A detailed construction manual, with much background information, concentrating on the techniques of trapezoidal bunds and semi-circular bunds as developed for the Turkana situation.

FINKEL, M. (1986). Water harvesting in Turkana, Kenya. Paper presented at the World Bank Workshop on water harvesting in Baringo, Kenya.

FINKEL, M. (1987). Water harvesting manual, (unpublished draft) FAO, Rome.

A draft manual which covers several of the techniques described in Part 5, as well as giving detailed treatment of water requirements and system design.

FRASIER, G.W. and MYERS, L.E. (1983). Handbook of water harvesting. Agricultural handbook No. 600. USDA, Washington DC.

GILBERTSON, D.D. (1986). Runoff (floodwater) farming and rural water supply in arid lands. In: Applied Geography 6 (1): 5-11.

An introduction to a series of papers on runoff/floodwater farming. A concise review of wall technologies or "terraced wadis" in North Africa and the Middle East.

GTZ (1988). Development of a sustainable smallholder farming systems in Burkina Faso. Final report.

The report of a research project comparing various WH techniques for the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. Compares, inter alia, earth bunds, stone bunds, and permeable rock dams.

HILLMAN, F. (1980). Water harvesting in Turkana District, Kenya. Pastoral Network Paper, Agricultural Admin. Unit/ODI No. 10d, Overseas Development Institute, London.

HOGG, R. (1988). Water harvesting and agricultural production in semi-arid Kenya. In: Development and Change 19: 69-87

HUDSON, N.W. (1987). Soil and water conservation in semi-arid areas. FAO Soils Bulletin No.57.

Wide ranging and very well illustrated review of soil and water conservation techniques in semi-arid areas worldwide. Includes section on RWH and related techniques.

KARGOUGOU, I. (1986). Report on water harvesting works in Burkina Faso. Paper presented to the World Bank Workshop on water harvesting in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baringo, Kenya.

LINSLEY, KOHLER and PAULHUS (1958). Hydrology for Engineers. McGraw Hill.

MATLOCK, W.G. and DUTT, G.R. (1986). A primer on water harvesting and runoff farming. Agricultural Engineering Dept./University of Arizona, USA

MoALD, Gov. KENYA (1984). Runoff harvesting for crop, range and tree production in the BPSAAP area. Baringo Pilot Semi-Arid Area Project Interim Report, ch 12: 78-113. Baringo, Kenya

MoALD, Gov. KENYA (1986). Water harvesting and water spreading in Turkana, a field worker's manual. Nairobi, Kenya.

A useful practical manual, covering trapezoidal bunds, tree microcatchments and semi-circular bunds for fodder. A general introduction to water spreading also.

MYERS, L.E. (1974). Water harvesting, 2000 BC to 1974 AD. In Frasier, G.W. (ed), Proceedings of the water harvesting symposium, March 26-29, 1974, Phoenix, Arizona

NABHAN, G.P. (1986). Papago Indian desert agriculture and water control in the Sonoran desert, 1917-1934. In: Applied Geography 6 (1): 43-59.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (1974). More water for arid lands. Promising technologies and research opportunities. Washington DC.

Less than 20 pages devoted to RWH and Runoff Agriculture, but this booklet has been one of the pioneers in awareness raising about RWH. Much of the content is a review of work in Israel.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (1980). Firewood crops - shrubs and tree species for energy production.

A detailed guide to many of the multipurpose trees planted under RWH conditions.

NESSLER, U. (1980). Ancient techniques aid modern arid zone agriculture. In: Kidma, Israel Journal of Development 5 (4): 3-7

PACEY, A. and CULLIS, A. (1986). Rainwater harvesting; the collection of rainfall and runoff in rural areas. IT Publications, London, UK-

RWH is explored in its technical and socio-economic aspects. Covering a wide spectrum of systems it is clearly illustrated and constitutes a valuable background text.

PATECORE, (1989). Filtering Floodwater Spreader. Unpublished project document (Min. of Agric., Burkina Faso).

Useful brief description of permeable rock dam construction. Technical specifications and methodology. Used in Ch. 7, Part Five.

RAY, D. (1986). Water harvesting in India. In: Waterlines Vol 4 (4).

REIJ, C., TURNER, S. and KUHLMAN, T. (1986). Soil and water conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa: issues and options. IFAD/CDCS, Free University, Amsterdam.

REIJ, C. (1987). The Agro-Forestry Project in Burkina Faso; an analysis of popular participation in soil and water conservation. In: Reij et al. Soil and water conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Annex 2.

REIJ, C., MULDER, P. and BEGEMANN, L. (1988). Water harvesting for plant production. World Bank Technical Paper No. 91 1988.

The most comprehensive literature review available of water harvesting for plant production across the semi-arid and arid areas of the world, many diagrams, tables and the most extensive bibliography available. A product of the World Bank's Sub-Saharan Water Harvesting Study.

ROCHELEAU, D. et al. (1988). Agroforestry in dryland Africa. ICRAF, 1988.

Useful reference book for agroforestry systems, especially the tree component. Gives details of microcatchment techniques for arid and semi-arid areas. Clearly illustrated.

ROOSE, E. (1985). Diversion channel terraces or permeable microdams? Analysis of two soil and water conservation approaches in the little farms of the Sudano-Sahel. International Conference on Soil Conservation, Maracay, Venezuela, November 3-9 1985, ISCO.

SHANAN, L. and TADMOR, N.H. (1979). Micro-catchment systems for arid zone development; a handbook for design and construction. Hebrew University, Jerusalem.

The original guide to microcatchment systems for trees, but also includes systems for crops. Technical information on hydrology is especially detailed, but also practical guidance for design and construction.

SHARMA, K.D. (1986). Runoff behaviour of water harvesting microcatchments. In: Agricultural Water Management 11 (2): 137-144.

SHARMA, K.D., PAREEK, O.P. and SINGH, H.P. (1986). Microcatchment water harvesting for raising Jujube orchards in an arid climate. In: Transactions of the ASEA 29 (1). 112-118.

A report of experimental microcatchment techniques for raising Ziziphus mauritiana in Rajastan State, India. The source of the profile for Negarim Microcatchments.

SIEGERT K- (1978). Surface runoff from arable lands (in German). Mitteilungen aus dem Leichtweiss Institut No. 58.

SMITH P.D. (1988). Water harvesting for improved food production in arid lands: some design considerations and research needs. Centre for Arid Zone Studies, University of North Wales, Bangor.

SMITH, P.D. and CRITCHLEY, W.R.S. (1983). The potential of runoff harvesting for crop production and range rehabilitation in semi-arid Baringo. In: Thomas, D.B. and Senga, W.M. (eds) Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya. Proc. of the Second National Workshop, Nairobi, March 10-13, 1982: 324-331

TADMOR, N.H., EVANARI, M. and SHANAN, L. (1970). Runoff farming in the desert: Survival and yields of perennial range plants. In: Agronomy Journal 62: 695-699.

UNESCO (1977). Map of the world distribution of arid zones. Man and Biosphere Technical Notes No.7.

VON MAYDELL, H-J. (1986). Trees and shrubs of the Sahel. GTZ, Eschborn.

The most comprehensive guide available to trees suited to the Sahel and semi-arid Sub-Saharan Africa in general. Detailed and well illustrated.

WIDANAPATHIRANA, A.S. (1987). Exploring wadi resources for irrigation in arid areas of the Western Sudan: strategy and problems. Presented at the International Symposium on the Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater. Lahore, Pakistan.

WRIGHT, P. (undated). La gestion des eaux de ruisellement. OXFAM, Projet Agro-Forestier, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

"Management of Runoff: a description of various RWH techniques in Burkina Faso, including contour stone bunds. Written in French,

ZAUNDERER, J. and HUTCHINSON C.F. (1988). A review of water harvesting techniques of the Arid Southwestern US and North Mexico. (Draft) Working paper for the World Bank's Sub-Saharan Water Harvesting Study.

An introduction to WH in the USA and Mexico. Covers both traditional techniques and modern research.


1. Exploitation de Résultats d'Essais Agronomiques: Fixation Symbiotique de l'Azote. Analyse de la variance. G. Caraux, 1985*.

2. A Review of Small-scale Irrigation Schemes in Kenya. J.H. Van Doorne. 1985.

3. Exploiting Agronomic Test Results. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation User's Manual: Analysis of variance on Apple II computer. G. Caraux. 1985*.

4. Water for Animals. Ph. Pallas. 1985.

5. Landscape-guided Climatic Inventory Using Remote-sensing Imagery. F. van der Laan. 1985.

6. Biogas in Africa: Current Status and Strategies to Enhance its Diffusion. D.C. Stuckey. 1985.

7. Status Report on Plant Nutrition in Fertilizer Programme Countries in Asia and the Pacific Region. 1986.

8. Hydraulique pastorale. Ph. Pallas. 1986.

9. Levels of Fertilizer Use in the Asia and Pacific Region. 1986*.

10. Status Report on Plant Nutrition in Fertilizer Programme Countries in Africa. 1986.

11. Irrigation and Water Resources Potential for Africa. 1987.

12. Effects of Agricultural Development on Vector-borne Diseases. 1987.

13. Irrigated Areas in Africa. E/F. 1987.

14. Manpower Planning for Irrigation. R. Carter, D. Mason and M. Kay. AGL/ESH. 1988.

15. NGO Casebook on Small-scale Irrigation in Africa. R. Carter. 1989.

16. Water, Soil and Crop Management Relating to the Use of Saline Water. 1990.

17. Water Harvesting. 1991.

* Out of print


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