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Food consumption and nutritional status in China

Consommation alimentaire et état nutritionnel en Chine
Consumo alimentario y estado nutricional en China

Achievements, problems and policy implications, Part 21

1 The first part of this article dealt with food consumption and nutritional status and was published in Food, Nutrition and Agriculture, Vol. 1, No. 2/3,1991, p. 54-61.

K. Ge, C. Chen, T. Shen and S. Zhang

Keyou Ge is Director of the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene of the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine. Chunming Chen is President and Tiefu Shen and Shumin Zhang are researchers at the academy.

Traditional method of cultivating hilly areas - Méthode traditionnelle de culture dans les régions montagneuses - Método tradicional de cultivo en zonas montañosas

China faces the great challenge of providing food for more than 1 100 million people with a relatively small amount of arable land. To increase the production and supply of food and improve its distribution, the Chinese Government has formulated diverse policies over time. The fact that China has basically solved the problem of food security reflects the significance of these policies.

TABLE 1: The output of major farm products in China (million tonnes) - Production des principaux produits agricoles en Chine (millions de tonnes) - Producción de los principales productos agrícolas en China (millones de toneladas)



































































a Pork, beef and mutton only.

Source: State Statistics Bureau, 1991.

TABLE 2: Major foods consumed in China (kg/person/year) - Principales denrées alimentaires consommées en Chine (kg/habitant/an) - Principales alimentos consumidos en China (kg/persona/año)



Edible oil
























































































Source: State Statistics Bureau, 1991.


Shortly after the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, a nationwide agrarian reform to abolish the feudal system of landownership was implemented over a three-year period. After the land redistribution, peasants found great incentives to accelerate agricultural production. Both the total production and per caput consumption of major food items increased steadily until 1957 (State Statistics Bureau, 1991), (see Tables 1 and 2).

After 1958, the People's Commune system was practised in rural China. Under this system, peasants within a township were organized into a commune consisting of production brigades which were divided into teams. Land, livestock and other production materials were owned collectively, and production team members usually worked together or in groups assigned by a leader. Peasants accumulated work points and were paid in food and perhaps small amounts of cash. This system seriously dampened their enthusiasm and the rural economy declined. In 1961, the grain output was only 143,5 million tonnes, a figure similar to that of 1951. The critical situation was alleviated to some extent by policy adjustments which led to a slow recovery. Only 194,5 million tonnes of grain were produced in 1965, an amount comparable to the 1957 production level (State Statistics Bureau, 1991).

The People's Commune system existed until 1978, when it was replaced by a rural household production responsibility system. This system allows each rural household to use a piece of land and provide grain to the local government at the state-ordered rate according to the household's contract. The household can dispose of remaining produce as it wishes. This new system placed agricultural development on a more positive track, and in 1990 the grain output was 446.2 million tonnes, or 393.1 kg per caput (State Statistics Bureau, 1991).

Adjustments for increasing food production

Given the tremendous need to meet food demands, grain production was overemphasized in some areas of the country, and diversified agriculture was neglected. This resulted in disproportionate amounts of some agricultural produce and inappropriate uses of natural resources. In 1981, the State Council announced that "prioritizing grain production and actively promoting a diversified agro-economy" would be the principle for adjusting the structure of agriculture. The importance of coordinated development of forestry, animal husbandry and aquatic production in association with agriculture was emphasized. Land that had been inappropriately developed for crops was returned to other uses. The area planted in crops decreased from almost 115 million hectares in 1981 to about 113.5 million hectares in 1990; the rate of decrease was 1.3 percent. Forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries and associated production increased remarkably in relative importance, accounting for 41,9 percent of the total value of agricultural output in 1984 compared with 32.2 percent in 1979. The net income per 100 yuan investment increased from 189 yuan in 1978 to 297 yuan in 19842 (Editorial Committee of Today's China series, 1988a).

2 1 yuan equalled US$ 0.67 in 1978 and US$ 0.43 in 1984.

For a long time, commodity production represented a very small proportion of China's overall agricultural output and most agricultural products were consumed by peasants themselves. This hindered the development of productive forces, improvement of the living conditions of the peasants and national economic development.

Since 1982, commodity grain bases have been created in 274 counties selected from four main grain-producing regions in China. The chief objectives of the commodity grain bases are:

· to raise the proportion of commodity grain in overall agricultural production;

· to increase the exchange of commodities and activate the rural economy;

· to transform Chinese traditional agriculture from a system of near self-sufficiency into one of commodity production;

· to raise the total grain production.

These commodity grain bases are being strengthened and expanded continuously. To strengthen overall agricultural production capacity, technical and financial measures have been taken such as setting up small reservoirs and irrigation facilities, popularizing new agricultural techniques and varieties, training local technicians and so on. These bases have greatly contributed to the steady increase of grain production and the availability of commodities in China. They produced 116 million tonnes of grain in 1990, more than one quarter of the national output. They provided 40 million tonnes of commodity grain, which was 40 percent of commodity grain produced nationwide (People's Daily, 1990).

In 1988, a national project to promote the production of non-staple food and secure the market supply (known informally as the "Food-Basket Project") was proposed by the Ministry of Agriculture and approved by the State Council. The project has been implemented nationwide and remarkable improvements in production, marketing and consumption of non-staple foods have been made. In 1990 the total amounts of meat, eggs, milk and fish produced were 28.57, 7.94, 4.75 and 12.37 million tonnes, respectively. These outputs represent increases of 48,3 percent, 48.6 percent, 64,2 percent and 75,5 percent, respectively, over 1985 production (State Statistics Bureau, 1991). The increases allowed a substantial improvement in the dietary patterns of urban and rural people. The annual per caput supply of meat, eggs and aquatic products was 13 kg higher in 1990 than in 1984 (State Statistics Bureau, 1991).

Since 1987 the government has followed a strategy for agricultural development known as "promoting agriculture by sciences and technology". A large number of scientists have been sent to the countryside to offer technical assistance in the use of advanced methods for production of grain, cotton, edible oil, livestock and fish (He, 1991). The state increased the utilization of chemical fertilizer, agricultural machinery and irrigation, trained agricultural technicians and popularized advanced techniques. It is estimated that 30 to 40 percent of the total increase in agricultural production is attributable to science and technology.

Policy on food marketing and distribution

In the early period of New China3 the level of grain production was very low, and resolving the problem of increases in demand and shortages in supply became the great challenge for the government. To solve the problem of supplying grain, especially to poor people, a state monopoly for purchasing and marketing grain was implemented nationally by the end of 1953, replacing free trade of grain and oil. The peasants' surplus grain was purchased by the government at a fixed price and then sold to urban residents and grain-deficient rural households at a low price. From 1953 to 1957 the grain purchased by the government from the peasants accounted for 26.96 percent of the total grain yield; of this, more than 90 percent was provided to urban and grain-deficient rural households (Editorial Committee of Today's China series, 1988b). The policy of state monopoly for purchasing and marketing grain helped the Chinese people to survive serious natural disasters in the early 1960s.

3 New China refers to China after 1949.

In 1990, the State Council set up a national specific grain reserve to improve the system gradually at the national, provincial, municipal and autonomous-region levels. All the farmers' surplus grain (that remaining after the contracted purchase) that is not absorbed by the market is purchased. A protective minimum price is established for the benefit of the peasants (People's Daily, 1991). A leading group is responsible for the overall planning and managing of national specific grain reserve matters, and the Bureau of the Grain Reserve was initiated for national grain management. This system allows the state to purchase grain through the specific reserve as well as contracting and solves the peasants' problem of selling surplus grain after a bumper harvest (People's Dally, 1991). Because of this specific grain reserve, the supply of staples was basically guaranteed for areas of China that were flooded in 1991.

In 1955, the State Council formulated special policies on grain processing and instituted a rationing system (Editorial Committee of Today's China series, 1988b). According to a quota determined by age, occupation and intensity of labour by the urban individual, coupons for grain are provided each month to all urban households. This approach has been significant in meeting the essential need for grain. Moderate refining of grain has been highly encouraged in grain processing. The well-known "81 flour" (81 kg flour produced from 100 kg wheat) and "92 rice" (92 kg rice produced from 100 kg unpolished rice) are examples of maximized utilization of grain to meet the nutritional requirements of the population.

The price system for major foods has been controlled by the government since the 1950s. Farm and farm-related products were purchased by the government at a fixed purchasing price and were sold to urban residents at low prices. Because of escalating production costs, the purchasing price of farm and farm-related products was raised systematically so that the purchasing price index had risen by 14.5 percent by 1988. The selling price of grain and cooking oil, however, remained unchanged during this period. Government subsidies compensated for the differences between purchasing and selling prices. The price subsidy policy played an important part in assuring the availability of basic foods for the public, especially those people living in poor and remote areas (Editorial Committee of Today's China series, 1989). From 1978 to 1985, the price subsidies allocated by the central government for farm and farm-related products (grain, edible oil, cotton, aquatic products, meat, eggs, poultry and vegetables) totalled 163 942 million yuan (US$55 953 million), accounting for 75.42 percent of all price subsidies during this period (Editorial Committee of Today's China series, 1989).

As the price subsidy policy has presented a heavy financial burden for the government, it is imperative that subsidies for food be reduced gradually to meet the needs of the market economy. In May 1991, the price of grain and edible oil on ration was readjusted by a large margin for the first time since the mid-1960s. The price of grain was raised by 70 percent, and the price of edible oil almost doubled. To lessen the impact of the rise in costs on the population's living standard, the government must provide a subsidy of 6 yuan per month per employee in the urban areas. It has been reported that the price readjustment did not produce a great impact on consumption levels, since household expenditures on grain and edible oil accounted for only 8.36 percent of total expenditures in 1989 (Bejing Review, 1991).


Generally, the health service in China can be considered as a form of social welfare. The fundamental principles of health care, "serve the workers, peasants and soldiers; put prevention first; combine traditional Chinese medicine with Western medicine; integrate health work with the mass movement", were formulated in the early 1950s and are fully respected. In 1991, these principles were amended to include "utilize sciences and technology to promote health work, and mobilize social participation".

The Patriotic Health Campaign, carried out by the Patriotic Health Committee, is a particular feature of China's health work, emphasizing the integration of public education and social participation with performance review and appraisal to increase the health knowledge and self-care ability of the Chinese people. The campaign dates from the early 1950s when China faced various infectious, parasitic and common diseases and the government mobilized the people to improve environmental sanitation to control these diseases within a short period. This patriotic health movement has contributed tremendously to the prevention and control of infectious diseases and has played an important part in the improvement of environmental health, elimination of parasitic diseases, preventive immunization and maternal and child health care. In recent years, improvement of the drinking water supply and health education for all have been incorporated into the work of the Patriotic Health Campaign.

With the rapid socio-economic development in China, significant progress has been made in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Smallpox was eradicated more than two decades ago. The morbidity of 20 stipulated communicable diseases was reported to be 294 per 100 000 in 1990, in contrast to 544 per 100 000 reported in 1985. The mortality of acute infectious diseases was 2.41 per 100 000 in 1985 and 0.87 per 100 000 in 1990 (M. Chen, 1992). The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has directed efforts toward reducing morbidity of four target diseases (measles, pertussis, diphtheria and poliomyelitis). Morbidity decreased by an estimated 50 to 90 percent from 1950 to 1978 (UNICEF, 1989). In 1990, the EPI coverage rate exceeded 90 percent, and the number of reported cases of diphtheria, pertussis and measles was 11 to 26 percent of the number reported in 1985 (M, Chen, 1992).

Primary health care

Over the last four decades the government has placed great emphasis on the development of a primary health care network. A solid foundation of large numbers of primary care workers has been created at the grassroots level, connected with a well-organized supervisory and referral service which extends to the provincial level. This system provides the basic strategy and organization for assuring the realization of the goal "health care for all by the year 2000" in China.

Through the health care network, much progress has been achieved in nutrition education for the prevention and control of malnutrition of rural children (Working Group on Nutritional Surveillance and Improvement in Preschool Children, 1990) and the prevention of non-communicable diseases of the urban population in recent years. Evaluations of current nutrition education efforts demonstrate improvements in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding nutrition. For instance, in Hunan Province, production of soybeans and green leafy vegetables has expanded as a result of nutrition education projects. When a very large flood occurred in 1991, public health was not severely jeopardized and no outbreaks of serious infectious diseases were observed because of this system's preventive measures.

Family planning

Over the last four decades the total population of China has increased by 107 percent, with an average annual natural growth rate of 18 per 1 000 (State Statistics Bureau, 1991). Therefore, even though the increase in the main agricultural products has been significant, the increase of per caput consumption has been slowed by rapid population growth. For instance, between 1958 and 1978 no apparent increase was found in the per caput consumption of grain and vegetable oil (State Statistics Bureau, 1991).

In 1973, the Leading Group for Family Planning of the State Council was established and lower-level organizations of family planning were reformed or strengthened. Meanwhile, policies and regulations pertaining to the control of population growth were also formulated. The concept of "one couple, one child" was widely accepted in urban areas. The government grants special awards to couples with only one child, and it has called for better performance in the areas of social insurance, maternal and child care and social welfare for the elderly in order to implement fully the national strategy of family planning. By 1990, the birth rate had decreased to 21.06 per 1 000, compared with 35 per 1 000 in the 1950s and 1960s, indicating progress in the control of population growth (State Statistics Bureau, 1991). The purpose of family planning in China is not only to control population growth but also to improve the quality of life of the population. Healthy childbirth and upbringing have been accepted as the core concerns in family planning.

TABLE 3 - Goals for food consumption by the year 2000 - Objectifs en matière de consommation alimentaire pour l'an 2000 - Metas para el consumo de alimentos en el año 2000


Food consumption






1 482













Edible vegetable oil










Beef and mutton










Aquatic products










Fresh milk





















2 391



Source: C. Chen, 1991.


The first strategy for improving the population's nutritional status is to integrate nutrition considerations into plans for national development. In April 1991, the National Program for Ten-Year Planning of the National Economy and Social Development and the Eighth Five-Year Plan were issued by the Chinese Government. These pointed to goals for the year 2000: "Based on the increase of income of the inhabitants, the food consumption of urban and rural people will be further raised in both quality and quantity, and the consumption of meat, eggs, milk, aquatic products and fruits will rise to some extent..." Here nutritional status has been officially incorporated into the national economic and social development plan.

The second strategy involves cooperation and coordination among the various sectors of the government. To strengthen macro-level management and to prevent uncoordinated autonomous activity of the individual agencies involved in food production, marketing and consumption, the cooperation and coordination of departments for planning, agriculture, health, commerce, food industry, education, family planning and foreign trade should be well organized. There is an urgent need to strengthen the operating mechanisms for better coordination among the governmental sectors directing the implementation of policies, strategies, regulations and planning pertaining to food and nutrition in China.

Steady development of food production

The current rural household production responsibility system requires steady support and improvement. In addition, the social service system in rural areas needs strengthening. Enhancing material and technical inputs to increase yields per unit area on the current amount of arable land is the basic measure for promoting food output. Soybean production should be heavily promoted by the government with preferential tax rates, subsidies and investments for producers and processors. While quickening the production of food of animal origin, increasing the share of poultry, beef and mutton in relation to pork should be emphasized. The continuous development of aquatic food sources, particularly freshwater products, by breeding is being highlighted as well.

TABLE 4 - Goals for the distribution of dietary energy, protein and fat by the year 2000 - Valeur énergétique et teneur en protéines et en matière grasse du régime alimentaire: objectifs pour l'an 2000 - Metas para la distribución de energía alimentaria, proteínas y grasas en el año 2000


Total daily intake

Percentage of total energy

Percentage from cereal

Percentage from animal food

Percentage from soybean

Percentage from vegetable food


2 391 kcal




70.6 g






65.9 g




Source: C. Chen, 1991.

Priority is continuously given to efforts to "promote agriculture by science and technology" and to creating additional production bases for commercial food and increasing the number of counties with commercial grain bases. The implementation of the Food-Basket Project continues. Gradually, a "three-dimensional" production system of grain, fodder and cash crops should replace the "two-dimensional" production pattern of grain and cash crops. Areas planted in feeds should be enlarged and the involvement of agriculture with animal husbandry should be strengthened.

Reforming the marketing system and food price policy

In setting up a marketing system that favours the development of a combination of a planned and a market economy, the government is establishing a three-level wholesale market network and enforcing fair trade between urban and rural areas. Meanwhile, the state is carrying out macro-level readjustment and control.

The difference between the state's contract purchase price and the market price is being minimized. Price subsidies on food will gradually be decreased, and fewer categories of foods will be included in the ration supply for urban households. When nutrition considerations are incorporated into price policies, the price of poultry and fish should generally be lower than that of pork, while the price subsidy for soybeans should be maintained for a longer period to encourage their production and consumption.

Establishment of a rational dietary pattern

Efforts should be directed at decreasing the per caput direct consumption of cereals and increasing the consumption of animal foods and soybeans by altering food consumption patterns, still considering the traditional pattern of vegetable food as the basis. The objective for food consumption by the year 2000 was proposed as follows: the per caput daily intake should be 2 391 kcal, 70.6 g protein and 65.9 g fat, and the energy from grain should account for 65.7 percent of the total dietary energy (C. Chen, 1991), (see Tables 3 and 4).

Intensifying nutrition efforts

Organizational development and personnel training in nutrition should be strengthened. In addition to regular courses on medical nutrition at intermediate and advanced levels, other means of intensifying on-the-job training in nutrition should be made available. Publicity drives should be promoted to increase the public's knowledge of nutrition, and training opportunities for nutrition education should be available for workers of the departments of agriculture, commerce, light industry and planning. Effective prevention and control of iron deficiency anaemia, rickets and other important nutritional deficiency diseases should be implemented through the improvement of dietary quality and rational nutrient fortification of some staple and non-staple foods.

A national nutrition surveillance system should be established to provide a scientific basis for formulating proper policies of food production, consumption and nutrition. The enactment and enforcement of laws on food and nutrition should be strengthened. Relevant regulations and management methods for public nutrition and food for children are now being drafted.


Beijing Review. 1991. China raises food prices. 10-16 Sept.

Chen, C. 1991, Dietary guidelines for food and agriculture planning in China. Proceedings of International Symposium on Food, Nutrition and Social Economic Development, p. 34-48. Beijing, Chinese Science and Technology Press.

Chen, M. 1992. Carrying out the gist of the Seventh Plenary Session of the Thirteenth Committee of the Communist Party of China and strengthening the development of rural health undertakings. Document of the conference of the directors of the Provincial Public Health Bureau, 21 January 1991, Beijing, China Health Statistics. (In press.)

Editorial Committee of Today's China series. 1988a. Agriculture of today's China, p. 47-53, Beijing, China Social Science Press.

Editorial Committee of Today's China series. 1988b. Grain issues of today's China, p. 67-103. Beijing, China Social Science Press.

Editorial Committee of Today's China series. 1989. Prices of today's China, p. 118, 351. Beijing, China Social Science Press.

He, K. 1991. Reaching a new stage of agricultural production by sciences and technology. Proceedings of the 4th National People's Congress of the China Association for Science and Technology, Beijing.

People's Daily. 1990. Additional 10 billion kg of grain produced in the commodity grain bases in China this year. 2 December.

People's Daily, 1991. It is very important to keep safety of the state store grains in summer. 15 May.

State Statistics Bureau. 1991. Statistical yearbook of China. Beijing, China Statistical Publishing House.

UNICEF. 1989. Children and women of China, a UNICEF situation analysis, p. 45. Beijing, UNICEF.

Working Group on Nutritional Surveillance and Improvement in Preschool Children. 1990. Summary of nutritional surveillance and improvement in preschool children (1985-1989). Beijing.

Consommation alimentaire et état nutritionnel en Chine

La Chine doit nourrir plus d'un milliard de personnes avec une superficie arable relativement limitée. Les diverses politiques agricoles adoptées pour résoudre le problème crucial de la sécurité alimentaire ont eu des effets différents. Par exemple, la réforme agraire des années 50 ainsi que le récent système qui rend les ménages ruraux responsables de la production ont stimulé la production alimentaire, tandis que les communes populaires des années 60 et 70 ont ralenti la croissance de l'agriculture. Dans les années 80, on a activement encouragé la diversification de l'agriculture et insisté sur un développement coordonné de la foresterie, de l'élevage et de l'aquaculture en association avec l'agriculture.

On a encouragé la production de céréales commercialisables pour augmenter la part des céréales dans la production agricole totale, pour accroître les échanges de produits et activer l'économie rurale, et pour orienter l'agriculture, traditionnellement centrée sur l'autosuffisance, vers des productions destinées au marché.

Récemment, un programme national visant à diversifier l'assortiment de produits alimentaires disponibles a permis d'améliorer la production, la commercialisation et la consommation de denrées alimentaires autres que les denrées de base. De 1985 a 1990, la production de viande a augmenté de 48,3 pour cent, celle des oeufs de 48,6 pour cent, celle du lait de 64,2 pour cent et celle des produits aquatiques de 75,5 pour cent, entraînant une amélioration substantielle du régime alimentaire des citadins et des ruraux. Ce programme est complété par un système de rationnement alimentaire.

Un autre programme important est la campagne sanitaire patriotique, mise en place il y a 40 ans pour améliorer les connaissances en matière d'hygiène et de santé et la capacité de prise en charge personnelle des Chinois, grâce à l'éducation et à la participation sociale associées à l'examen et à l'évaluation des résultats. Cette campagne a contribué de manière spectaculaire à prévenir et à lutter contre les maladies infectieuses, à améliorer l'hygiène du milieu, a éliminer les maladies parasitaires, a développer la vaccination et les soins de santé maternelle et infantile. Les efforts faits récemment en matière d'éducation nutritionnelle ont contribué à améliorer les connaissances et le comportement de la population en matière de nutrition.

Par ailleurs, un système de commercialisation favorisant l'épanouissement d'une économie planifiée associée à une économie de marché commence à être mis en place, tandis que le gouvernement crée un réseau de marchés de gros et impose des conditions équitables pour les échanges entre les zones urbaines et rurales, tout en réalisant un programme d'ajustement et de contrôle au niveau macro-économique. Ainsi, l'écart entre les prix d'achat officiels et les prix du marché sera réduit au minimum. Les subventions dont bénéficient les denrées diminueront progressivement ainsi que le nombre de produits inclus dans les rations destinées aux ménages urbains.

Enfin, récemment, on a intégré la nutrition dans le plan national de développement économique et social, et les divers secteurs du gouvernement sont encouragés à coopérer pour améliorer la nutrition.

Consumo alimentario y estado nutricional en China

China dispone de una superficie relativamente exigua de terrenos de cultivo para alimentar a más de 1 100 millones de personas. Durante decenios se han seguido diversas políticas agrícolas para hacer frente a los problemas básicos de la seguridad alimentaria con diferentes efectos. Por ejemplo, la redistribución de la tierra en el decenio de 1950 y el sistema reciente que responsabiliza de la producción a los hogares rurales han estimulado la producción de alimentos, mientras que las comunas populares de los decenios de 1960 y 1970 obstaculizaron el crecimiento de la economía agrícola. En el decenio de 1980 se fomentó activamente la diversificación de la agricultura y se concedió especial atención al desarrollo coordinado de la silvicultura, la ganadería y la acuicultura en asociación con la producción agrícola.

Se han sentado las bases para elevar la proporción de los cereales destinados al mercado en la producción agrícola global, aumentar el intercambio de productos básicos y activar la economía rural, y para transformar la agricultura tradicional, prácticamente autárquica, en un sistema de producción para el mercado.

Recientemente se ha puesto en marcha un plan nacional, el proyecto de cesta de alimentos, y se han introducido mejoras en la producción, comercialización y consumo de alimentos no básicos. De 1985 a 1990, se registraron aumentos en la producción de carne (48,3 por ciento), huevos (48,6 por ciento), leche (64,2 por ciento) y productos acuícolas (75,5 por ciento), que han dado lugar a mejoras considerables en el régimen alimenticio de la población urbana y rural, y que se complementa con el plan de racionamiento de los alimentos.

Otro programa importante es la campaña sanitaria que se viene realizando desde hace 40 años con apoyo del sistema sanitario. En ella se presta especial atención a la integración de la educación pública y la participación social con el examen y la evaluación de los resultados, con el fin de aumentar los conocimientos sanitarios y la capacidad de la población para cuidar de sí misma. Esta campaña ha contribuido enormemente a la prevención de las enfermedades infecciosas y a la lucha contra las mismas, así como a la mejora de la salud ambiental, la eliminación de las enfermedades parasitarias, la inmunización preventiva y la asistencia sanitaria maternoinfantil. Gracias a los recientes esfuerzos en materia de educación nutricional, el conocimiento y la conducta de la población en relación con la nutrición han mejorado significativamente.

Se está estableciendo además un sistema de comercialización que favorece el desarrollo de una economía planificada combinada con una economía de mercado, y se está creando una red de comercialización al por mayor. Se está promoviendo asimismo un comercio equitativo entre las zonas rurales y urbanas y llevando a cabo un reajuste y control macroeconómicos. De esta manera se reducirán al mínimo las diferencias entre los precios fijados por el Estado y los precios de mercado. Se proyecta disminuir gradualmente las subvenciones a los precios de los alimentos y reducir las categorías de alimentos incluidos en las raciones suministradas a las familias urbanas.

Por último, cabe destacar que los aspectos nutricionales han sido recientemente incorporados en el plan nacional de desarrollo económico y social, y que se está fomentando la cooperación y coordinación entre los diversos sectores del Gobierno para mejorar la nutrición.

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