Proceed step by step through the key, each time choosing the closet match of two or more options. Since this is only a selection of species, do a final check of your plant with the species description and illustration itself.
Note: This guide is strictly limited to domesticated trees. Most of these have many wild relatives with some similar characteristics, but in addition there are thousands of other species not covered by this key. To bring this field guide to a natural forest and expect to use it for general botanical identification will thus only lead to confusion and misinterpretations.
|Branched tree with leaves modified to needles or scales (Agathis with normal leaves), no colorful flowers, fruits are cones.|
|I. CONIFERS and CASUARINAS|
|Multistemmed, erect (except a few climbing forms), branches from internodes, flowers rare.|
|Unbranched erect (or climbing) stem with large leaves and flower stands from centre of crown.|
|III. PALMS and BANANAS|
|Branched shrub or tree with ordinary leaves.|
|IV. BROADLEAVED TREES|
I. CONIFERS and CASUARINAS
|1.1||Needles in bundles of 2||Pinus merkusii|
|1.2||Needles mostly in bundles of 3|
|a.||White-powdered branchlets; cones in groups||Pinus kesiya|
|b.||Young twigs orange-brown; cones single||Pinus caribaea|
|2.1||Bark dark, reddish-brown to black||Araucaria|
|2.2||Bark light grey-brown||Casuarina|
|3.||Parallel nerved thick leaves||Agathis|
III. PALMS and BANANAS
|1.||Soft, green stem||Bananas (Musa spp.)|
|a.||Leaves 1–1.5 m long; stem smooth, slender||Areca|
|b.||Leaves 4–5 m long, fruits large||Cocos|
|c.||Leaves to 7.5 m long, stem rugged||Elaeis|
|3.||Climbing, flexible, thorny stem||Rattans|
IV. BROADLEAVED TREES
|Palmate||Trifoliate||Opposite single||Pinnate||Alternate single|
IV-a: Palmate leaves
|1.||Palmately compound leaves|
|1.1||Leaves in whorls of 5–8, not truly palmate; flowers small, greenish-yellow; no spines||Alstonia|
|1.2||3–5 leaflets; flowers small, bluish; no spines||Vitex|
|1.3||5–7 leaflets; flowers large, red; spiny||Bombax|
|1.4||5–11 leaflets; flowers medium, white; spiny||Ceiba|
|2.||Single large palmate leaves; often unbranched||Carica|
IV-b: Trifoliate leaves
|1.||Leaflets large, thin and heart-shaped or broadly ovate; trunk thorny; flowers large, orange or red||Erythrina|
|2.||Leaflets small, lance-shaped; shrub||Cajanus|
|3.||Leaflets elliptic to ovate|
|3.1||Leaflets 4–26 cm long, shiny above, hairy below, yellow-red before falling off; bark smooth, pinkish||Sandoricum|
|3.2||Leaflets 4–50 cm; bark pale brown to dark brown; fruit 3-lobed capsule||Hevea|
|3.3||Leaflets to 7.5 cm long; old branches thorny||Aegle|
IV-c: Opposite leaves
|1.||Leaves 15–38 cm long|
|1.1||Lance-shaped leaves||Syzygium jambos|
|1.3.1||Medium-sized; branches horizontal, in whorls||Terminalia|
|1.3.2||Small; crooked trunk; irregular crown||Syzygium aqueum|
|1.3.3||Medium-sized; straight; irregular crown||Syzygium cumini|
|1.4||Elliptic or oblong leaves|
|1.4.1||Branches in whorls; small tree; secondary nerves bent and joining||Gnetum|
|1.4.2||Branches not in whorls|
|a.||Straight trunk; medium-sized tree|
|-||Leaves to 38 cm long; flowers red||Syzygium malac.|
|-||Leaves to 25 cm long; flowers yellow-green||Garcinia|
|-||Flowers purplish||Lagerstroemia speciosa|
|b.||Crooked trunk; small tree||Syzygium samarangense|
|c.||Shrub or small tree||Coffea canephora|
|2.||Leaves 1–15 cm long|
|2.1||Medium to very large tree; straight trunk|
|2.1.1||Very large; stem smooth, brightly colored; leaves ovate to lanceolate||Eucalyptus deglupta|
|2.1.2||Large; bark grey and orange; leaves asymmetric, ovate or obovate; flowers only one, white petal||Intsia|
|2.2||Shrub to small, low-branching tree|
|2.2.1||Small tree; bark green to red-brown, peeling off||Psidium|
|2.2.2||Spiny bush/small tree; leaves small, lanceolate||Punica|
|2.2.3||Shrub; horizontal branches; leaves oval to elliptical, margin often undulating||Coffea arabica|
IV-d: Leaves pinnate, bipinnate or tripinnate
|1.||Leaflets 5–25 mm long|
|1.1||Leaves pinnate, leaflets oblong or linear||Tamarindus|
|1.2||Leaves bi- or tri-pinnate, leaflets ovate||Moringa|
|1.3||Leaves bipinnate, leaflets oblong or linear|
|1.3.1||Shrubs or small multistemmed trees, low branches|
|a.||Stem usually very dark||Calliandra|
|b.||Stem usually light brown||Leucaena|
|1.3.2||Small (to medium) sized trees up to 25 m high|
|a.||Pods 5–15 cm long|
|-||Thorns on trunk and branches||Acacia catechu|
|* Leaflets 6–12 mm, smooth||Paraserianthes|
|b.||Pods 25–45 cm long, flat and woody; tree with wide crown, showy red flowers||Delonix|
|c.||Pods 35–45 cm, strongly twisted||Parkia|
|2.||Leaflets 20–60 mm long|
|2.1.1||Leaflets oblong, obtuse, 10–35 mm|
|a.||20–40 pairs of leaflets||Sesbania|
|b.||8–16 pairs of leaflets||Tamarindus|
|2.1.2||Leaflets ovate-oblong or elliptic, 30–70 mm||Cassia siamea|
|2.1.3||Leaflets lance-shaped, toothed, 40–80 mm||Azadirachta indica|
|2.1.4||Leaflets ovate, ≤70 mm, not true leaflets, but pinnately arranged leaves||Phyllanthus acidus|
|2.2||Bi-or tri-pinnate leaves|
|2.2.1||Even number of leaflets|
|a.||Leaflets oblong, rounded tip||Albizia lebbeck|
|b.||Leaflets strongly asymmetrical ovate||Albizia saman|
|2.2.2||Single terminal leaflet||Gliricidia|
|2.3||Leaves with only 4 leaflets||Pithecellobium|
|3.||Leaflets 50–250 mm long|
|3.1.1||9–17 pairs of serrate leaflets, 4–15 cm long||Azadirachta|
|3.1.2||1–10 pairs of entire, crenate or serrate leaflets, 5–28cm long,|
|* 2–5 pairs of entire leaflets, 3–16 cm long||Litchi|
|* 4–10 pairs of leaflets, 5–25 cm long, sometimes crenate or serrated||Spondias cytherea|
|* Small tree; numerous large, yellow flowers; fruit long cylindrical pod||Cassia fistula|
|* Medium to large tree; buttresses; fruit large roundish 5-valved capsule||Swietenia (macroph.)|
|c.||Leaflets ovate to obovate, hairy below||Nephelium|
|3.2||Leaves odd-pinnate (with single terminal leaflet)|
|a.||6–9 leaflets, 9–21 cm long||Lansium|
|b.||7–11 leaflets, 5–10 cm long||Pterocarpus|
|a.||2–6 pairs of elliptic to ovate leaflets||Averrhoa car|
|b.||7–19 pairs of ovate leaflets||Averrhoa bilimbi|
IV-e: Alternate single leaves
|1.||Leaves with parallel nerves|
|1.1||leaves and/or stalks hairy||Ziziphus|
|1.2||leaves without hairs, fruits are pods|
|1.2.1||Stem straight; leaves to 25 cm long; flowers white||Acacia mangium|
|1.2.2||Stem sometimes multi-stemmed and/or crooked; leaves narrow, 5–18 cm long; flowers yellow||Acacia auriculiformis|
|2.||Leaves with toothed edge|
|2.1||Leaves and/or flower stands hairy||Muntingia|
|2.2.1||Leaves oblong to lanceolate, in whorls of 3||Macadamia|
|2.2.2||Leaves ovate, sometimes lobed||Morus|
|3.||Winged leaf stalks; translucent spots in leaves; spiny branches|
|3.1||Leaf stalk narrowly winged or margined|
|3.1.1||Usually very spiny, leaves ovate to elliptic, fruit flesh greenish, very sour||Citrus aurantiifolia|
|3.1.2||Sometimes spiny, leaves ovate to lanceolate, fruit flesh orange, sweet||Citrus reticulata|
|3.2||Leaf stalk broadly winged|
|3.2.1||Young parts soft-haired; +/- long spines; wings to 7 cm wide; fruit smooth, to 30 cm diameter, sweet||Citrus grandis|
|3.2.2||Spines small, wings to 4.5 cm wide; fruit with bumpy skin, to 7 cm diameter, very acid||Citrus hystrix|
|4.1||Leaves 5–7 cm long, toothed||Morus|
|4.2||Leaves 20–60 cm long, deeply pinnately lobed||Artocarpus altilis|
|4.3||Leaves 5–25 cm long, 1–2 lobes on young plants||Artocarpus heterophyllus|
|4.4||Leaves fernlike, 9–21 pairs of leaflets with deep narrow lobes||Grevillea|
|5.||Leaves very large, to 60 cm long and 40 cm wide|
|5.1||Leaves deeply pinnately lobed||Artocarpus altilis|
|6.||Leaves have none of the above features|
|6.1||Leaves heart-shaped to ovate; bark green to red; rust colored scales on young twigs; flowers large, pink or white||Bixa|
|6.2.1||Shrub/small tree; branches in whorls; leaves 15–50 cm long||Theobroma|
|6.2.2||Medium-sized tree; branchlets brown-haired; leaves 5–16 cm long, rust red below||Chrysophyllum|
|6.2.3||Small to medium-sized tree; branches often drooping; leaves with pleasant smell if crushed||Persea|
|6.3.1||Leaves and/or branchlets with brown or yellow-red hairs|
|a.||Leaves rust red below, 5–16 cm long; branchlets brown-haired||Chrysophyllum|
|b.||Leaves 5–25 cm long, brown-haired||Artocarpus integer|
|6.3.2||Leaves and branchlets without brown or yellow-red hairs|
|a.||Flowers/fruits on twigs|
|-||Leaves silky white below||Manilkara kaukii|
|-||Leaves with prominent midrib and veins||Anacardium|
|b.||Flowers/fruits on trunk/large branches|
|-||Leaves glandular; fruits small, round||Baccaurea racemosa|
|-||Fruits very large, irregular||Artocarpus heterophyllus|
|6.4.1||Leaves mostly less than 20 cm long|
|a.||Leaves narrow, 5–10 times longer than wide|
|-||Trunk often crooked, low branches; small to medium-sized||Eucalyptus camaldulensis|
|-||Trunk straight, grey-white-bluish; medium to very large-sized; twigs with waxy white coating||Eucalyptus grandis|
|b.||Leaves broader, less than 3 times longer than wide|
|*||Silvery/golden scales & hairs on leaf underside; fruit large thorny, edible||Durio|
|*||Leaf stalk up to 8 cm long; fruit yellow-red, small, edible||Baccaurea ramiflora|
|*||Leaf stalk 0.5–1 cm; flowers small, small trees; leaves aromatic smell if crushed; flowers on stalks||Myristica|
|*||Leaf stalk 1 cm to very long;|
|-||Leaves with prominent midrib below, parallel lateral nerves, stalk up to 3.5 cm||Manilkara zapota|
|-||Leaf stalk up to 8 cm||Baccaurea ramiflora|
|6.4.2||Leaves mostly more than 20 cm and up to 45 cm long|
|a.||Leaf stalk 1–2.5 cm long|
|-||Leaves narrow, green-grey, to 30 cm long||Eucalyptus camaldulensis|
|-||Leaves broader, shining, to 45 cm long||Bouea|
|b.||Leaf stalk 1.5–10 cm long|
|-||Leaf stalk swollen at base||Mangifera indica|
|-||Leaf stalk not swollen at base||Mangifera altissima|
|6.5.1||Very small to medium-sized trees; fleshy edible fruits|
|a.||Fruits more than 10 cm long|
|-||Leaves bad smell when crushed, fruit soft-spined||Annona muricata|
|-||Leaves pleasant smell, fruit pear-shaped||Persea americana|
|b.||Fruits less than 8 cm|
|-||Leaves to 45 cm long; branchlets angular or flattened||Bouea|
|-||Leaves to 15 cm long, prominent midrib below||Manilkara zapota|
|-||Leaves to 18 cm long, glandular||Baccaurea racemosa|
|6.5.2||Medium to large-sized trees; fruits mostly small, not edible|
|a.||Trunk often crooked; branchlets reddish; leaf stalk short||Eucalyptus camaldulensis|
|b.||Straight trunk, bark white to grey-blue; leaf stalk short||Eucalyptus grandis|
|6.6.1||Leaves 25–50 cm long|
|a.||Branchlets and leaves hairy; sometimes buttresses|
|-||Hairs on leaf midrib and veins below||Dimocarpus|
|b.||Branchlets and leaves without hairs; no buttresses|
|-||Leaf stalk to 2.5 cm long; branchlets angular or flattened; flowers 4-merous||Bouea|
|-||Leaf stalk to 9 cm long; branchlets angular; flowers 4-merous, white||Mangifera altissima|
|-||Leaf stalk to 8 cm, very swollen at base; flowers 5-merous, reddish||Mangifera foetida|
|6.6.2||Leaves 3–25 cm long|
|a.||Twigs and/or leaves with hairs; edible fruits|
|-||Both twigs and leaves with brown or reddish brown hairs|
|*||Leaf stalk to 20 cm long; leaves hairy on midribs and veins only||Dimocarpus|
|*||Leaf stalk to 3 cm long||Artocarpus integer|
|-||Hairs on leaf underside only|
|*||Large tree; leaves silvery or golden underneath||Durio|
|*||Shrub or small tree; leaves green||Annona squamosa|
|b.||Twigs and leaves without hairs|
|-||Fruits edible fresh|
|*||White latex in all parts; fruits very large, on stem and large branches||Artocarpus heterophyllus|
|-||Fruits drupes or berries, not edible fresh; Small tree leaves aromatic||Myristica|
I. CONIFERS and CASUARINAS
III. PALMS and BANANAS
IV. BROADLEAVED TREES
Within each of the above groups the species descriptions are arranged alphabetically.
Notes to distribution maps:
Data on geographic distribution of tree species in Southeast Asia is still very limited and scattered. In most cases it has only been possible to determine if a particular species is present in a particular country or not, whereas its distribution within the country is not well known. In some countries, consisting of many islands, like Indonesia or the Philippines, it has been possible to specify the distribution of some species to certain islands. The relative abundance of each species is roughly indicated on the distribution maps by the following patterns:
CONIFERS and CASUARINAS
Synonyms: Agathis loranthifolia, A. celebica, A. hamii
Common names: dammar raja, kisi, salo (Ins); dayungon (Phi).
Description: A large tree up to 65 m tall and 200cm, or more, in diameter. Bark smooth, grey, coming off in large irregular plates producing a distinctive light brownish-grey pattern. Bark with abundant resin. Leaves smooth and shiny, oval to narrow elliptical, 6–8 cm long and 2–3 cm wide (smaller on fully exposed branches), tapering towards the rounded tip. Mature pollen cones up to 4–6 cm × 1.3 cm, on a stalk about 3 mm long. Mature seed cones oval to globular, 9–10.5 cm × 7.5–9.5 cm.
Use: Wood is used as general purpose softwood for boat building (masts), panelling, packaging, furniture, matches, household utensils, pencils, veneer, plywood, pulp and paper and many others. The tree is also an important source of a copal resin.
Ecology: It occurs scattered in lowland rain forests up to 1,200 m altitude, in the Philippines reported up to 2,100 m.
Distribution: Indonesia (Kalimantan and Sulawesi) and the Philippines.
References: Soerianegara & Lemmens (1994), Zamora et al. (1986).
Synonyms: Araucaria beccarii
Common names: Hoop pine, colonial pine, Richmond river pine (En); alloa, ningwik, pien (Ins); son naam (Tha).
Description: A very large evergreen, symmetrical tree with a tall straight cylindrical bole. Up to 60 (70) m tall and 200cm in diameter. Bark reddish-brown or dark brown to almost black with transverse wrinkles, fissures or ridges. Branches often starting high on a bole, in whorls of 6–8, with leaf-bearing twigs all along their length. Leaves lanceolate to triangular with pointed apices slightly curved inward. Male (pollen) cones up to 8 cm long, mature female (seed) cones terminal, 6–10 × 5–8 cm with spiny winged scales. Seeds triangular, 20–30 mm × 9–10 mm, excluding wings.
Use: Yields excellent timber for all kinds of light construction and interior works, as well as for plywood and pulp that can be mixed with hardwood pulp. Seeds are edible.
Ecology: Most common above 1,000 m altitude where rainfall is high and temperatures range from 9–26°C. Pioneer species in disturbed habitats where soils may be very poor, leached, podzolic and acid. In Papua New Guinea it is commonly associated with species of Castanopsis, Cinnamomum, Podocarpus, Prumnopitys and Schizomeria.
Distribution: Native to Australia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia and established as plantations in Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines.
References: Soerianegara & Lemmens (1994).
Synonyms: Casuarina litoralis, C. litorea
Common names: Horse tail casuarina, casuarina, Australian pine (En); cemara laut (Ins); ru laut (Mal); tinyu (Mya); agoho (Phi); duong, phi-lao (Vie).
Description: A medium to large evergreen tree, 15–50 m tall and 20–100 cm in diameter, that from a distance has the appearance of a pine tree. The trunk is very straight, first with smooth light grey-brown bark that later becomes thick, rough, furrowed and shaggy, splitting into strips and flakes exposing a reddish-brown inner layer. The crown is feathery, narrow and pointed. The “needles” are grey-green branchlets less than 30 cm long and 1 mm thick, with 5–8 branchlets per node and 7–8 cells per branchlet. The leaves are reduced to tiny scales at the nodes of the green branchlets. The male “flowers” in subterminal spikes formed of short, toothed cups (not illustrated). The fruit is a brown cone, oblong, 10–25 mm long and 13–20 mm wide, occurring in terminal heads (see illustration).
Use: Wood is used for fuelwood and charcoal, posts, poles, tool handles or made into pulp. Bark contains dye and also has medicinal use. Used for erosion control, dune stabilization, land reclamation and as windbreak.
Ecology: A pioneer species on sandy shores and river banks, very adaptable to a wide range of environmental conditions. It prefers alkaline to neutral soils, temperature between 10–35°C and rainfall between 700–2,000 mm but tolerates extremes outside these ranges well.
Distribution: Native to coastal areas from India to Polynesia and reported from Myanmar, Thailand, China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
References: Hensleigh & Holaway (1988), National Academy of Science (1980).
Common names: Carribean pine, pitch pine, Nicaragua pine (En).
Description: A large tree up to 45 m high, but mostly smaller in plantations, with a straight cylindrical bole up to about 100 cm in diameter, deeply fissured bark and orange brown twigs later becoming grey-brown. Needles mostly in bundles of three, occasionally two, four or five, 15–25 cm long, in whorls at the end of shoots. Cones single, ovoid, 4–14 cm long. Divided into three varieties: var. hondurensis, the most common in Southeast Asia, var. caribaea and var. bahamensis.
Use: Wood is used for light construction, flooring, boxes and toys as well as for paper pulp, fibreboard and chipboard. Good quality oleoresin can be tapped from the stem.
Ecology: Growing naturally in a wide range of forest and savanna habitats as a pioneer species, for instance after fires, creating pure stands. Light demanding. In S.E. Asia grown only in strongly seasonal environments and light to medium textured neutral to acid soils. Tolerates seasonal waterlogging and salty winds.
Distribution: Native to Central America, now planted in many tropical areas including Myanmar, Thailand (trials), Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
References: Soerianegara & Lemmens (1994).
Synonyms: Pinus insularis, P. khasya
Common names: Benquet pine, khasya pine (En); khoua, mai hing (Lao); tinyu (Mya); son-sambai, chuang, kai-plueak-daeng (Tha); thoong ba las, xafnu (Vie).
Description: A large tree up to 45 m tall with first branches 15–20 m up, up to 100 cm in a trunk diameter. Bark thick, reticulate and deeply fissured. Branchlets often covered with white waxy “powder”. Needles in bundles of 3 (occasionally 2 or 4), very slender and flexible, usually between 12 and 21 cm long, bright grass green. Cones up to 3 together, pendulous, ovoid to ovoid-conical, usually 5–8 cm long, stalkless or on stalk up to 10 mm long. The combination of P. khasya and P. insularis into one species - P. kesiya, is disputed by some botanists.
Use: General purpose timber as well as particle board and pulp. Oleoresin of good quality can be tapped from this species.
Ecology: Grows in areas with mean annual rainfall from 700 to 1,800 mm, a pronounced dry season and mean annual temperatures between 17–22°C. Pioneer species on a wide range of forest and savanna habitats following disturbances like fire. Very light demanding.
Distribution: Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, southern China, northern Vietnam and northern Philippines.
References: Soerianegara & Lemmens (1994).
Synonyms: Pinus sumatrana, P. merkusiana
Common names: Merkus pine, Mondoro pine, Sumatran pine (En); damar batu, damar bunga, uyam (Ins); tapulau (Phi); son-song-bai, son-haang-maa, kai-plueak-dam (Tha); thoong nhuwja, thoong hai las (Vie).
Description: A large tree up to 70 m high and 55 cm trunk diameter on average (sometimes up to 150 cm) with straight, cylindrical bole free of branches up to 15–25 m in height. Branches are heavy and horizontal or ascending. Bark is thick, grey-brown and forming plates towards base, but scaly and reddish tinged higher up. Needles in pairs, slender, 16–25 cm long with persistent basal sheath. The cylindrical cones single or in pairs, 5–11 cm long. The seeds are small and have a 2.5 cm long wing.
Use: Used as a general purpose timber and for construction, boat building and flooring. A good quality oleoresin can be collected.
Ecology: The southern most naturally occurring pine, growing up to 2,000 m altitude in areas with mean annual rainfall of 1,000–3,500 mm.
Distribution: From eastern Myanmar through northern Thailand to southern China, Indo-China, Indonesia and the Philippines.
References: Soerianegara & Lemmens (1994).
About 200 species of bamboo belonging to 20 genera are found in Southeast Asia, some of which are cultivated. The taxonomic classification is incomplete and unclear for several species. Here a general description is given with a few common species shown as examples.
Common names: Vernacular names for bamboo species are generally not very reliable and should be treated with caution as they can be misleading.
Description: Woody, usually hollow, erect, straight and smooth culms with internodes, some species up to 30 m tall and 25 cm in culm diameter. In most genera the culms form clumps at base. Average length between inter-nodes is 35 cm but may be more than one metre in some species. Climbing species also exist. Branches and culm sheaths arise from internodes. The culm sheets, which usually falls off when the culm matures, often have irritant hairs on the outside. Each branchlets bears 8–18 leaves. Most species with lance shaped, thin leaves with parallel venation pattern and a leaf stalk. New culm shoots are produced every year from the rhizomes (underground stems).
Use: Countless uses in light construction, furniture making, basket weaving, for musical instruments and handicrafts, as containers or as raw material for paper production or bamboo plywood. Young shoots of many species, including Dendrocalamus asper are edible.
Ecology: Most bamboos flowers only rarely, at intervals varying from 20 to 120 years, after which the plant dies. In some species the whole population flowers simultaneously, in others the flowering is individual but some, like the genus Schizostachyum flower continuously and do not die afterwards.
Distribution: Distributed all over Southeast Asia.
References: Dransfield & Widjaja (1995).
PALM and BANANAS
Synonyms: Also spelled Areca cathecu
Common names: Betel palm, areca palm (En); pinang, pinang siri (Mal); kunthi-pin kun (Mya); bunga (phi); maak mia (Tha); cao (Vie).
Description: A slender, erect, palm up to 30 m tall and 25–40 cm in diameter. Stem straight, green when young, later becoming grayish brown, with rings from leaf scars. 8–12 leaves, 1–1.5 m long, even pinnate, with 30–50 leaflets, each 30–70 cm long and 3–7 cm wide are forming the crown, about 2.5 m in diameter. A single, branched inflorescence from the stem under the crown. Male flowers numerous, small, borne above female flowers, 3-merous. Female flowers on thickened base of branches, 1.2–2 cm long, green and creamy-white. Fruits 5–10 × 3–5 cm variable in shape, yellow to orange when ripe, 50–400 fruits on one stand.
Use: The hard, dried endosperm of ripe and unripe seeds (the “nuts”) are chewed as a narcotic, sometimes alone, but usually mixed with the leaves of betel-pepper (Piper betel) and slaked lime.
Ecology: Grows from sea level to about 900 m altitude, particular in coastal climates, where evenly distributed annual rainfall of 1,500–5,000mm ensures ample soil moisture throughout the year.
Distribution: Origin unclear, but probably in north eastern Indonesia. In Southeast Asia, it is found in Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
References: Purseglove (1985), Whitmore (1979).
Common names: Palmyra palm (En); lontar (Mal); htan, htan-taw (Mya); taan (Tha); thót-lót (Vie).
Description: Solitary fan palm up to 20 m tall with stiffly projecting leaves and very dense, blue-green crown. Stem smooth. Leaf stalks short, massive and yellowish, finely toothed on margins (but appearing smooth from a distance). Leaf blade fan-shaped, 1–1.3 m across. Inflorescence about 1 m long, hanging down through split leaf base. Fruits roundish, 15–20 cm in diameter, yellow when ripe. Similar species: May occasionally be confused with two other genuses of fan palms Corypha and Livistonia. However, Corypha has much larger leaves with massive spines and only flowers once, producing a huge treelike inflorescence, after which it dies. Livistonia also have much larger spines on the leaf stalks than Borassus but the stalks themselves are more slender, resulting in a more open crown. Fruits of Livistonia are much smaller than Borassus ranging from 1.5–7.5 cm in diameter.
Use: Sugar and toddy is produced from sap extracted from young inflorescence. Young fruits edible and their juice used for flavouring cakes. Fibres can be extracted from the base of the leaf stalks.
Ecology: According to Purseglove (1985), it does not thrive in extremely humid climates, although it is often found along water courses in drier areas.
Distribution: From Africa through Madagascar, India and Sri Lanka to Myanmar, Thailand, Indo-China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and further east.
References: Purseglove (1985), Whitmore (1979).
Common names: Coconut palm (En); kelapa (Ins, Mal); on, mak-un (Mya); niog (Phi); ma-praaw (Tha); dùa (Vie).
Description: It grows to 25 m in height. The trunk is 20–40 cm in diameter at breast height and marked with leaf scars. Leaves on adult trees are 4–5.5 m long with a stalk of 1 m or longer. The more than 100 pairs of leaflets are linear to lanceolate, acuminate and up to 1 m long. Inflorescence is about 1 m long or less with female flowers at the base of the stalk and male near the terminal end. Fruits are round, sometimes 3-angled, 15–25 cm long and covered with a thick fibrous husk. Many different types of coconut palms exist, including dwarf types.
Use: Literally hundreds of uses have been recorded. These include timber, posts, fencing, food, fuel, drinks, thatching, basket making, mats, brushes, brooms, utensils, alcohol and oils.
Ecology: The coconut palm prefers warm lowland habitats with evenly distributed rainfall of 1,500 mm or more annually. Although it often regarded as a coastal plant, it can be found far inland and at elevations up to 1,500 m. The fruit tolerates long periods in salt water which has probably contributed to the very wide distribution of this species.
Distribution: The origin of this palm is not known, already prehistorically it was distributed throughout the tropics and is now naturalized on tropical shores world-wide, including all countries of Southeast Asia.
References: F/FRED (1992), Guzman & Fernando (1986), Hensleigh & Holaway (1988), Purseglove (1978), Westphal & Jansen (1993), Whitmore (1979).
Common names: Oil palm (En); dôong preeng (Cam); kelapa sawit, salak minyak (Ins); kelapa bali, kelapa sawit (Mal); si-ohn, si-htan (Mya); pan namman (Tha); co dâù, dùa dâù (Vie).
Description: Unbranched erect tree up to 20–30 m tall and 22–75 cm in diameter. The crown has about 40–60 live dark green leaves and a skirt of dead leaves (less leaves if trimmed as is common in plantations). Each leaf up to 7.5 m long with 60–160 pairs of leaflets and spiny leaf stalk. Leaf bases remain on a stem for at least 12 years giving a rough-stemmed palm. Later, when fallen off, the stem becomes smooth. The inflorescence is produced from about every second leaf axil. There are up to 1,500 deep violet fruits (ripening to orange-red) in each roundish dense cluster, weighing 30 kg or more. Individual fruits are about 4 cm long, oval, broadly triangular and with the style remaining on the tip.
Use: Mainly grown for its high production of palm oil and palm kernel oil used for making margarine, cooking oil and other food products and soaps and detergents. The press cake remaining after extracting the oil is an important livestock food. Palm wine can be made from sap tapped from the male inflorescence and the central shoot is edible. Leaves are used for roof-thatching.
Ecology: Its natural habitat is considered to be along tropical rain forest water courses or in freshwater swamps or in other disturbed forest habitats where adequate light is available. It prefers 2,000 mm of annual rain or more and warm tropical temperatures and grows on a wide range of soils.
Distribution: Originates in West Africa but is now widely grown in many tropical countries including Thailand, China, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
References: Guzman & Fernando (1986), Purseglove (1985), Whitmore (1979).
|Musa spp. Edible forms||Musaceae|
Common names: Banana (En); cheek nam' vaa (Cam); pisang (Ins, Mal); kwàyz (Lao); nget pyo thee (Mya); gluay (Tha); chuôí (Vie).
Description: Tree-like perennial herb, 2–9 m tall. Tightly rolled over-lapping leaf sheath forms a cylindrical pseudo-stem, 20–50 cm in diameter. New leaves grow up through the centre of the pseudo-stem. The leaf blade is 1.5–4m long and 0.7–1m wide with pronounced supporting midrib. A single terminal inflorescence appear through centre of pseudo-stem, bending down when exerted, male flowers towards tip of stand, female behind these. Flower/fruit stand 50–150 cm long when mature. Fruits berrylike, seedless, curved 6–35 cm long, 2.5–5 cm wide, green, yellow or reddish.
Use: Grown primarily for the fruit which, depending on cultivar can be eaten fresh, cooked or preserved in various ways. The male bud is eaten as a vegetable. Leaves are used for packing, wrapping and decorative purposes.
Ecology: Although banana has a wide temperature tolerance, growth and production are far better in warm tropical climates. It requires steady moisture supply of about 200 mm a month and plenty of sunlight. It prefers neutral to acid, deep, friable loams with high organic matter content.
Distribution: Exact origin unknown, but now all over the tropics and subtropics.
Common names: Manila hemp
Description: Structure similar to the edible bananas but more slender with smaller leaves and seeded fruits. Leaves reddish when mature.
Use: The very strong and resilient fibres from the outer sheets of the leaf stalks are used for producing ropes, fishing nets, hammocks, hats and mats. Lower grades are used for special types of paper production.
Ecology: Like the edible bananas
Distribution: Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia.
References: Purseglove (1985), Verheij & Coronel (1992), Westphal & Jansen (1993).
|Rattans||Araceae (or Palmae)|
Almost 600 species of climbing palms of which nearly 400 belongs to the genera Calamus. Other major genera represented in southeast Asia are: Daemonorops (115 species), Korthalsia (26) and Plectocomia (16).
Common names: Rattan, canes (En); rotan (Ins,Mal); kyin (Mya); wai (Tha).
Description: Spiny, climbing (except a few species) palms with solid but very long and flexible, mostly cylindrical stems. Some are single-stemmed, some multi-stemmed, with stem diameters ranging from a few mm to more than 10 cm. Leaves with or without stalk, usually armed with spines in species characteristic arrangements, in some species extending into long spiny whip like climbing organ (cirrus). Other species (many Calamus) have similar organ (flagellum) arising from the leaf sheath on the stem. Single inflorescence is produced at the node (stem-section), borne in the leaf axil. Most genera have male and female flowers on separate plants. Korthalsia has, however, hermaphroditic flowers.
Use: The stems are extensively used for making cane furniture, mats, baskets and rope. Young shoots and fruits of some species are edible.
Ecology: Varies between species due and the wide geographical range. Rattan species are found in most forest types and on most soil and rock types, from sea level to 3,000 m altitude. Different species are adapted to a range of light conditions.
Distribution: From equatorial Africa, through Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka, southern China, the Malay Archipelago to Australia and the western Pacific including Fiji. The greatest number of genera and species are found in western Malesia*.
References: Dransfield & Manokaran (1994).
* Malesia is the bio-geographical region including Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea.