Forestry Resources Assessment WP 17


FRA 2000
FOREST RESOURCES OF SRI LANKA
COUNTRY REPORT

Rome, 2001









The Forest Resources Assessment Programme

Forests are crucial for the well-being of humanity. They provide foundations for life on earth through ecological functions, by regulating the climate and water resources, and by serving as habitats for plants and animals. Forests also furnish a wide range of essential goods such as wood, food, fodder and medicines, in addition to opportunities for recreation, spiritual renewal and other services.

Today, forests are under pressure from expanding human populations, which frequently leads to the conversion or degradation of forests into unsustainable forms of land use. When forests are lost or severely degraded, their capacity to function as regulators of the environment is also lost, increasing flood and erosion hazards, reducing soil fertility, and contributing to the loss of plant and animal life. As a result, the sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is jeopardized.

FAO, at the request of the member nations and the world community, regularly monitors the world's forests through the Forest Resources Assessment Programme. The next report, the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 (FRA 2000), will review the forest situation by the end of the millennium. FRA 2000 will include country-level information based on existing forest inventory data, regional investigations of land-cover change processes, and a number of global studies focusing on the interaction between people and forests. The FRA 2000 report will be made public and distributed on the world wide web in the year 2000.

The Forest Resources Assessment Programme is organized under the Forest Resources Division (FOR) at FAO headquarters in Rome. Contact persons are:

Robert Davis FRA Programme Coordinator robert.davis@fao.org

Peter Holmgren FRA Project Director peter.holmgren@fao.org

or use the e-mail address: fra@fao.org

Disclaimer

The Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) Working Paper Series is designed to reflect the activities and progress of the FRA Programme of FAO. Working Papers are not authoritative information sources - they do not reflect the official position of FAO and should not be used for official purposes. Please refer to the FAO forestry website (www.fao.org/fo ) for access to official information.

The FRA Working Paper Series provides an important forum for the rapid release of preliminary FRA 2000 findings needed for validation and to facilitate the final development of an official quality-controlled FRA 2000 information set. Should users find any errors in the documents or have comments for improving their quality they should contact either Robert Davis or Peter Holmgren at fra@fao.org.


Contents


1 Introduction

2 Executive Summary

3 The Sri Lanka
3.1 General
3.2 Geology and Soil
3.3 Topography
3.4 Climate
3.5 River System and Coastal area
3.6 Ecological Zones
3.7 Institutions of Governance
3.8 Summary

4 Forest Resources
4.1 General
4.2 Landuse
4.3 Forests
4.4 Forest Cover
4.5 Change in Forest Cover and Trees Outside Forests
4.6 Forest Plantations
4.7 Trees outside forest areas
4.8 Annual yield
4.9 Biomass production
4.10 Biological diversity
4.11 Conservation of biodiversity
4.12 Protected areas
4.13 Management of the protected areas
4.14 Summary

5 Factors affecting forest resources
5.1 General
5.2 Human population
5.3 Agriculture
5.4 Livestock
5.5 Human development
5.7 Inter and Intra - Sectoral growth
5.8 Economic linkage with other sectors
5.9 Summary

6 Use of Forest Resources
6.1 General
6.2 Firewood and other bio-fuels
6.3 Wood
6.4 Rubber
6.5 Medicinal plants
6.6 Rattan
6.7 Bamboo
6.8 Kithul
6.9 Edible plants
6.10 Summary

7 Forest planning and management
7.1 General
7.2 Main problems
7.3 National forest policy
7.4 Forest planning process
7.5 Forestry and five year plans
7.6 Forest management plans
7.7 Micro or local level planning
7.8 Forestry organization
7.9 Summary

8 Forest Regulation
8.1 General
8.2 Land Settlement Act, Land Development Act and Crown Lands Act
8.3 Soil Conservation Act
8.4 Timber Act
8.5 Wastelands Ordinance
8.6 Forest Act
8.7 National Heritage and Wilderness Areas Act
8.8 Fauna and Flora Protection Act
8.9 Enforcement of Forest Regulations
8.10 Summary

References

Appendix

Contents

FRA Working Papers

Top Of Page