LEVELS AND TYPES OF LEARNING
KNOWLEDGE AND INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES range from simple recall to complex synthesis, and evaluation. Bloom (1956) categorized cognitive objectives in a progressive hierarchy from least to most complex levels which included: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. These six levels have been simplified into three levels:
Knowledge & Comprehension includes remembering or recalling previously learned material and grasping the meaning of the material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another (interpreting).
After a review of the procedures for calculating population growth rate, the learner will be able to explain how population growth rate is calculated.
Defines, describes, identified, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, reproduces, selects, states, converts, defends distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives examples, infers, paraphrases, predicts rewrites, summarizes.
Application refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension and knowledge.
Given the procedures for calculating population growth rate and the results of the local population survey, the learners will be able to calculate current population growth rates.
Changes, computes, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.
Evaluation includes analysis, synthesis and evaluation and refers: to the ability to break down and analyze material into component parts; identifying the organizing principles governing the interaction of the parts; putting the parts together to form a new whole (synthesis); and judging the value of something based on definite criteria. Learning outcomes in this area are the highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they use all the skills in all the elements in all of the other categories plus conscious value judgements based on clearly defined criteria
Given the procedures for calculating population growth rates, the existing population and food production/supply, the learner will be able predict food production and supply needs in ten years with a ±10% accuracy rate.
(analysis) breaks down,diagrams,differentiates,discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, points out, relates, selects, separates, subdivides;
(synthesis) categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes,
(evaluation) appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes,writes; explains, justifies, interprets, tells, relates, supports.
The same intended outcome has been used to demonstrate how an intended outcome might progress from a very simple recalling of information to a very complex evaluation to compare one concept to another. In designing curriculum materials, care should be taken to assure that there are activities planned to match intended outcomes that span the whole range of complexity. The challenge is to include higher level skills (synthesis and evaluation) in the intended outcomes and activities of the curriculum. If changed behavior is to occure, concepts and information need too be internalized (i.e., applied, synthesized, and evaluated) at higher cognitive levels. Changes in behavior should not be expected if knowledge acquisition skills are the only level of intended outcomes and activities.
The above categorizations for stating objectives are based on Bloom's taxonomy. Though this system has been criticized as inadequate and misleading because it is based on vague and often unsupported constructs and implies a hierarchical knowledge structure that does not exist, no other useful system has been devised. The main criticism is the overlapping of behaviour from each of the categories. For example, in order to accomplish a physical task, the learner must understand (cognitive) and attend to it (affective). Likewise, learning outcomes in the cognitive area have some affective elements, and most have psycho-motor aspects such as reading or writing. The three domains of the taxonomy do, however, provide a useful classification for placing emphasis on types of skills when stating intended outcomes.
PHYSICAL ACTION AND MOTOR SKILLS include competencies in the physical performance of an occupational skill/task. Examples include physical acts (e.g.,writing, speaking, planting trees, sewing, or etc.)
|Example: After a presentation on ways to stop soil erosion, the learners will apply the guidelines presented and plant trees and grasses to prevent erosion.|
|Verbs for physical action and motor skills:|
FEELINGS AND ATTITUDES are observable emotions or indications of acceptance or rejection. Krathwohl, (1964) identified five categories listed from lowest to highest levels:
Receiving refers to the learner's willingness to attend to particular phenomena or stimuli. Learning outcomes in this area range from the simple awareness that something exists to selective attention on the part of the learner.
Example: Learners will be able to describe which foods are a good source of vitamins and minerals.
|Terms: Asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits erect, replies, uses,|
Responding refers to active participation on the part of the learner who not only attends to a particular phenomenon but also reacts to it in some way. Learning outcomes in this area may emphasize agreement to respond (reads assigned material), willingness to respond (voluntarily reads beyond assignment), or satisfaction in responding (reads for pleasure or enjoyment). The higher levels of this category include those instructional objectives that are commonly classified under "interests"; that is, those that stress the seeking out and enjoyment of particular activities.
Example (Responding ) : Learner compiles a list of possible income generating activities and reports findings on how to start a micro-enterprise after interviewing several small business owners.
|Terms : Answers, assists, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, presents, reads, tells, writes.|
Valuing is concerned with the worth or value a learner attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behaviour. This ranges in degree from the more simple acceptance of a value (desires to improve group skills) to the more complex level of commitment (assumes responsibility for the effective functioning of the group). Valuing is based on internalizing a set of specified values, but clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior. Learning outcomes in this area are concerned with behavior that is consistent and stable enough to make the value clearly identifiable. Instructional objectives that are commonly classified under "attitudes and "appreciation" would fall into this category.
Example: Learners will describe their values regarding family size and explain their preferences.
|Terms. Completes, describes, differentiates, explains, follows, forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies.|
Organizing is concerned with bringing together different values, resolving conflicts between them, and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system. Thus the emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Learning outcomes may be concerned with conceptualizing a value (recognized the responsibility of each individual for improving the environment) or with organizing a value system (develops a career plan that satisfies one's need for both economic security and social service). Instructional objectives relating to the development of a philosophy of life would fall into this category.
Example (Organizing): Learners develop their personal code of conduct and apply it to their commitment to improve the environment in their community.
|Terms :Adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies., orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes.|
Characterizing by a Value or Value Complex . At this level of the affective domain, the learner has a value system that has controlled his or her behaviour for a sufficiently long time for him or her to have developed a characteristic "life style". Thus the behaviour is pervasive, consistent, and predictable. Learning outcomes at this level cover a broad range of activities, but the major emphasis is on the fact that behaviour is typical or characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives that are concerned with the learner's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional) would be appropriate here.
Example: Learners will develop a personal plan of responsibility for their desired family size consistent with their values and lifestyle needs.