Cereal Policies Review, 1998-99

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The 1998-99 edition of the Cereal Policies Review is the eighth in the annual series on recent developments in national cereal policies and other issues of direct or indirect relevance with regional or global implications for cereals. The series was first launched in 1990-91 in response to the considerable interest in developments in cereal policies and their implications at both the national and international level. In particular, we hope that the information provided will be of use to policy makers, researchers and others concerned with the more general issues of agricultural development and food security.

The first chapter of this Review consists of a survey of developments in national cereal policies during the past year, based on information available to FAO. The discussion is organised under various sections, each examining the main change in policies affecting production, consumption, marketing and stocking, and trade. The information was collected from a variety of sources; including FAO policy questionnaires, news agencies, the Internet, government and FAO reports.

The second chapter examines the issues arising from the implementation of the Uruguay Round Agreement as well as those emerging for the next round of trade negotiations on agriculture from the perspective of the developing countries. In Chapter 3, we present part of our contribution to the ongoing debate on biotechnology. Specifically, this chapter examines the issues and policy implications of developments in cereal biotechnology for the developing countries.

Comments and suggestions on this publication may be sent to: Chief, Basic Foodstuffs Service, Commodities and Trade Division, FAO Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. In addition, we can be reached by email at:
esc-registry@fao.org or at http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/economic/comtrade.htm


H. de Haen
Officer-in-charge
Commodities and Trade Division


Table of Content

FOREWORD

1. REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENTS IN NATIONAL CEREAL POLICIES

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Production Policy
1.2.1 Africa
1.2.2 Asia
1.2.3 Latin America and the Caribbean
1.2.4 Europe
1.2.5 North America

1.3 Consumption Policy

1.4 Marketing and Stocking Policies

1.5 International Trade Policy
1.5.1 Trade Regulations Affecting Import and Market Access
1.5.2 Trade Measures Influencing Exporters' Incentives and Exports
1.5.3 Developments in Bilateral and Multilateral Trading Arrangements

1.6 Other Agricultural Policy Programmes and Incentives

2. THE MILLENNIUM ROUNG OF TRADE NEGOTIATIONS: AGRICULTURAL POLICY ISSUES FRO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Issues Relating to Domestic Support
2.2.1 Aggregate Measure of Support
2.2.2 Tariffication
2.2.3 Export Subsidies
2.2.4 Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

2.3 Issues Relating to Market Access
2.3.1 Higher Tariffs and Tariff Escalation
2.3.2 Tariff Rate Quota
2.3.3 Special Safeguard Provisions
2.3.4 Sanitary and Technical Barriers

2.4 Other Issues
2.4.1 Agricultural Market Stability
2.4.2 The Marrakech Decision

2.5 Conclusion

3. CEREAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: ISSUES AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Producer-Oriented Biotechnology
3.2.1 Cost-Reducing Technologies
3.2.2 Crop and Post-Harvest Loss Prevention
3.2.3 Yield-Enhancing Technologies

3.3 End-User Oriented Biotechnologies
3.3.1 Improving Cereal Quality
3.3.2 Development of New Uses and Traits for Cereals

3.4 Geographic and Commodity-Specific Developments in Cereal Biotechnology

3.5 Cross-Cutting Issues
3.5.1 Environmental and Bio-Safety Issues
3.5.2 International Trade Agreements

3.6 Implications of Biotechnology Developments for Developing Countries

3.7 Biotechnology Policy Options for Developing Countries

3.8 Summary and Conclusions

List of Boxes

1. Main Highlights of the CAP reform for Cereals
2. Japan's New Rice Policy
3. Main Features of China's Cereal Sector Reform

List of Figures and Tables

Figure 1. India's Cereal Support Prices, 1997/98-1999/2000

Table 1. Russia's Guaranteed Procurement Prices for Cereals, 1999/2000

Index of Countries

Contents of the Previous Issues of this Review