Population improvement:
A way of exploiting the
genetic resources of Latin America

Edited by
Elcio Perpétuo Guimarães


Rome, 2005


Table of Contents

Contact information:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
E-mail: [email protected]

Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement-Département des cultures annuelles (CIRAD-CA)
A.A. 6713, Cali, Colombia
E-mail: [email protected]

Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)
International Center for Tropical Agriculture
A.A. 6713, Cali, Colombia
E-mail: [email protected]

Embrapa Arroz e Feijão
75375-000 Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil
E-mail: [email protected]

Fundación para la Investigation Agricola-DANAC Apdo. Postal 182
Carretera San Javier-Guarataro, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela
E-mail: [email protected]

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© FAO 2005




In memoriam


Acronyms and abbreviations


Chapter 1: Exploiting Rice Genetic Resources through Population Improvement
Elcio Perpétuo Guimarães, Marc Châtel

Introgression of resistance genes
New gene combinations for obtaining varieties
Hybrid rice
Population improvement
Final comments

Chapter 2: Genetic Mean and Variability in Recurrent Selection
Orlando Peixoto de Morais

Importance of the population mean
Genetic variation
Final comments

Chapter 3: Selection Indices for Population Improvement Programmes
Isaias Olivio Geraldi

Basic principles of using selection indices
Response to selection based on indices
An example of using an index
Final comments

Chapter 4: Using Molecular Markers in Rice Population Improvement through Recurrent Selection
Brigitte Courtois, Denis Filloux, Nourollah Ahmadi, Jean-Louis Noyer, Claire Billot, Elcio Perpétuo Guimarães

Different types of molecular markers
Molecular markers for diversity studies
Molecular markers for mapping and marker-assisted selection
Possible use in population improvement programmes
Final comments

Chapter 5: Molecular Markers as Tools for Rice Population Improvement
Catalina Ramis, Ana Cláudia de Carvalho Badan, Elcio Perpétuo Guimarães, Antonio Díaz, Carlos Eduardo Gamboa

Does population PFD-1 have a broad genetic base?
Is genetic variability maintained between cycles 0 and 1?
Does using male sterility ensure free recombination of alleles within and between genes?
Final comments

Chapter 6: Participatory Rice Breeding, Using Population Improvement: A New Methodology Adapted to the Needs of Small Farmers in Central America and the Caribbean
Gilles Trouche

Breeding objectives
Diagnosing production problems and farmers’ demands
Sources of genetic materials for participatory breeding
Population improvement and line development
Participatory selection of lines
Prospects for the project in the region
Expected results


Chapter 7 Exploiting the Genetic Resources of Rice in Argentina through Population Improvement
María Antonia Marassi, Juan Eduardo Marassi, Marc Châtel, Yolima Ospina

Developing and managing new populations
Future plans

Chapter 8: Improving Irrigated Rice Populations for the Temperate Climate in Chile
Santiago I. Hernaiz-L., José Roberto Alvarado, Marc Châtel, Dalma Castillo, Yolima Ospina

Methodology used for population improvement in Chile
Methodology used for developing population lines
Pedigree method
Anther culture
Developing populations
Population improvement
Line development
Prospects for population improvement in Chile

Chapter 9: Advances in Population Improvement of Irrigated Rice in Brazil
Paulo Hideo Nakano Rangel, Antônio Carlos C. Cordeiro, Sérgio Iraçu Gindri Lopes, Orlando Peixoto de Morais, Claudio Brondani, Rosana P. Vianello Brondani, Satoru Yokoyama, Moacir Schiocchet, Richard Bacha, Takazi Ishiy

Genetic gain observed for yield in population CNA-IRAT 4
Effect of the number of recombination cycles on population CNA-5
Evaluating the genetic potential of population CNA-11
Synthesizing and improving populations without using male sterility
Developing irrigated rice cultivars through recurrent selection
Final comments

Chapter 10: Advances in the Venezuelan Recurrent Selection Programme for Population Improvement in Rice
Carlos Eduardo Gamboa, Eduardo José Graterol, Ramiro de la Cruz, Yorman Jayaro

Population improvement
Population PFD-2
Population PFD-1
Population PFD-1 (BE)
Population PCT-16
Population PCTFD-20
Developing lines
Final comments

Chapter 11: Acquiring a Basic Understanding of Rice Population Improvement for Use in Cuba
René Pérez Polanco, Marc Châtel, Elcio Perpetuo Guimarães

Characterizing new populations
Maintaining populations and conserving genetic variability
Population improvement for blast
Population improvement for low temperatures
How to unify population improvement with the classic method
Results of developing lines from populations
Prospects and future work plans

Chapter 12: Rice Population Improvement in Bolivia
Roger Taboada Paniagua, René Guzmán Arnez, Juana Viruez Justiniano, Tadao Kon

Characterizing introduced populations
Introduced populations and their management
Strategies for developing lines by exploiting populations
Results of strategies for selecting lines
Prospects for the methodology and future plans

Chapter 13: CIRAD/CIAT Rice Project: Population Improvement and Obtaining Rice Lines for the Savannah Ecosystem
Marc Châtel, Yolima Ospina, Francisco Rodríguez, Victor Hugo Lozano

Basic concepts
Evolving studies
Strategies for population improvement
Developing lines from the improved populations
Selecting lines for national programmes
Evaluating genetic diversity
Final comments

Chapter 14: Creating a Rice Population Resistant to Rhizoctonia solani Kühn
Nelly Delgado, Humberto Rodríguez

Genetic improvement strategy for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani
Criteria for selecting parental materials
Reaction of germplasm to the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani
Strategy for creating the population
Strategy for managing the population
Expected results

Chapter 15: Genetic Progress towards Grain Quality in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) through Recurrent Selection
César Pompilio Martínez, Silvio James Carabalí, Jaime Borrero, Myriam Cristina Duque, James Silva

Importance of rice and its quality
Genetic base and heritability of quality traits
Recurrent selection for improving quality
Materials and methods
Evaluating grain quality
Recurrent selection cycles
Preliminary results and discussion
Final comments, future plans

Chapter 16: Genetic Gain for Resistance to Blast in a Rice Population
Ana Cláudia de Carvalho Badan, Elcio Perpétuo Guimarães, Catalina Ramis

Creating and managing the population
Evaluation strategy and experimental design
Study of genetic gain
Conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 17: Effects of Selection and of Recombinations on an Upland-Rice Population
Yolima Ospina, Elcio Perpétuo Guimarães, Marc Châtel, Myriam Cristina Duque

Where, how and the materials used
Discussing the results
Population performance in acid soils
Response to selection and to recombinations
General discussion and recommendations

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