FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPERS 343
Michael B. New
Albert G.J. Tacon
FAO Fisheries Department
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
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ASEAN-EEC Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Rome, 1995
In December 1993, an expert consultation on farm-made feeds was jointly organized by the FAO Regional Office for the Pacific and Asia (FAO-RAPA) and the ASEAN-EEC Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme (AADCP). The proceedings of this meeting, the first to specifically address this topic, were edited by staff of AADCP and FAO. First published as FAO/RAPA Publication 1993/18 and AADCP Publication AADCP/PROC/5, the costs of production were shared by FAO-RAPA and AADCP. Demand was high and the original limited edition was only available in English. The book has been reprinted as an FAO document because of the importance of farm-made feeds in aquaculture and in order to broaden its distribution. Translation into other official FAO languages will also make the information available to more member states. Though the book concerns experience in the use of farm-made aquafeeds in Asia, it is also of particular relevance to Africa and Latin America.
FAO Fisheries Department
FAO Regional Fisheries Officers
FAO Aquaculture Projects
|New, M.B.; Tacon, A.G.J.; Csavas, I.(eds.)|
FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 343. Rome, FAO. 1994. 434 p.
|This book is the proceedings of a meeting held in Bangkok in December 1992 on the use of farm-made feeds in Asia. It contains eleven country reviews of the topic, for Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Nine technical papers are also included. Three are on-farm feed preparation and feeding strategies - for carps and tilapias, for catfish and snakehead, and for marine shrimp and prawns. Five other working papers are on economics, the selection of equipment, feed ingredients, formulation and on-farm management, and supplementary feeding in semi-intensive aquaculture, all directed at farm-made, rather than commercial feeds. The ninth working paper is a regional overview of aquafeeds in Asia. An analysis of the material in the eleven country papers is also presented. Emphasis is placed on the importance role, hitherto not completely recognized, of farm-made aquafeeds to aquaculture production in Asia. While it was estimated that 50% of shrimp production from aquaculture comes from commercial feeds, only 10% of Asian finfish is currently produced in this way. Although statistical data is non-existent it was speculated that over 1 million t of farm-made feeds are produced annually in Asia and that about one third of Asian finfish and crustacean production is achieved partially through their use. The proceedings also include the official report of the meeting, with recommendations aimed primarily at those concerned with research and development on aquafeeds and those organizations that fund such work. A strong plea is made for more attention to be paid to the needs of the small-scale farmers already using, or with the potential to use, farm-made feeds. Commercial feedstuff manufacturers are generally able to fund their own research and development on complete feeds for use in intensive aquaculture.|
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|Preparation of this document|
|Report of the expert consultation|
|Aquafeeds in Asia - a regional overview|
|Supplementary feeding in semi-intensive aquaculture systems|
|Feed formulation and on-farm feed management|
|Feed ingredients and quality control|
|On-farm feed preparation and feeding strategies for carps and tilapias|
|On-farm feed preparation and feeding strategies for catfish and snakehead|
|On-farm feed preparation and feeding strategies for marine shrimp and freshwater prawns|
|Selecting equipment for producing farm-made aquafeeds|
|Economics of on-farm aquafeed preparation and use|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Bangladesh|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Cambodia|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in China|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in India|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Indonesia|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Malaysia|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Nepal|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Philippines|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Singapore|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Thailand|
|Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Vietnam|
|ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS|
|A summary of information on aquafeed production in eleven Asian countries|
|M.B. New and I. Csavas|
|List of participants|
(14-18 December 1992, Bangkok, Thailand)
Opening of the session
The FAO/AADCP Regional Expert Consultation on Farm-Made Aquafeeds was held at the premises of the FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific(RAPA) in Bangkok, Thailand, from 14 to 18 December 1992.
The meeting was attendedby 15 participants from ten Asian countries, three staff members of AADCP, and four staff members and three consultants of FAO. Six national/international organizations(ASA,AIT,BOBP, BP Nutrition,SEAFDEC AQD and SEAPRODEX) delegated eight participants to the Expert Consultation at their own expense.
Welcoming addresses were delivered by Mr. Imre Csavas, Regional Aquaculture Officer, on behalf of FAO and Mr. Michael B. New, Coordinator, on behalf of AADCP.
Organization of the meeting
Participants elected Dr. Felicitas P.Pascual as Chairperson of the Expert Consultation and Dr. M.C. Nandeesha as Rapporteur.
The draft agenda of the meeting was adopted without changes.
A total of 10 country papers on aquafeeds and feeding strategies were presented at the Expert Consultation , covering Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.
Another 9 technical papers covering crucial aspects of aquafeed manufacturing and use as well as farm-made feed preparation and feeding strategies for the most important species groups were also presented by acknowledged experts in these special fields.
Summary of findings
The Consultation recognized the fact that the bulk of Asian finfish and crustacean aquaculture production is currently realized in semi-intensive pond farming systems. The great majority of these farming systems, and in particular freshwater non-carnivorous finfish production (which accounts for over 80% of the total finfish production in Asia) depend upon the use of farmmade feeds. Some intensive systems, notably the cage culture of marine fish and some carnivorous freshwater finfish(e.g. snakehead and catfish species), also use farm-made feeds. Only about 10% of Asian finfish production is based on the use of commercial feeds, whereas almost 50% of shrimp production depends on commercial feeds.
It was realized that there is a lack of an exact definition for farm-made aquafeeds. For the purpose of this Expert Consultation farm-made feeds were defined as feeds in pellet or other forms, consisting of one or more artificial and/or natural feedstuffs, produced for the exclusive use of a particular farming activity, not for commercial sale or profit.
The Consultation recognized that there is an increasing tendency for farmers to utilize commercial feeds formulated as nutritionally complete diets in semi-intensive pond-farming systems. However, the Consultation reiterated that the nutrition and feeding of finfish and crustaceans in semi-intensive pond farming systems are complex and poorly understood; little or no information being available on dietary nutrient requirements of the cultured species in such systems. To a large extent this is due to the difficulties of quantifying the contribution of naturally available food organisms in the overall nutritional budget of pond-raised finfish or crustaceans.
The Consultation recognized that farm-made feeds facilitate the use of locally available agricultural products and wastes of agro-processing industries that would otherwise have limited use within the community. In this respect, their use in farm-made feeds has significant environmental advantages. However, the Consultation also recognized the current dependence of commercial and, to a lesser extent, farm-made feeds upon animal protein sources and the need to identify and utilize alternative protein sources which are both inexpensive and sustainable.
The Consultation recognized that farm-made feeds are potentially cheaper than commercial aquafeeds and that there is scope for a reduction in feed and farm production costs using appropriate on-farm feed management techniques for semi-intensive and some intensive aquafarming systems.
The Consultation recognized that farm-made feeds fill an important niche for small-scale farmers which is not covered by commercial feedstuff manufacturers. However, it was also noted that those farmers whose initial success was based on the use of farm-made aquafeeds often shift to the use of commercial feeds. Thus improvements in the production and use of farm-made feeds would ultimately benefit the feedstuff industry as well.
14. This Consultation being the first which has dealt with farm-made aquafeeds, participants unanimously recommend that the proceedings of the Consultation should be published , with an analysis of the information in the country papers, and circulated widely to governments, international agencies, and potential donors to:
alert them to the importance of farm-made feeds to small-scale aquaculture and to the need for technical support; and to
persuade donors that future aid concerning feed development should concentrate on farm-made feeds; public sector funding should primarily assist small-scale farmers, not feed manufacturers.
The approach towards this topic should be “bottom-up” rather than “top-down”; preconceived ideas should not be forced on farmers but
improvements on farmers' existing practices should be developed, and
the fact that improvements can lead to greater profitability without compromising environmental quality, should be demonstrated.
Recognizing that farm-made feeds can utilize locally available ingredients, simple and cheap methods of increasing their nutritional value for fish and crustacea should be developed, with particular reference to digestibility, removal of toxic substances, and palatability.
Bearing in mind the needs of small-scale farmers.
the development or improvement of simple and cheap machinery for farm-made feed production should be encouraged; and
improved techniques for on-farm processing and storage developed.
Considering that farm-made feeds, whether for intensive aquaculture (e.g. marine fish in cages or snakehead in ponds) or for semi-intensive systems (such as pond culture of freshwater prawns), feed advisers should formulate feeds based on:
locally available ingredients;
the nutritional requirements of the specific farming system rather than mimicking commercial feed specifications;
the minimal use of vitamin premixes, binders and other expensive ingredients to maximize cost effectiveness;
improved knowledge of the role of natural food organisms in semi-intensive farming based on systems which optimize pond fertilization; and
an emphasis on the quality of the ingredients and of the final product.
Bearing in mind that the potential for improved profitability in small-scale aquaculture is greater through improvements in feeding strategy rather than through perfect dietary composition, developmental work should focus on:
methods of feed presentation, including the separate feeding of energy-providing ingredients from high protein mixed feed;
the investigation of other two-component systems (e.g. alternation of feeds of different composition, alternation of different feeding rates);
biomass assessment of the cultured species;
reduction of feed wastage, in the farming enclosure and during manufacture and storage; and
farmer-friendly sensory methods of assessing ingredient quality.
In view of the need for training of farmers in simple formulation and in ingredient choice, aquafeed processing, storage and on-farm feed management,
village level training should be organization in local languages;
instructional videos developed; and
simple booklets prepared (e.g. in the FAO ``Better Farming'' series) for farmers and training manuals for trainers which can easily be translated into local languages.