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SECTION II (contd.)




The average growth of milk consumption in Asia has been around 5% whilst the world average is about 1%. Milk production at 27 kg per capita fall below the milk consumption per capita which is at 30 kg.

Wide regional variations on milk availability however exist within the Asian region. Dairy production is based on crop residues and agricultural by-products and there is potential to increase regional milk production as dairying is fully integrated into the farming system.

Buffaloes produce over 35% of milk in Asia but only 7% of the world milk production. There is need for other countries to realise the benefits that can be achieved in utilizing buffalo milk.

High seasonal fluctuations negatively impact on dairy production in Asia and imports varying from 23 to 97% are used to supplement local production.

The formation of dairy networks like ASEAN and the Asian Development Bank and South Asia Association for Regional Co-operation is seen as important for dairy development of the dairy sector in Asia especially the formation of an Asian Dairy Network.

1.0 Dairying in Asia

1.1 Background

Asia with 60% population of the world accounts for only 20% of the world's milk production. The total world milk production of about 500 million tonnes for a population of about 5 billion people amount to an average annual per capita milk consumption of 100 kg. Asian milk production is only about 27 kg per capita and the consumption is about 30 kg per capita. Some 10% of milk consumed in Asia is imported, with local milk production accounting for 90% of the milk consumption.

Other sources of animal protein like meat and eggs are also not available to the Asian populations in the desired quantities. While the world average annual meat and eggs consumption is about 40 kg per capita, Asians consume only about half of the world average i.e. 20 kg per capita.

The rate of growth of milk consumption in Asia has however been around 5% over the past decade as compared to the world average growth rate of about 1%. The consumption of meat and eggs has also doubled over the past decade. The Asian livestock production index has been around 134 (1980:100) as compared to the world index of 104 over the 1980 – 1990 decade.

The redeeming factor, however, is the availability and higher consumption of beans and pulses which supply the bulk of the protein requirements.

1.2 Regional Variations

Milk production and per capita availability of milk in the region varies a great deal as shown in Table 1. Whilst countries like Pakistan and Japan have a per capita availability of milk which is either close to or exceeds the world average, the world's most populous country, China consumes only about 6% of the world consumption of milk. The importance of milk cannot be over-emphasized. Japanese are reported to have grown four inches taller over two generations ever since they started consuming more milk. China now wants to produce more milk so as to improve the quality of the national diet.

9 International Agro-project Consultants, New Delhi

Table 1: Milk Production and Availability in Selected Asian Countries (1990)

COUNTRYMilk Production
(million tons)
Milk Imports
(000 tons)
Total Milk availability
(million tons)
Per Capita
Bangladesh1 0035321 53513.6
China6 6398517 4906.6
India51 5003251 53262.0
Iran2 7119343 64568.4
Pakistan13 70816313 871116.9
Philippines341 1721 20619.8
Sri Lanka20737758434.2
Japan8 0602 47610 53685.6

India has now emerged as the second largest producer of milk in the world, after United States of America and aims to become the largest producer by the year 2000, which is not all that far. Currently, the Indian per capita consumption of milk has nearly doubled over the past twenty years to 66 kg/year.

1.3 Development of Milk Production and Milk Marketing

The Development of milk production in many parts of Asia is based on utilization of crop residues and agricultural by-products. Milk production is thus fully integrated with the rest of agriculture. The crop residue-agricultural by-products, dairying system now yields as much economic return as the main crops like wheat, rice, millets, maize etc.

Milk production in Asian countries is demand driven (even at the cost of imports) on one hand and production driven (to utilize crop-residues) on the other. The income elasticity for expenditure on milk in India for example is 1.5. For every 1% increase in income, the expenditure on milk goes up by 1.5% of the increased income.

India has some 90 million farming families cultivating 140 million hectares and rearing some 90 million milch animals. With a cropping extensity of 1.3, the average cultivated land holding is 2 hectares of land and a milch cow or a buffalo. The income from the dairying system matches the income from the main crop.

1.3.1 Role of Buffaloes

Buffaloes play an important role in milk production in Asia as they are fairly efficient converters of wheat/paddy straw into milk and produce 35% of milk in Asia. The role played by buffaloes however varies from region to region as shown in Table 2.

1.3.2 Import Led Marketing

In several countries in Asia, imports of dairy products, both as finished products in consumer packs and dairy commodities for recombination into milk have helped in creating a market and a processing industry. Table 3 shows the proportion of imports of all milk supplies in some Asian countries.

Table 2: Buffalo Milk as% of Total Milk Production

COUNTRYBuffalo Milk as% of Total Milk ProductionCOUNTRYBuffalo Milk as% of Total Milk Production

(95% of all the buffalo milk produced in the world is in Asia).

Table 3: Imports as a Percentage of Milk Available

Country% Milk ImportedCountry% Milk Imported
Indonesia40Sri Lanka65

1.3.3 Problems and Constraints

Low productivity of cattle is the most important problem in the dairy sector in Asia. Though Asia has one third of the world cattle and buffaloes population it only produces 20% of the world throughput of milk. Milk production in Asia is also highly seasonal with the procurement of milk in India during the lean summer months dropping to as low as 30 – 40% of the flush season. Urban milk production is another curse on the dairy sector and this needs to be shifted to the rural areas as has happened in some parts of the world.

Poor infrastructure for transportation, processing and marketing of milk combined with high ambient temperatures is a challenge to the diary industry in many of the Asian countries. Poor quality milk received by the processing plants is a major constraint in producing world class products.

The availability of oil cakes (India is one of the largest exporters of oil cakes in the world) and crop residues is a major opportunity to increase milk production in the Asian region.

Dairying is a labour intensive activity and there is no shortage of manpower in many of the Asian countries which can be effectively used. Good land, plenty of water, high ambient temperatures and sunshine is another resource which cuts down on the capital expenditure needed on animal housing etc.

2.0 Regional Dairy Network for Asia

2.1 International Framework

There are several Asian institutions engaged in regional cooperation. The foremost institution that is quite active in ASEAN, Asian Development Bank and now the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). These associations for regional cooperation aims at setting up preferential trading blocks and hopefully one day, common markets.

The SAARC council has recently sponsored a study to explore the possibilities of setting up dairy projects in the region. One of the major recommendations of the study is to have a SAARC Dairy Association and a SAARC Milk Grid. These measures would promote regional cooperation and draw on the natural advantages of the region. This would also lead to better utilization of feed resources of the region and more efficient use of cattle and buffaloes for milk and meat purposes.

2.2 Institutions Involved in Dairying

Many countries in the Asian region have apex level organizations for the development of the dairy industry in the form of Milk Boards, Dairy Development Boards/Corporations and Milk Producers Organizations. Many countries also have Dairy/Dairy Science Associations of professionals involved in dairying.

Most countries in the region have now opened up milk processing to the private sector as part of the liberalization of their economies. The private sector is thus making inroads into this sector which in many cases was the domain of the cooperatives/public sector. The role of Government is now seen as that of the guiding, promoting and monitoring authority.

2.3 The Asian Dairy Network

There is need for an Asian Dairy Network which can help in optimal utilization of regional resources. This includes resourceslike feeds, cattle, buffaloes, equipment, manufactures, training facilities, research capabilities and professional skills in planning, implementing and management of dairy development programmes and diary projects.

This would hopefully lead to more efficient milk production, processing and marketing of milk and milk products. Initially, the network can be started in SAARC and ASEAN regions and then integrated into an Asian Network.

The Network can initially be an information exchange, receiving and disseminating real time information on milk production, stocks, prices future demand and availability of milk and milk products. It can also serve as an information pool for scientific research and technical information emanating out of the region and linked to other regions of the world.

The Asian Network will also have to pay special attention to buffaloes and buffaloes milk, because of their importance in the dairy industry of the region.

Comments:Crop residues like wheat and maize straw can be used as dairy feed as straw of some crops is digestible material and can be used supplemented by proteins.
Question:Do cultural factors interfere with dairy production in India, for example what happens to culled dairy cows?
Answer:The issue of cow slaughtering is a political issue farmers however do sell the cows to slaughter houses and do not have to be involved in the process.
Question:Most participants have emphasized quality of milk but you do seem to down play its role?
Answer:The issue of quality is not critical because the marketing system focuses on local markets, when local demand has been met, we can start talking about export quality. On most local markets, milk is however, sold pasteurized and chilled.
Question:What is the secret behind the success of India's co-operatives?
Answer:Co-operatives are only as good as the political system within which they exist. So failure of co-operatives is more of a political phenomena.
Comments:Farmers attitude and culture has a strong bearing on success of co-operatives and whether its viewed as a business or not will determine its success or failure.


Getachew Felleke10


This paper raises numerous issues crucial for the development of dairy activities on small scale, resource-poor farms. Partly described in the context of the Ethiopian smallholder, the paper emphasizes the importance of ensuring that improved dairying is well integrated into the farmer's current activities. The author stresses avoiding inappropriate dairy development which ignores the farmer's own priorities and resources. Instead he advocates for improved dairy performance which recognises the farmer's starting point: an issue which applies in virtually all developing countries.

1.0 Introduction

In the context of the smallholder in the Ethiopian highlands, dairy development must fit in with, and be complementary to the farming system. This paper presents an overview of the major issues by discussing the fundamental principles of initiating improved dairy development at the smallholder level.

It is important to remember that dairying, albeit at a very basic level (and usually as a subsidiary to the raising of work oxen) is already an integral part of most smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia. The current concern is to increase production and improve both the nutritional and income status of the population. In the process, however, dairy must be an integral part of the farming system for smallholders.

Successful integration will ensure its lasting adoption and failure to integrate will result in rejection because small scale farmers generally cannot afford the resources for a stand-alone enterprise.

2.0 Smallholder Dairy Production Systems in Ethiopia

The smallholder is basically a subsistence farmer who markets produce when there is a surplus. Although no definitive data are available on the Ethiopian smallholder population and the productivity, the following summary is in line with generally accepted estimates.

From the figures in Table 1 it is clear that there is scope for considerable improvement in the productivity of indigenous cattle even without the widespread introduction of crossbred cattle.

The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) produces crossbred heifers which the Dairy Rehabilitation and Development Project (DRDP) distributes. These improved cattle can play a key role in dairy development but they are accessible only to farmers who have the feed resources and management skills to exploit their superior genetic potential in milk production.

One advantage in working with the smallholder farmers is that once he or she is convinced that it is profitable or advantageous to adopt a certain course of action, implementation can occur at once without waiting for a committee decision. So if the required inputs are available, the smallholder is capable of a rapid response.

2.1 Definition of Dairying for the Smallholder

What is our concept of “dairying?” Freisian cows in a milking parlor with udders trailing the ground? Thirty litres of milk a day loaded cans and sent off to market in the back of pick-up? Or crossbred cows, concentrate-fed with an expected yield of 2,000 litres per lactation?

10 Manager, Dairy Rehabilitation and Development Project, Ministry of Agriculture Ethiopia

Table 1: Status of Smallholder Dairying in Ethiopia

Total number of smallholders6 million
Average number of persons/household5 persons
Land holding/household0.4 – 4.0 hectares (range)
Total number of cows owned by smallholder6 – 8 million
Average milk produced/cow/lactation150 – 250 litres (excluding calf feed)
Average calving interval20 – 24 months
Average age at first calving48 months
Average calf mortality rate (<1 year)10% (estimated)
Average total cash transactions/hhd/year200 – 500 Ethiopian birr

We need to re-think what we mean by “smallholder dairying”. A key question regards what the farm family can sustain in terms of animal feed production without jeopardizing the family's own food supply. In the majority of cases the substitutability is very low given that the farmer may have one or two oxen. Therefore, we need to start out with an attainable target for the smallholder. For milk production such goals may include well managed indigenous cattle which can produce extra milk. Alternatively, we could aim for cattle with a low level exotic blood whose male offspring can be drought oxen. Finally, crossbred heifers with 50% or more of exotic blood can be introduced.

If milk production is currently two litres per day and an increase to four litres is achieved then production has risen by 100%. Should the farmer decide to continue keeping one litre for the family and the rest for sale, this production increase enables 200% greater milk sales. The overall lesson is that the starting point counts when dealing with small scale agriculture.

2.2 Approaches in Development and the Rationale for Smallholder Dairy Development

Given the above description of the smallholder, how do we set about ensuring the integration of dairying into smallholder farming systems? Numerous issues arise in answering this question.

2.2.1 Know the Farming System

How does the system operate? What is the cropping and fallow sequence? Could a crossbred cow be accommodated into the system, or would it have to be herded and housed individually? Is there surplus animal fed; if not, could the systems be modified to include forage crops? How much land is needed to supply the food requirements of the family? Will the cultivation of annual forage crops conflict with planting times for cereal crops? Will hay making conflict with labour required for grain harvesting?

2.2.2 Know the Farmer

Know the community, the farmer's aspirations, and his requirements. What part does milk play in the local diet? Is increased milk production likely to prove attractive to the family? Is there a local market for milk or milk products? Does the farmer rear his own work oxen; if he does, what level of exotic breed (if any) is most suitable for him? Can he keep both a crossbred cow for milk and a local cow to raise replacement oxen? Or is he better off having his own local cow mated to an improved indigenous breed in the first instance, producing 2 – 4 litres per day from native pasture, and having males which can be used as work oxen, instead of 8 – 10 litres from a crossbred cow and a “cut and carry” forage system? Look at the farm labour profile: is there enough labour to carry up to 50 kilograms of fresh material per day and to remove the manure?

One characteristic of indigenous cattle is that in times of feed stress, milk production will cease in order to conserve energy. This phenomenon is known as survivability. The higher the level of exotic blood in a dairy cow, the greater the tendency to keep on producing milk even when feed intake is low. Thus the animal becomes weaker and susceptible to disease and death. If the farmer can feed and manage a crossbred cow then make it available; if he cannot, then look for an alternative. In everything, however, be honest with the farmer because that is the way to gain his confidence.

Is dairying complementary to existing farm practices or it is likely to compete in terms of time (labour), land use and capital? If dairy activities compete, can they be more profitable than the enterprise with which they compete? Does the smallholder actually want to develop dairying as an enterprise? Time is important to the small scale farmer. Dairying makes demands in terms of time and the crossbred cow requires more attention than the indigenous cow(the higher the level of exotic blood, the more time input is usually needed). Many of the tasks associated with dairy cattle are considered the work of women and children. Therefore we need to ask whether the family labour resources are able to handle these tasks. Dairy extension material should address such issues when seeking to promote dairy development among smallholders in addition to presenting the potential benefits of dairying.

3.0 The Nature of Dairy Interventions for the Smallholder

Appropriate dairy interventions are such a vital part of the dairy development strategy that “Appropriate Forage Interventions” have been dealt with as a separate topic. In recent years, much research and development work undertaken in dairy production and technology around the world has been at the “high” end of the technology scale where the results are more spectacular. However, when dealing with the rural smallholder the challenge is to look at the “low” end of the spectrum and develop and adapt interventions which the smallholder with limited resources can use. In order of priority, the three most important factors in improved dairy production are feeding, veterinary care, and breeding.

One must consider such items as the best type of “dairy” cow for the farmer. Is it improved indigenous breed, crossbred, or even grad cattle? And what exotic breed should be used for the production of a crossbreed: Freisian or Jersey? And to what blood level? (The Jersey crosses are smaller with lower body maintenance requirements and give milk in places like Hararge where individual land holdings are too small to sustain a dairy cow?

The answers to these questions today are not necessarily the same as they would be next year because the system is dynamic. Development must start at a level of technology which the farmer can handle and about which he feels confident. In some cases, dairy development should start with the farmer feeding and managing his own local cow better. Eventually, the cow may be mated with a 50% or more exotic bull when the farmer's feed resources and management skills have developed.

With increasing pressure on land, peasant farmers are going to have to adopt single ox traction. When heavier task are involved farmers can share work oxen. In some areas crossbred work oxen now command a premium price and the cows which mothered them give up to 8 – 10 litres of milk per day. This is one form of integrated dairy development.

What is the appropriate level of dairy technology when it comes to milk marketing and processing? Again, start at a level which is comfortable for the farmer. Perhaps the sale of fresh milk and butter is feasible at present with goals of making hard and soft cheeses for city markets in two or three years. This part of dairy development is where the “milk colony” or producer group plays an important role. Forming a group of like-minded farmers who will jointly market their milk and perhaps share some other resources may be catalytic for development due to economies of scale and division of labour possibilities.

How do we in the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) encourage and promote appropriate dairy interventions for smallholders? First and foremost, there must be commitment to a long term plan with phased extension inputs. Start out with improvement of the animal feeding programme. This activity must include both improved animal husbandry and crop utilisation such as introduction of legumes and Napier grass. Strengthening veterinary services is also important e.g. making anti-helminthic and routine vaccinations widely available so that the cattle can make best use of feed. Better veterinary services will also help to reduce calving intervals and mortality. Making improved bulls - both indigenous and crossbred - available to farmers and their groups will stimulate improvements in animal breeds. Upgrading local infrastructure will facilitate milk marketing as will the promotion of milk processing and the availability of appropriate processing equipment.

4.0 Basis for Deciding the Level of Dairy Intervention for Smallholders

The following remarks are not to be taken as criteria for the selection of smallholder dairy farmers and areas. Rather, they are guides as to the levels and types of dairy interventions which are most appropriate for integration into the smallholder farming system.

Does the farmer need his “dairy cow” for the breeding of replacement work oxen? If the does, then this function places a constraint on the breeding programme. If he has never owned a crossbred cow it is unlikely that he will wan a crossbred ox. It is alright for him to work on improving production with the indigenous cattle.

Is good quality feed available for at least 3 – 4 months of the year? If the feed is of sufficient quality to exploit the genetic potential of a 50% crossbred cow then introduce the improved breed. If not, it is better to keep the indigenous cow until the feed supply improves breed. If not, it is better to keep the indigenous cow until the feed supply improves because the farmer will get almost as much milk as with a crossbreed but with fewer management problems.

Are the veterinary services in the area adequate for disease control among crossbred stock? Improved cattle, especially heifers reared on MoA ranches, have not been exposed to many of the disease they may encounter on the farm.

Therefore, there must be veterinary assistance available to avoid losses, and to supervise acaricide and anti-helminthic treatments, to handle reproductive problems, etc. Because a crossbred cow needs more care and management inputs, it is economically important to ensure that she calves regularly. If veterinary services are inadequate, it is better for the farmer to remain with the indigenous breed for the time being.

In order to feed the “dairy cow” should the farmer be encouraged to substitute forage for grain crops? Although the farmer knows the approximate area required to provide food for the family, there is always a safety margin for crop failure due to drought, pests and other factors. The farmer should not be encourage to reduce his safety margin beyond reasonable limits. Ideally, the dairy enterprise should be complementary to existing activities. Yet maximum use should be made of forage and feed strategies which do not require much substitution of animal feed for crops grown for human consumption (especially in view of the likely rise of grain prices in the liberalised market). The main attraction of income derived form milk and milk products is that, although the revenue may be small, it is nevertheless regular and usually provides the household cash flow. Once it is demonstrated that an increase in milk yield is possible and that a market for the products exists, farmers may sense enough of an incentive to develop and expand the dairy enterprises in their own way.

Comment:Malawi's experience was that when payments are less frequent i.e. monthly it improved the running of the household and income was ploughed back into the product.
Comment:Dairy development means development and improvement as well as structural change, daily payment can have negative effect on development of the community.
Comment:Gender sensitivity is important for the Network as it could help in development of more effective dairy development policies.
Comment:There is need to research the labour allocation in dairy development projects and recommended appropriate policies.


Stephen G. Mbogoh and Michael Okoth 11


The development of market oriented dairy production requires that milk safe from microbiological contamination is available to the consumer at affordable prices. Several technical consideration need to be taken into cognisance namely milk quality control at reception, milk testing as well as cooling options at collecting centres are some of the crucial issues. This paper outlines some of milk clarification and cooling techniques that could be used by smallholder dairy producers and processors. The economic consideration of costs pricing and payments as well as methods of determining units of payment based on quantity and quality are also covered.

11 S. G. Mboghoh is Associate Professor and Chair and M. Okothi is a Lecturer in Dept of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya

1.0 Introduction

A fundamental requirement for a public milk supply system is that it will be safe, i.e. it will not be a medium for the growth and transmission of organisms responsible for human diseases. Further, the system should be able to provide milk to consumers at affordable prices. Hence the system should not be expensive, so that whatever measures are taken in order to make and keep milk safe for human consumption should be cost effective.

Under most dairying conditions in East Africa, milk is produced in rural areas, whereas it is mainly sold to consumers in urban areas. Hence it becomes necessary to establish milk collection and cooling centres, especially in the rural areas, in order to ensure that enough milk can be bulked and preserved as fresh milk before being transmitted onwards for sale and/or processing in urban areas.

2.0 Technical Considerations

2.1 General Issues

The major technical issues that need to be considered in the design and establishment of a milk collection and cooling centre include the following:

The technical lay-out of milk collection and cooling centres must be such as to facilitate milk reception, measuring, clarification and cooling before storage (if the latter is necessary). The size of the building structure and the method of cooling must be related to the expected throughput.

2.2 Milk Quality Control at Reception

As noted by Westergaard (1985), the term “milk” as applied for the milk which is to be received at a collection centre exclusively means the normal mammary secretion which is obtained from one or more milkings of a dairy animal without either addition thereto or extraction therefrom. And we are more concerned with cow's milk when we consider establishing a milk collection and cooling system for small-scale dairy producers under the Eastern and Southern African or Kenyan conditions.

It is important that milk is examined immediately before it is delivered to a collection centre and/or milk plant in order to determine whether it is of acceptable quality. If not, it should be rejected in order to avoid endangering the quality of the centre's or plant's final product, such as liquid milk, butter or cheese. The examination of milk in order to determine its quality is normally based on a combination of both physical and chemical properties.

Normally good cow's milk has a colour which varies from pale or bluish white to yellowish white, and the yellow tint is due to the carotene pigment in the fat. Good milk has no smell or flavours. And the taste of good milk can be divided into two components:

  1. the balance between the milk sugar's sweet taste and the ashe's salty taste;
  2. the balance between fat and protein.

The first component results in a pleasant sweet taste, while the second component gives the taste its fullness. These physical properties of milk can be ascertained through what are referred to as organoleptic tests. Therefore, good quality milk which qualifies to be accepted at a purchaser's milk collection or processing plant should meet the following requirements:

  1. it should be clean, in terms of having low bacterial content and being free from visible dirt;
  2. it should be healthy, by being free from any pathogenic secretion;
  3. it should be of natural composition, by being free from adulteration and addition of any other foreign substances.

In order to ensure that the milk received at a collection centre is of normal or good quality, it is important to carry out some tests before accepting the milk delivered to the collection centre. The various tests that can be carried out, some on the platform and some in the laboratory, include the following:

2.2.1 Platform Tests:

  1. Organoleptic tests for MKQ
  2. Alcohol test for MKQ
  3. Alcohol Alizarin test for MKQ
  4. Clot-on-boiling test for MKQ
  5. Lactometer test for MCP

2.2.2 Platform and/or Laboratory Tests:

  1. Sediment test for MCL
  2. Acidity test for MKQ
  3. Resazurin test for MKQ
  4. Methylene blue test for MKQ

2.2.3 Laboratory Tests:

  1. Freezing Point test for MCP
  2. Fat test for MCP
  3. Solids-not-fat test for MCP
  4. Bacterial (colony) counts test for MKQ
  5. Coliform test for MCL
  6. Brucella organism test for MSF
  7. Microscopic examinations for MKQ
  8. Protein test for MCP
Note that: 
MKQ=milk keeping quality.
MCL=milk cleanliness.
MCP=milk composition.
MSF=milk safety.

Not all tests can be carried out immediately at the milk collection centre before a decision to accept or reject the milk delivered can be made. For this reason only the essential tests (ET) should be carried out immediately, while the desirable tests (DT) should be adopted at the earliest opportunity, with higher priority desirable tests (HDT) being adopted before the lower priority desirable tests (LDT) are considered for adoption.

Among the tests (platform and laboratory tests) given under (1), (2) and (3) above:

  1. the ET tests are the platform tests (1) (I) - (1) (v);
  2. the HDT tests are platform and/or laboratory tests (2) (I) - (2) (iv) and laboratory tests (3) (ii) and (3) (vi);
  3. the LDT tests are the remaining tests under (3), i.e. tests (3) (I), (3) (iii) - (3) (v), (3) (vii) and (3) (viii).

Platform tests are rapid tests on which acceptance or rejection of milk can be based. They are basically tests to be carried out on raw milk. Laboratory tests are the tests on the basis of which milk can be graded according to microbial population or composition. They are also normally undertaken on raw milk, but the coliform test is normally undertaken as a test of the efficiency of heat treatments of milk. The other test which is normally carried out to determine the efficiency of heat treatments of milk is the phosphatase test.

The organoleptic tests are based on smell, appearance and taste and thus permit rapid segregation of the poor milk if a skilled person with good senses of smell, sight and taste is used to carry them out. These tests are universally applied, and are to be complemented by the others, especially those for milk keeping quality.

The alcohol test is mainly used to detect the degree of acidity of the supplier's milk: milk coagulates when mixed with an equal proportion of 68% alcohol if it is contaminated with lactic-acid producing microbes, or if it has increased albumen (colostrum) or salt (mastitis) concentration. The alcohol test is quick and objective, and any positive cases should be rejected.

The alcohol alizarin test involves addition of alizarin indicator to the alcohol test, with the colour change from red-brown to yellow being further evidence of bad milk.

The clot-on-boiling test measures the degree of acidity of milk and involves boiling a small amount (2–5 cc) of milk in any suitable container. If clotting (coagulation or precipitation) occurs, this indicates that the milk is bad because it has a large number of acid-producing bacteria.

The Lactometer (an instrument) is used to detect milk adulteration, by determining the milk density-normal milk density is 1.028 – 1.034; skimmed milk density is 1.033 – 1.036; cream 20% density is 1.0230. Hence lactometer test can detect much more than milk adulteration with water: e.g. if there are some substandards in total solids content, or if fat is removed from the original milk, or if skim milk is added to the natural (normal) milk. However, lactometer tests are not conclusive, but they are advisory because they may not detect low levels of adulteration, and the results may be misleading at times.

The sediment test involves filtering a definite amount of milk through a white cotton pad and observing the character and amount of residue. Amount of residue found in milk may serve to help people learn how to improve on milk quality and the test does not lead to milk rejection.

The acidity test involves determination of the acid content in milk due to presence of acid-producing bacteria. The test is normally done to determine if accepted milk in storage is still good for pasteurization, or if it is good to be used as a starter culture (e.g. in preparation of fermented products).

The resazurin test and the Methylene Blue test measure the general bacteriological condition of raw milk.

The Gerber test for milk fat content, the determination of solids-not-fat in milk, and the Kjeldahl's method for milk protein determination all attempt to determine milk quality on the basis of milk solids. These solids are useful depending on the type of dairy product that is desired to be processed.

Tests involving bacterial count help to determine the milk keeping quality, while brucella and coliform tests determine if milk is safe for consumption. The microscopic examinations further reinforce the bacteriological counts and brucella and coliform tests. The phosphatase and coliform tests, as insinuated earlier, actually determine the efficiency of heat treatment of milk.

Whatever tests are to be carried out at a milk collection centre, they must be sufficient to ensure that the milk accepted is of good keeping quality and is also safe for human consumption.

2.3 Milk Reception and Cooling Options at Collection Centres

It has been shown in Section 2.2 that the milk delivered at a collection centre must be tested for quality before it can be accepted. Following acceptance of the milk, it is necessary to measure the quality received for the purposes of the payment for the milk received and for the milk collection centre's own inventory control over incoming and outgoing amounts of milk. The milk received can be measured in two ways:

  1. by weight;
  2. by volume.

As Pedersen (1985) observes, weighing of milk is the most accurate of the two methods of measuring milk. Measurement by volume is subject to error due to differences in temperature, air and water content, etc.

After being received in the vat, milk can be channelled forward directly either for processing or for further storage. If milk is not to be pasteurized within ONE hour after it is received, it must be cooled down to 4 – 5°C (39 – 41° F) before storage.

For further channelling of milk within the collection and cooling centre, it is necessary to have one or more milk pumps installed within the centre. Such pumps must fulfil the following conditions:

  1. they must not give the milk or cream such a hard mechanical treatment that it gets spoilt;
  2. they should not cause foaming;
  3. they must be tight, so that oil does not run into the milk, and milk does not run into the motor, and air does not go into the pump house and cause foaming;
  4. those parts of the pump that come into contact with milk or the cream must be of a stainless material (such as stainless steel) in order to facilitate cleaning;
  5. they must be easy to dissemble for inspections, change of gaskets and cleaning;
  6. they must be reliable.

The most commonly used type of pumps at milk collection and cooling centres is of centrifugal form, which is driven by a direct coupled flange-type motors.

It is also important that milk is clarified after reception at collection centres. The clarification of milk can be effected by:

2.3.1 Wire gauze filter

A wire gauze filter is normally placed between the receiving vat and the pumps. This filter prevents solid articles, i.e. pieces of straw, stone, cloth, sand etc, from getting into the pumps and pipelines and causing damage to them.

2.3.2 Cotton and Cloth filters

Filtration with a cloth or cotton filter usually takes place under the pasteurization process when the milk has been partially heated in its passage through the pasteurizer, because at that slightly elevated temperature the viscosity of the milk goes down and its passage through the filter becomes easier.

There are many types of both cotton and cloth filters which stop such impurities as hair, dust, soil and other debris.

By employing two such filter units in parallel, it is possible to use them alternately so that one filter may be taken out of use for replacement without interruption in the flow of milk.

2.3.3 Centrifugal Clarification

Centrifugal clarification normally takes place under the pasteurization process before the milk reaches the pasteurization temperature.

The clarification is often done by ordinary separators, but a special clarifier is also found. In this case the integral design is slightly modified so that the cream and separated milk do not flow separately from the machine but are led together again.

The centrifugal clarification method is more efficient than the cotton or cloth filter one, because it is able to remove more dust and dirt together with dead epithelial cells.

This can have an importance when milk is to be homogenized because traces of insoluble matter, particularly epithelial cells can give occasionally a dark sediment, if the milk only goes through a filter before homogenization.

In modern installations, there is often a clarifier between the receiving vat and the storage tank.

It is perhaps relevant to mention here that neither filtration nor centrifugal clarification gives a definite improvement in the bacteriological quality of the milk.

2.4 The Cooling of Milk

When milk has to be stored for a period, it must be cooled down so that bacteriological deterioration is delayed or avoided. The cooling of milk before processing in a milk-plant can be achieved by the following means:

2.4.1. Tank cooler.

A tank cooler is a tank, the sides of which are refrigerated either by direct expansion of a cooling medium, or by chilled water; this type of cooler can only be used where there is a very small amount of milk to cool. The tank cooler is on the other hand very good for storage of pre-cooled milk.

2.4.2 Surface cooler.

The milk flows over a corrugated metal surface (preferably stainless steel). The internal surface is then cooled either by water or a refrigerant (or by both in two stages). The refrigerant can be chilled water or direct expansion of a cooling media. In smaller sizes of coolers with direct expansion of a cooling media. In smaller sizes of coolers with direct expansion, heat sterilization of the milk contacting surfaces may present difficulties, unless provision is made for the refrigerant to be pumped away from the cooler beforehand.

Nowadays, surface coolers are mostly used in milk collecting centres, or where cooling of a smaller amount in the milk-plant is necessary.

2.4.3. Plate cooler

The plate cooler consists of plate stacks clamped between two steel frames. The plates are arranged to form flow streams alternating with a passage carrying the cooling medium. The cooling media can be water, chilled water or brine.

Plate coolers are highly efficient, compact, low in cost, and are easy to clean. They can be cleaned without being removed. Where larger amounts of milk are going to be cooled, they are without doubt the best type of coolers.

Plate coolers normally have a well section. In tropical countries where the well water often has a high temperature and is in short supply, the well water section can be left out. To have a well water section in a surface cooler or plate cooler, there must be at least twice as much water available as the amount of milk to be cooled. The temperature of the water should be at most 10°C (18°F) below the temperature of the milk which it is going to cool.

Of the three artificial cooling media, i.e. direct expansion, brine and chilled water, the last one must be said to be the best and most reliable to use in a milk-plant.

Where smaller amounts of milk have to be cooled in tank coolers or surface coolers, direct expansion can be used with advantage because of the cheaper price and more simple installation.

Brine cooling, which was very common for some years ago, has some disadvantages, e.g. corrosion of metal, and is nowadays not very common in milk plants, except in some cases where below 0°C temperatures are wanted, e.g. in the processing of ice or ice-cream.

For milk storage, modern storage tanks are of either a horizontal or a vertical cylindrical shape and often are made from stainless steel. In warmer countries, all tanks for storage of milk should be insulated with about 5–10 cm of cork or another good insulating material, and outside the insulation there should be a water-tight metal sheet covering.

The tank should, furthermore, be equipped with a good agitator and a mainhole for cleaning. The inlet of milk should be formed in such a way that foam is avoided.

If the milk has to be kept at a low temperature and for long periods, the tank can be equipped with chilled water cooling.

In a good milk storage tank, the temperature of the milk must not rise more than 2°C (35°F) overnight.

Other milk cooling options include immersion of milk cans (jars) in cold water troughs overnight for small deliveries, but this method may not be very effective in areas where daily temperatures exceed 25°C. Activation of the lactoperoxidase system in milk is another option, but this method is not commonly used anywhere in the world due to people's lack of confidence over its safety despite its approval as a safe milk cooling method by the International Dairy Federation (IDF).

3.0 Economic Considerations

3.1 General Issues

The major economic issues that need to be considered when designing and establishing a milk collection and cooling centre include the following:

3.2 Costs and Pricing

Measures must be put in place to ensure that the final prices of milk and milk products are affordable by the target markets. Hence the cost of the building structure for the milk collection and cooling centres must be kept as low as possible, subject to the adequacy of the building in the handling of the expected milk throughput. The running costs must be also be minimized, by engaging well trained personnel, and by avoiding overstaffing. The milk payment systems must be such as to create incentives for increased milk production, and hence ensure continuous and sufficient deliveries of milk to the milk collection and cooling system so as to keep the operating costs low.

What should be noted is that the final prices of milk and milk products depend on the milk producer price (Pf), the milk collection and cooling costs (Pcc), the milk processing and packaging costs (Ppp) and the milk and milk products distribution and marketing costs (Pdm). Hence the element of personnel and overhead costs is fairly significant in the pricing of the final milk and milk products that are offered to the consumers,

i.e. Pm = (Pf + Pcc + Ppp + Pdm)

where Pm = final consumer price for milk or milk product (after it is processed and distributed).

3.3 Payments

As far as payments for milk to producers are concerned, these should be based on both the quantity and quality of the raw milk delivered to the milk collection and cooling systems.

The basic points to be considered in a milk payments system are:

Dairies use one or more of these attributes when making decisions for milk payment all over the world. Other conditions, such as quotas, contracts or subsidies, fit into milk payment systems to satisfy interest groups of dairy farmers or national dairy policies, depending on conditions in different countries.

If only the quantity payment is used, milk producers may adulterate the pure milk. If quantity payment goes with quality payment, adulteration does not pay back for the transportation cost of the extra volume and the inferior quality. This factor, and the expected fines or punishment, make adulteration tests unnecessary in countries with quality payment.

Milk of poor quality makes poor quality dairy products, even with heat treatment or other quality preserving operations being undertaken. It is advisable to lay down regulations for a premium/deduction system based on such tests as the resazurin test, the methylene-blue test or the alcohol/alizarin test.

A payment system based on microbiological quality encourages dairy hygiene on the farm. Tests of foreign matter in milk are unsuitable as a basis for milk payment. The sediment test can, however, be used as a valuable advisory test. Special conditions require quality tests, for example, in countries where there is deep-cooling of milk on the farm and 2–3 times weekly milk deliveries per farm encourage the growth of a micro flora of psychrophilic protein digesting bacteria. A normal resazurin or methylene-blue test would give false results if carried out on such deep-cooled milk samples. To sort out inferior deep-cooled milk, the organoleptic test is used, and for payment purposes individual milk samples are grown on selective substrates. The number of colonies counted after a predetermined period gives the basis for a payment premium or deduction.

3.3.1 Methods of Determining Units for Payment Based on Quantity

There are in general two different ways of measuring milk, as summarized in FAO (1993):

a. Volumetric Measurement (litres/gallons) The Dipstick Method

The dipstick method uses a graduated stick which can only measure the content in containers of equal size. One dipstick with graduations can measure the content of 40 litre cans, but the same stick cannot be used for measuring the content of other types of containers.

The most secure method has a special matching container. Measure all milk with the dipstick in the special container.

The dipstick method is mainly used for large quantities of milk in containers such as stationary tanks, rail tankers and road tankers.

The Container Method

The container method is mainly used for sales of milk to consumers and for internal work in the dairy.

Containers are made either to hold definite quantities of milk, such as 1/2 litre and 1 litre, or they are made with inside graduations from which the milk level in the container can be read.

The Flow-Meter Method

In modern road tankers, the milk is measured by a flow-meter, i.e. volumetric measurement. The tanker is usually equipped with a deaerator which removes air that may have entered the milk during pumping, etc. High air content will result in increased milk volumes. Before payment to the farmer, litres can be converted into kilograms : litres × specific gravity = kilograms.

b. Gravimetric Measurement (Kilograms/pounds)

The most common method for measuring milk from farmers is the gravimetric method. A wide variety of weighing machines and scales are used for this purpose.

Small cooperative societies can use a spring balance. This method is not completely reliable and can easily give wrong readings. Frequent adjustments even on the same day may be necessary. As all farmers are treated equally and have their milk quantities weighed by the same scale, this method is good enough in the early stages of dairy development. Later on, better weighing equipment is necessary. Milk reception plants should have suitable weighing scales, weighing exactly the quantities of milk received

3.3.2 Determination of Payment for Milk Based on quality

The dairy should pay according to three kinds of quality:


The dairy should pay for the fat in the milk. Fat can be used for making cream, butter, cheese and other products.

Physical Appearance:

The dairy should pay more for milk which has a good appearance and taste.


The dairy should pay more for milk which is clean and contains few bacteria.

The quality of milk is further ascertained by measuring the milk density. The density of milk normally varies between 1.028 and 1.034 kilograms per litre, but it is wise to test the density locally over a period of time to find the correct conversion value for that particular area.

The density of milk depends on the content of water, fat and dry matter. If fat is removed from the milk, the density will go up. If the milk contains extraneous water, the density will go down. This fact can be used as an indicator for adulteration, and can thus be used to determine the wholesomeness of milk for payment purposes. Taking into account all the factors that determine milk quality, dairies should pay more for milk with high physical and hygienic quality.

3.3.3 Opinion on Pricing and Payments and Concluding Remarks

In the above payment methods, no expenditures, depreciation costs, bonuses, or other additions or deductions are considered. Before paying the milk producer for his or her milk deliveries, it is very important, and especially in a cooperative, to make any necessary these deductions.

Once the farmer is paid for his or her milk, it is very difficult later on to extract any funds from him or her to pay for any eventual overspending. Hence all the necessary deductions must be made at source before any payouts to the farmers are made. However, there must be proper control of expenses so that the farmers get remunerative returns for their milk deliveries.


FAO (1985). Lecture Notes for the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Dairy Training and Demonstration Courses for English - Speaking Countries in Africa, Volumes I, II and III (FAO) Rome, Italy):-- See especially the Sections on “Quality Control of Milk and Milk Products” by Westergaard (pp. 55–66) and “Milk Reception, Clarification and Cooling” by Pedersen (pp. 32–35).

IDF (1990). Handbook on Milk Collection in Warm Developing Countries (International Dairy Federation (IDF) Special Issue No. 9002, IDF, Brussels, Belgium).

Comment:Milk collection units tests are easy and simple i.e. acidity and lactometer tests.
Comment:The payment system should motivate producers by being based on quality and not quantity.
Comment:The effectiveness of the lactometer tests was questioned by some participants. It was however, indicated that some countries i.e. Norway, Uganda, France and Malawi are currently working on introducing lactometer tests costs-effectively at national level, as trials had given positive results.
Comment:There is need to take care of transportation aspects like type of containers, cleaning of containers etc.
Comment:The minimum number of dairy farmers needed to support a collection centre viability was not clear.
Comment:It was however pointed out that volumes of milk supplied rather than number of producers determined viability of collection plants and 1 000 to 5 000 litres/day could be needed. Analysis of costs at different plant capacity levels and sensitivity analysis need to be undertaken before major investments are made.
Comment:The Dairy Development Programme in Kenya has been very successful and participants from Kenya were asked to give reasons for this success.
Comment:The Kenyan Dairy Development Programme was initiated by farmers and the Government only came in to give subsidies and support. The Government resettlement programme specifically helped by financing dairy farming in resettlement areas as part of the Structural Adjustment Programme after independence. This was financed through aid.


Ibrahiem Rabie Abdal13


This paper describes the establishment and organisation of the Kuku Dairy Project in Khartoum, Sudan. The scheme was a pilot project aimed at providing Khartoum and Omdurmun urban areas with fresh milk and milk products as well as providing trained manpower for the dairy sector in the country.

The relationship between the co-operative society and the national body, Animal Production Public Cooperation (APPC) is outlined. APPC is a public corporation responsible for the administration and the control of animal production activities in Sudan.

12 This paper was not presented but circulated at the Workshop

13 Director, Kuku Dairy Co-operative, Sudan

1.0 Introduction

Kuku scheme, established in the late fifties, was the first project in Sudan where farmers were organised in cooperatives basis and specialized in dairy production. At present the scheme has about 280 small-scale dairy farmers owning about 6 376 adult cows and 3 209 young stock on 3 000 Fadahes. Kuku dairy was established as a pilot farm and the schemes (Gazira and Barkat) were established later on the same area.

1.1 The Objectives of the Scheme

The project was established according to an agreement between the Ministry of Animal Resources and Kuku Cooperative Society of milk producers in 1962 and with funding from American aid.

The objectives of establishing the project were as follows:

  1. Settlement of the nomadic tribes in the western region of Butuna district.
  2. Supply of milk and milk products to Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman.
  3. Promotion of assistance to small scale farmers in the field of dairy production.
  4. A pilot project for dairy production by cooperatives.
  5. Training students, graduates and technical cadres.

1.2 The Production Relationship Between APPC and Kuku Cooperatives

A.P.P.C. offered Kuku cooperatives a piece of land (ten hectares) free of charge to grow fodder for cows and also provided subsidized irrigation water, veterinary services, and extension services.

In return for this, each farmer has to deliver a minimum of 56 litres of milk daily and this milk is collected from their collection centres and transported to the processing plant.

1.3 Kuku Milk Cooperative Societies Obligations

The Kuku dairy farmers are the cooperative members and are organized in five cooperatives. The administrative body of Kuku scheme is APPC Milk Sub-Corporation. This divided in two main sectors namely, Kuku Milk Plant and Kuku Agricultural Society.

1.3.1 The Kuku Milk Plant

The plant was established using American Aid and has a capacity of 10 tons per day. The plant was rehabilitated by Saudi Arabia through FAO in 1982 increasing the working capacity to 20 tons of fresh milk per day.

1.3.2 Kuku Agricultural Services

The agricultural services section's role is to help the farmers and provide them with irrigation water, fertilizer, seeds, agricultural machinery and other facilities for fodder production. This section also controls the rotation sequence of the fodder and irrigation water distribution in the scheme.

2. Conclusion

The Kuku dairy scheme as a pilot produced very good results and example for the other scheme - especially for Borkut who have set up the same system between the cooperative societies and the APPC.

Kuku also produces a successful dairy cooperative model which could be used by other countries and regions.

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