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Appendix 7.1 Background for this study
Appendix 7.2 Examples of data sets that can be collected by rapid assessments

Appendix 7.1 Background for this study

In 1992, The World Declaration on Nutrition adopted by the International Conference on Nutrition (ICN) affirmed that "access to nutritionally adequate and safe food is the right of each individual" (FAO 1995b). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (hereafter FAO) plays a key role for addressing these concerns. Indeed, improved food security has been the cornerstone of FAO's mission since its inception.

In 1994, FAO's Director-General initiated a review of the Organization's priorities, programs, and strategies. Once completed, this review concluded as follows: first, "improving food security should be reaffirmed as the Organization's top priority;" and second, "there was an urgent need for the Organization's programmes to focus more sharply on increasing food production, improving stability of supplies and generating rural employment, thereby contributing to more accessible supplies" (FAO 1999b: 1).

The Director-General then proposed that FAO launch the Special Programme for Food Security7 to be focused on low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs)8, which are countries that are least able to meet their food needs through internal food production and/or imports (FAO 1999b: 1). The Special Programme for Food Security (hereafter SPFS) draws from Agenda 21, which was unanimously adopted at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro. In chapter 14.6 this states, "The major thrust of food to bring about a significant increase in agricultural production in a sustainable way and to achieve a substantial improvement in people's entitlement to adequate food and culturally appropriate food supplies" (FAO 1999b: 2). The SPFS was unanimously approved by the 106th Session of the FAO Council in June, 1994, and commenced operations later that same year.

With specific regard for the fisheries, FAO's Committee on Fisheries (COFI) met in Rome in March, 1995, to explore and clarify the role of fisheries in food security (FAO 1995b). Food security at the level of individuals and households was identified as the central concern, while of particular concern were the least-developed and most food-deificient countries. A majority of these are in Africa, but they also include certain small- island developing States (SIDS) which are particularly vulnerable to incursions by foreign fishing fleets exploiting straddling stocks, and in which fish may provide more than 50 percent of the animal-protein supply in the human diet (FAO 1995b).9

Stemming from these and parallel efforts within the Organization, the SPFS now oversees a number of fisheries- and food-security related projects.10 The main objective of the SPFS is to help LIFDCs to enhance their food security by rapidly increasing food production and reducing year-to-year variability in production on an environmentally and economically sustainable basis. The Special Programme respects national ownership, encourages environmental awareness and participatory approaches to bringing about desirable changes, and emphasizes due regard for the role of women in food security.

The importance of social and cultural aspects of fisheries for ensuring fishing people's food security was also officially recognized at the International Conference on the Sustainable Contribution of Fisheries to Food Security, held in Kyoto, Japan, December, 1995, as well as at the World Food Summit, which was held in Rome, November, 1996 (see FAO 1996). At these conferences "the international community recommended a series of actions which countries should take in order to achieve a growing contribution towards food security from fisheries and aquaculture" (FAO 1998: 4). Yet, the subsequent "Kyoto Declaration and Plan of Action," while stressing future sustainable production from capture fisheries and further development of environmentally sustainable aquaculture, did not provide detailed and specific recommendations regarding how to promote food security among fishermen and farmers in the LIFDCs (see Government of Japan 1996).

To address this need the Fishery Policy and Planning Division (FIPP) of the FAO Fisheries Department supported preparation of a technical report by Townsley (1998), which is titled "Social Issues in Fisheries." And now the FIPP has supported the preparation of this report as an extension of that report.

In this report we provide further analysis on how social and cultural elements work in fishing communities and in particular in fishing and related activities, and offer recommendations that can be of use to local fishery managers, representatives of fishing peoples, NGOs, and other concerned persons. Overall, we hope this effort will provide valuable insights, guidance, and recommendations concerning how to promote more successful fisheries management, as well as enhanced food security and well being in small-scale fishing communities.

With funding from the Government of Japan, members of FAO's Fisheries Department developed an initial design for this study, and Koichi Tahara, Fishery Planning Analyst in FAO's Fishery Policy and Planning Division assumed primary responsibilities for its implementation. In Fall, 1998, FAO recruited Professor James R. McGoodwin, a fisheries anthropologist at the University of Colorado, USA, to help with further development of the study's methodology, suggest experts who might prepare case studies from various culture regions, and author the final report.

Six case-study contributors were recruited: Professor Tomoya Akimichi, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, contributed a case study from Japan; Menakhem Ben-Yami, an independent fisheries consultant who lives in Israel, contributed a case study from Nigeria; Professor Milton M.R. Freeman, University of Alberta, contributed a case study from Arctic Alaska and Canada; Professor John Kurien, Centre for Development Studies, Kerala, India, contributed a case study from India; Professor Richard W. Stoffle, University of Arizona, contributed a case study from the Dominican Republic; and David B. Thomson, an independent fisheries consultant from Scotland, contributed a case study from the United Kingdom.

During Spring and early Summer, 1999, the case study contributors prepared and submitted their draft case-studies. These were reviewed by McGoodwin, Tahara, and other staff members in the FAO Fisheries Department. The draft case studies were then returned to their respective authors with commentary and suggestions for revisions during Summer and Fall, 1999.

A meeting was held at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA, November 2-4, 1999, to discuss the draft report and propose recommendations for enhancing fisheries management and the well being of people living in small-scale fishing communities. The participants at this meeting are listed below, and this report is the result of their collective contributions:

Professor Tomoya Akimichi, Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan, contributed a case study (see Annex 10.1. Professor Akimichi was unable to attend the November, 1999, meeting, but did submit written ideas for discussion).

Professor Anthony Bebbington, Department of Geography, University of Colorado, and Social Development Department, World Bank, Washington, D. C., was one of the independent experts who participated in the November, 1999, meeting.

Menakhem Ben-Yami, from Israel, contributed a case study (see Annex 10.2).

Professor Milton. M.R. Freeman, Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta, Canada, contributed a case study (see Annex 10.3).

Professor John Kurien, Centre for Development Studies, Kerala, India, contributed a case study (see Annex 10.4).

Professor James R. McGoodwin, Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado, USA, is author and co-coordinator of this report.

Dr. Kayo Ohmagari, Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo, Japan, was one of the independent experts who participated in the November, 1999, meeting.

Professor Richard B. Pollnac, Department of Anthropology and Sociology and Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, USA, was one of the independent experts who participated in the November, 1999, meeting.

Professor Richard W. Stoffle, Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology and Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, USA, contributed a case study (see Annex 10.5).

Koichi Tahara, Fishery Planning and Policy Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, is co-coordinator of this report.

David B. Thomson, from Scotland, contributed a case study (see Annex 10.6).

Ulf Wijkstrom, Fishery Planning and Policy Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, is overall coordinator for this report.

Appendix 7.2 Examples of data sets that can be collected by rapid assessments

The examples of data sets listed below are separated into clusters of related and often- complementary data that might be collected in a particular data-collection effort. Obviously, these are merely illustrative examples, and ultimately the desired data sets will be determined by what the agency or person(s) doing the study are mainly concerned with, as well as by the fishing community members' main concerns and their degree of participation in the study.


Data from previous studies, estimates of its reliability, and comparison with contemporary situation

¨ maps, aerial photographs
¨ published histories
¨ reports of management and development agencies
¨ reports of private-sector business institutions
¨ other published studies
¨ government-produced social and economic surveys, statistical summaries, planning documents, strategic plans, etc.
Data concerning physical attributes
¨ geographic, climatic, oceanographic, biotic, and other physical attributes
¨ natural hazards and regional impacts of these
Social, cultural, and economic data
¨ long-standing value orientations and cultural traditions
¨ ethnicity and degree of intra-regional cultural homogeneity or diversity
¨ linguistic homogeneity or diversity
¨ prevailing religious orientations and practices
¨ recent social and economic history
¨ population and population-growth rates in recent years
¨ standards of living
¨ per capita GDP and past annual GDP growth rates
¨ seasonal food availability
¨ health and educational levels and services
¨ infrastructure
¨ loci of important decision making
¨ regional governance and institutions
¨ regional connections and importance in wider social, economic, and political contexts
¨ prevailing modes of intra-regional communications
¨ recent history of the region's fisheries
¨ importance of fisheries activities in the region's economy
¨ fisheries stock assessments, management impacts, and related published data
¨ public awareness of the cultures of the region's small-scale fishing communities and their contributions to regional food supplies and the sustainable development of the region's fisheries sector

Social and cultural data

¨ ethnicity and degree of intra-community cultural homogeneity or diversity
¨ linguistic homogeneity or diversity
¨ census of community members by age and gender
¨ population and population-growth rates over recent years
¨ modal household and family composition and interconnections
¨ recent history
¨ long-standing value orientations and cultural traditions
¨ prevailing religious orientations and practices
¨ health and educational levels and access to health and educational services
¨ adult literacy rate by gender
¨ infrastructure
¨ attributes of non-fishing community members
¨ main concerns of community members and their proposed solutions
¨ community governance and institutions
¨ loci of community decision making
¨ key persons, leaders, and representatives in community activities
¨ intra- and inter-community conflicts
¨ prevailing modes of internal and intra-community communications
Subsistence and economic data
¨ standards of living
¨ census of community members by occupations
¨ comparison of educational levels attained and occupations
¨ economic and subsistence activities
¨ incomes associated with various occupations
¨ seasonal food availability
¨ unemployment

General social and cultural data

¨ relative importance of fishing in the local community and its culture
¨ recent history of the community's fisheries
¨ ethnicity and degree of intra-community cultural homogeneity or diversity
¨ linguistic homogeneity or diversity
¨ importance of fishing occupations in personal or individual identities
¨ loci of community decision making
¨ influential local persons, leaders, and representatives
¨ educational levels, and institutions supporting development of fisheries occupations
¨ religious and other cultural orientations influencing fisheries activities
¨ manifestations of fisheries activities in community ritual events
¨ local modes of coping psychologically with risks and uncertainties
¨ prevailing modes of internal and intra-community communications
General economic data
¨ proportion of community members dependent on fisheries
¨ census of community members by fisheries occupations
¨ income levels of various participants fisheries occupations
¨ fishing people's seasonal involvement in non-fishing economic activities
¨ importance of aquaculture and mariculture and prospects for participation
¨ unemployment and under-employment
¨ standards of living
¨ sources and extent of capitalization among various participants
¨ access to credit and insurance
¨ fish markets: structure, prevailing practices, and connections
¨ proportion of fish catches designated for local, regional, and export consumption
Local societal and economic concerns
¨ perceptions of food shortages (if any), why these occur, and their prevalence during various seasons
perceptions of important needs for improving living and working conditions

¨ perceptions of important needs and problems among women

¨ inter- and intra-community conflicts

¨ educational levels, in general and regarding fisheries activities

¨ perceptions of educational and other occupational opportunities that are available, and educational and training needs

¨ education and training needed for teaching community members how they can appropriately and peacefully assert their legitimate social, economic, political, and legal rights

¨ perceptions of how community members are esteemed in social, economic, and political spheres beyond the community, and how any problems stemming from this might be alleviated

¨ dietary preferences and dislikes

¨ perceptions of problems (if any) stemming from marine pollution, aquaculture or mariculture development, tourism industries, animal-protection groups, and other people having different cultural orientations and practices

¨ perceptions of health, social, and psychological problems in the community, their causes, and how they might be alleviated

¨ perceptions of needs regarding access to life and to medical insurance

¨ social and interpersonal problems arising specifically from fisheries activities

Organization of fisheries activities
¨ prevailing modes of labor recruitment
¨ census comparing household composition with fisheries occupations
¨ years in fishing
¨ degree of continuity of participation in fishing families down through several generations
¨ education, skills, and experience permitting participation in fisheries activities
¨ organization of fisheries activities in capture, processing, and distribution
¨ compensation systems
¨ division of labor with respect to gender and age
¨ women's roles in household and in fisheries activities
Fishing methods, gear, and production
¨ prevailing fishing methods and gear utilized
¨ history of fishing methods and gear utilized
¨ main factors underlying selection of contemporary methods and gear
¨ productivity of various fishing methods and gear
¨ seasonal variation in fishing targets and fisheries production
¨ geographic range of fishing activities
¨ technologies utilized in fish processing and distribution
Marine ecology
¨ hydrological and ecological attributes of marine ecosystems relied upon
¨ distinct marine ecosystems and marine species relied upon
¨ fisheries and fish species essential for sustaining fishing livelihoods
¨ water quality and sources and impact of pollution and environmental degradation
¨ conservationist initiatives, establishment of marine-protected areas, etc.
Governance and fisheries management
¨ fishing-community governance and institutions

¨ community-based fisheries management: basis for, and modes of assertion

¨ conflicts regarding fisheries access or use, and how resolved

¨ problems and prospects regarding tourism, recreational fishing, and animal-protection groups

¨ community fishing cooperatives, fisheries centers, and other fisheries organizations

¨ history of members' participation, cooperation and experience with previous fisheries-management and development initiatives

¨ influential internal organizations, associations, and persons in fisheries activities

¨ influential external organizations, associations, and persons in fisheries activities

¨ degree of understanding, agreement, and compliance with contemporary fisheries regulations and policies

¨ confidence in governmental institutions

¨ needs regarding government support for strengthening internal organization

Harmonizing fisheries management and development schemes with fishers' traditional systems
¨ perceptions of rights of access to certain fisheries resources and how these are customarily asserted

¨ perceptions of conflicts (if any) with other fishers who are also operating in waters customarily fished in, and how these are resolved

¨ understanding of fisheries-management objectives, policies, and practices

¨ compliance with fisheries-management objectives, policies, and practices

¨ members' identification of trusted leaders, representatives, important contact persons, and representative organizations

¨ perceptions of problems (if any) caused by fisheries-management and development initiatives-past and present

¨ educational and training needs for building capacity and productivity

Building fisheries capacity and productivity
¨ members' traditional approaches to fishing and fisheries activities

¨ why fishers and others engaged in fisheries activities use the gear and technologies they are using, and willingness to adopt innovations

¨ members' identification of fish species that are particularly important for sustaining their livelihoods

¨ members' perceptions of sustainable approaches and levels of effort for producing various fish species

¨ community members' traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), how this is instrumental in fisheries activities, and aspects of TEK having potential relevance for fisheries management and development

¨ customary patterns of labor recruitment to fishing crews and fisheries-related work groups

¨ community members' perceptions of needs regarding access to credit and to business insurance

¨ needs for enhancing fishers' safety while working at sea

¨ community members' perceptions of the advantages or disadvantages of subsidies (if any) to fisheries activities

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