and Rural Extension Worldwide
Options for Institutional Reform in the Developing Countries

Prepared by
William M. Rivera
University of Maryland, College Park

in collaboration with
M. Kalim Qamar and L. Van Crowder
Extension, Education and Communication Service,
Research, Extension and Training Division
FAO Sustainable Development Department

Rome, November 2001


Table of Contents

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© FAO 2001

Table of Contents

Purpose and rationale

1. Agricultural and rural extension: definitions

1.1 Extension: a function
1.2 Agricultural extension: a knowledge system
1.3 Agricultural and rural extension: an expanded concept
1.4 Alternative extension approaches
1.5 Government’s role in agricultural and rural extension reform

2. Global developments shaping extension

2.1 The new paradigm
2.2 Responding to the new paradigm

3. FAO’s current programmes for agricultural and rural extension

3.1 Multiple extension approaches and purposes

4. Institutional reform: a new vision for agricultural and rural extension development

4.1 The contemporary institutional reform of extension
4.2 Market reforms
4.3 Non-market reforms
4.4 A dynamic view of extension institutional reforms
4.5 Vision and guiding principles for extension development

5. Reform initiatives

5.1 From pluralism to partnership
5.2 Partnerships with farmers and the private sector
5.3 Cost recovery schemes
5.4 Decentralization to lower tiers of government
5.5 Subsidiarity (decentralization) to the grassroots level

Concluding remarks