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Main non-wood forest products

The most important NWFP in Indonesia are rattan, bamboo, resins (gondorukem and turpentine, jelutung gum, damar, kemenyan, gaharu and kopal), tengkawang seed, sandalwood oil, cayeput oil, honey and shellac. Other important NWFP are fruits and medicinal plants.

General information

According to the Forestry Basic Law No. 5 (1967), NWFP are defined as all biomaterial, except wood, taken from the forest. Soenardi (1980) and Suryamiharja and Buharman (1986) have classified NWFP tentatively into two categories, i.e. plant grouping and animal grouping.

Plant grouping:

Non-woody plant species: rattan (Calamus sp.), bamboo (Dendrocalamus sp.), nipah (Nypa fructicans), pinang hutan (Arenga sp.), sago (Metroxylon sp.) and lontar (Borassus sp.).

Resin/gum: gondorukem, turpentine, damar (Dipterocarp sp.), kopal (Agathis sp.), jelutung (Deyra sp.), jernang (Daemonorops draco), ketiau (Ganua motleyana), hangkang (Palaquium leicocarpum), perca (Palaquium gutta) and kemenyan (Styrax sp.).

Seed/nut: tengkawang (Shorea sp.), kemiri (Aleurites mollucana), asam (Tamarindus sp.), pinang (Arenga sp.) and jarak (Ricinus communis).

Wood bark: saga (Adenanthra sp.), mangrove tree (Cariops candellcana), kayu manis (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), mesoi, kina (Cinchona officinalis), gambir (Uncaria gambir).

Leaf: nipah, gum camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), wintergreen (Gaulsheria fragantissima), nilam (Pogostomon cablin), kayuputih (Melaleuca leucadendron), murbei (Morus sp.), sereh (Andropogon nardus) and jamu-jamu (herbal medicines).

Other parts of the tree: ijuk (Nifa sp.), root-vetiver oil (Andropogon maricatus).

Animal grouping: animal species, parts of the animal or material produced by animals.

Animal: crocodile, monkey, snakes and birds.

Parts of animals: crocodile skin, snake skin, biawak (Varanus sp.) skin and deer (Cervus timorensis) horn.

Animal products: bird nests, honey, beeswax, silkworm and shellac.

At least 90 Indonesian NWFP are being used and traded either by local people or national and international communities. NWFP play an important role as a source of income, employment and as a source of foreign exchange (Soenardi 1980).

In general the harvesting of NWFP in Indonesia is free. A license is needed to harvest in Perum Perhutani’s (state forest enterprise) forest areas. Harvesting is done by local people as a part of their daily activities. As a labour-intensive industry, the NWFP sector is facing various constraints, i.e. minimal capital investment, a low-skilled labour force, a low technological level used in processing, poor quality control and lack of marketing skills. Indonesian NWFP tend to have lower quality standards and fail in competition with the products from neighbouring countries; only some NWFP are managed properly as a business entity. NWFP resources are being threatened by various activities, e.g. commercial logging, illegal logging, forest land conversion for agriculture and transmigration areas, as well as shifting cultivation.

There is no stable management system for NWFP (Soenardi 1980), which results in a general lack of information on NWFP. Many NWFP have not been documented properly and therefore it is difficult to rank their importance.

Table 1. Total revenue of wood and NWFP (1995 to 1999)

Fiscal year

Revenue (Rp. million)

Share of NWFP







637 484

563 950

73 534



706 997

626 606

80 391



665 942

595 325

70 617



909 248

823 134

86 114



1 088 071

985 289

102 782



4 007 742

3 594 304

413 438



801 548

718 861

82 688


Source: Perum Perhutani (2000 recalculated)



All tengkawang trees producing oil-bearing seeds of commercial value belong to the meranti group (Shorea spp.). Tengkawang oil (Borneo tallow) is obtained from tengkawang tungkul (Shorea stenoptre), tengkawang majau (Shorea lepidota), tengkawang layar (Shorea gysbertsiana) and tengkawang terendak (Shorea seminis or Isoptera boneensis) (Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986). Tengkawang oil is like cocoanut butter but it has a higher melting point (Soenardi 1980). Tengkawang trees start to bear fruit at the age of eight to nine years. Fruiting occurs every four to five years.

In international markets these seeds are also known as illipe nuts. Tengkawang seed is produced mainly from Kalimantan (East, North and Central Kalimantan) and South Sumatra. Local people use tengkawang oil for frying and medicines. On the industrial scale, tengkawang oil is used for wax, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, chocolate, soap, margarine and grease making (Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986). Indonesia is the main producer and exporter of tengkawang nuts. Almost all production is exported, mainly to west Europe (the United Kingdom, Netherlands, France, Denmark), Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong (Soewardji and Hutahuruk 1980).

Table 2. Export of black and brown tengkawang seeds in 1992


Quantity (MT)

Value (US$)

Price (FOB) (US$/MT)

Black illipe


105 000


Brown illipe

13 361

7 649 035


Source: Indonesia Foreign Trade Statistics, Biro Pusat Statistik (in Iqbal 1993)

Tengkawang export figures for the last five years (from 1993/1994 to 1997/1998) are recorded at 512 tonnes, 3 979 tonnes, 10 648 tonnes, 984 tonnes and 213 tonnes, respectively. The average export of tengkawang every year is about 3 231 tonnes (Biro Perencanaan 1999).


Traditional medicines, locally known as jamu, can be prepared by utilizing dried whole plants or plant organs, locally known as symplicia (in Indonesia, the pharmacological term symplicia refers to unprocessed or dried natural materials that are used for medicinal or health-care purposes) (Hadi 1995). Generally, the collection of medicinal plants is conducted either by specialized collectors who know the plants exactly or herbalists in rural areas who sometimes grow them in their gardens (Menon 1989).

Sidik (1994) identified several jamu characteristics: (i) It relates closely with local society and culture; (ii) it has no a standard for material, formulation, processing and quality control; (iii) it uses plants grown locally; and (iv) it is utilized through touch and sensory perception.

Some scientists are trying to collect and record all of Indonesia’s medicinal plants (e.g. Zuhud 1994). Menon (1989) has recorded several plants used for both Indonesian traditional and western medicines such as Ephedra sp., Dioscorea sp., Anamirta cocculus, Cinnamomum camphora, Styrax benzoin and Mentha arvensis. Other examples of plants used in Indonesian traditional medicine are patchouly oil (Pogostomon cabin), vetiver oil (Andropogon maricatus), wintergreen (Gaulsheria fragantissima), cinnamon oil (Cinnamomum culilawan), citronella oil (Andropogon nardus), castor oil (Ricinus communis) and cinchona bark (Cinchona officinalis) (Sumadiwangsa 1973; Buharman and Suryamihardja 1986).

Jamu is exported to several countries, including Singapore, Malaysia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, France and Taiwan. In 1991/1992, the export value reached Rp.1.06 billion (US$530 000) (Directorate General of Food and Drug Administration 1992; Hadi 1995). The industry faces strong market competition with herbal medicines imported from China.

Table 3. Number of people employed by jamu industries, 1990 to 1993











Pharmacy assistant





Other univ. graduate






9 039

10 320

7 514

6 490


9 343

10 673

7 786

6 848

Source: Directorate General of Food and Drug Administration (in Hadi 1995)

No records are available of the number of villagers who collect medicinal plants in the forest or who cultivate them in fields outside the forest, nor are there figures on the number of symplicia-collecting traders and jamu gendong vendors. The expansion of jamu industries that produce well-packed, powdered traditional medicines, accompanied by intensive advertising, has resulted in a wider consumption. Traditional medicinal plants are consumed by a wide range of communities (Hadi 1995).

Cayeput oil (locally known as kayu putih) has been appreciated for a long time and it is used widely as medicine for various illnesses (Menon 1989). It is produced by extracting the leaves of the gelam or kayu putih tree (Melaleuca leucadendron and Melaleuca minor). Cayeput oil is a colourless liquid, which vapourizes at room temperature. Kayu putih trees grow naturally in Maluku and Nusa Tenggara, particularly in Pulau Buru, Seram and Timor. These trees are also planted in West Java, Yogyakarta, Central Java and East Java. Leaf collection is conducted throughout the year by cutting branches and twigs that are more than six months old (Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986). Cayeput oil competes against other essential oils (such as eucalyptus oil) in the market. All cayeput oil production is traded by Perum Perhutani.

Table 4. Production of cayeput oil (1993 to 1999)

Production year

Cayeput oil (litre)


312 831


332 478


235 497


469 948


331 457


357 035


2 039 246


407 849.2

Source: Badan Pusat Statistik (2000)

Table 5. Production and recovery rate and the volume, value and price of cayeput oil traded domestically by Perum Perhutani (1995 to 1999)





kayu putih trees (ha)




Cayeput oil





(%) of

cayeput oil




(Rp.1 000)


16 093

29 651

233 412


243 167

3 452 730


11 460

30 806

265 600


265 583

4 497 725


10 461

33 262

293 885


248 589

2 980 533


14 677

27 055

200 131


204 430

4 446 037


17 505

42 560

312 700


231 134

7 858 362



163 334

1 305 698


1 192 903

23 353 387



32 666.8

261 139.6


238 580.6

4 647 077.4

Source: Perum Perhutani (2000, recalculated)

Perfumes, cosmetics

There are several species of the genus Santalum (family of Santalaceae) that produce sandalwood oil (cendana, sandal and santal). The trees grow naturally in Belu, Timor, North Central Timor, South Central Timor, Kupang, West Sumba and East Sumba (Sarong 2001). The most important species for the production of sandalwood oil is Santalum album (Menon 1989). Exploitation of sandalwood is carried out under local regulation. The chief of the village and his staff have the authority to issue the harvesting permit. When trees are scarce, smaller trees are also extracted.

Sandalwood in the eastern part of Flores disappeared a long time ago because of continuous cutting and insufficient effort to maintain its sustainability. People often cut the wood illegally, stole and smuggled it because of its high price (Rp.5 000 to Rp.100 000/kg). A recent local regulation (No 2/1998) states that sandalwood growing naturally in the forests belongs to the government and sandalwood planted by farmers belongs to the farmers (Sarong 2001).

Two sandalwood oil factories were established in Kupang in 1972 and 1974. Both factories have a processing capacity of 1 000 tonnes of wood per year. More than 90 percent of the sandalwood produced in North Timor was sold to the two factories and the remaining wood was processed in the carving industry (Menon 1989).

Table 6. Distribution of sandalwood in North Timor in 1997

Name of district

Number of mother trees

Number of young trees

Total number of trees

West Sumba


90 584

91 406

East Sumba

5 127

107 521

112 648


10 521

17 069

27 590

South Central Timor

80 655

193 365

274 020

North Central Timor

42 266

85 235

127 501


43 507

92 334

135 841


182 898

586 108

769 006

Source: BPS-NTT (1999) in Sarong (2001)

Sandalwood oil is used widely in western as well as oriental perfumery. The United States is the largest importer of sandalwood oil (an annual average of 25–30 tonnes). Western Europe is also a significant importer and there are substantial markets in Asia (Iqbal 1993).

Utensils, handicrafts and construction materials

Thirty-five bamboo species are found on almost every island of Indonesia. Dominant bamboo species include Dendrocalamus asper, Phyllostachys aurea, Schizostachyum blumei and Gigantochloa apus. Although there are 50 000 ha of bamboo plantations in East Java and South Sulawesi, the bulk of bamboo comes from the rural areas. In 1989, the value of bamboo exports reached US$1.2 million. Most bamboo products are consumed in domestic markets. In 1985, the consumption of bamboo totalled 146 million stalks (Silitonga et al. 1990; Silitonga 1994).

Rattan is considered to be the most important NWFP in Indonesia. In 1986, the Government of Indonesia issued an export ban on raw rattan exports in order to increase the added value of rattan. The ban was overruled in 1997 as one of the commitments between the Government of Indonesia and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Rattan is harvested manually by local people. Rattan can be harvested year-round and therefore it can become the main plant for a household in terms of cash flow produced (Purnama and Prahasto 1996). Rattan grows unevenly in clusters and every cluster produces around 20 to 25 kg of cane a year with different harvesting schedules. The harvesting cycle for rattan is generally three to five years for each cluster. Rattan with a bigger diameter (more than 17 mm) can be found in the western part of Indonesia (Sumatra and Kalimantan); the smaller diameter is grown in the eastern part of Indonesia (Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986).

Table 7. Production of rattan (1993 to 1999)





88 149


78 340


36 256


51 564


32 389


62 644


349 342


58 223.7

Source: Badan Pusat Statistik (2000)

Over 380 rattan factories, with small-to-large production capacities, were employing more than 150 000 people at the end of the 1980s (Silitonga 1994).

Inconsistencies arise when comparing the data of rattan export volume with the data of national rattan production. A rattan inventory was conducted by the Ministry of Forestry in 1995. The survey indicated that 1.2 million ha of forests are rich in rattan and estimated rattan production to be at 415 tonnes per year (Soekardi 2000).

Table 8. Exports of rattan (1995 to 1999)

Fiscal year

Finished rattan product export

Volume (MT)

Value (US$)

FOB-price (US$/kg)


103 669

368 181 825



86 926

337 074 990



182 660

153 709 090



21 285

60 997 880



112 078

293 959 391



506 618 000

1 213 923 176


Source: Asmindo (2000, recalculated)

Restrictive trading policies on raw rattan have not been able to increase foreign exchange earnings significantly as originally planned (Subarudi et al. 2000). The policies depressed the domestic prices of rattan, which in turn contributed an adverse impact on the income of rattan farmers and collectors. This depressed price was also considered to be a disincentive for rattan farmers or collectors (forest dwellers) to cultivate rattan in a sustainable manner. The price of rattan at the farm gate in 1981 was Rp.1 800/kg (US$1.01). In comparison, the rattan price in 1986 was Rp.1 600/kg (US$0.9) and then it declined to Rp.740/kg (US$ 0.4). The price of rattan in 1999 was the lowest (Rp. 450/kg or US$0.2) (Saragih 2000).

The rattan export ban of raw cane had a negative effect on the rattan price at the farm gate. The main reason was the inefficiency of the Indonesian rattan-processing industry. Hence, the industry had to depress domestic prices of rattan in order to compete with China’s rattan industry, which has lower prices and better quality rattan products on international markets.


Over 20 different resins and gums were exported from Indonesia in 1989 (Central Bureau of Statistics 1990). Resin from pine, jelutung, frankincense and Arabic gums topped the list. Exports of resinous and gum products in 1989, totalled 40 688 tonnes, valued at US$22 million (Silitonga 1994).

Gondorukem (rosin) and turpentine

Gondorukem (pine resin, rosin, colophony or kucing) is produced through tapping of the resin of Pinus merkusii, which grows in Sumatra, Java and Bali (Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986). Pinus trees may produce up to 500 kg of resin per hectare. Processed resin yields gondorukem (with a recovery rate of 60 percent) and turpentine oil (a recovery rate of 17 percent).

In 1983, natural and planted pine forests covered 747 000 ha in Indonesia. Some 600 000 ha are grown in Java alone. Since 1983, the pine forests have been expanded at a rate of 15 000 ha per year. The pine stands in Java according to Silitonga (1994) provided work for at least 70 000 people.

There are several classes of gondorukem that are used for different products. The darkest classes of gondorukem (B, C and D) are used for making rosin oil, linoleum and dark varnish. The G and K classes are used as sizing material in soap making. Different quality of soap will use different classes of gondorukem. For instance, good quality soap will use pale gondorukem (W-C and W-W). Gondorukem can also be used as sealing wax, in explosive materials, varnishing of music strings, for paint making, printing ink, wood polish mixture, fireworks, waterproof material for thicker paper and for plastics (Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986).

Table 9. Production of resin, gondorukem and turpentine at Perum Perhutani (1995 to 1999)



Pine resin

production (MT)








99 761

66 696

12 247


117 683

77 845

14 372


99 073

69 926

13 680


69 392

47 605

8 496


90 313

62 110

12 306


476 222

324 182

61 101


95 244.4

64 836.4

12 220.2

Source: Perum Perhutani (2000, recalculated)


Table 10. Volume and value of gondorukem and turpentine exported by Perum Perhutani (1995 to 1999)


Gondorukem export

Turpentine export















35 270

19 562 870


8 420

2 265 746



34 143

21 732 623


7 104

3 124 292



39 029

27 245 864


9 432

5 582 754



38 362

16 550 573


8 455

2 665 128



39 166

18 400 892


7 188

2 129 091



185 970

103 492 822

2 790.5

40 599

15 767 011

1 912


37 194

20 698 564


8 120

3 153 402


Source: Perum Perhutani (2000, recalculated).

Jelutung is the local name for the latex tree from Dyera spp. (Dyera costulata, D. Lowii, D. Latifolia and D. barniensis), which grows in Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, Aceh, North Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, South Sumatra and Central Java (Soenardi 1980). The Jelutung gum is traded as jelutung or pontianak (in the past known also as Dead Borneo). There are three types of Jelutung gum traded in Indonesia, namely; (i) jelutung banjarmasin, (ii) jelutung palembang and (iii) jelutung pontianak. Jelutung pontianak is the best quality of jelutung.

The trunk of the jelutung tree contains gum that is used to produce bubblegum and as raw material for handicrafts. Other uses of the Jelutung gum are insulation material for cable and electric wire, dental material and as a waterproofing agent (Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986).

Tapping is performed by local people as a part-time job especially when the price of jelutung gum increases (Soetanto 1980). The tapping of 10 to 20 trees can be completed in six working hours and produces 100–200 kg of jelutung gum.

Usually, jelutung gum is exported to Singapore, Japan and Hong Kong. The export figures of jelutung gum for the last five years (from 1993 to 1998) were recorded at 1 192 tonnes, 585 tonnes, 301 tonnes, 2 142 tonnes and 2 785 tonnes, respectively. The average export of jelutung gum every year is about 1 401 tonnes (Biro Perencanaan 1999).

Damar is a gum produced from the Dipterocarpaceae trees Shorea spp., Hopea spp., Vatica spp., and Dryobalanops spp., which are found in Lampung, South Sumatra, Aceh, West Sumatra, Riau, North Sumatra, West Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Maluku. Other names for damar are gum damar, resin damar, harsa, damar mata kucing and damar gelap (Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986).

Damar collection is similar to the tapping of jelutung gum and is done by local people as a part-time job. Damar has been used widely as a raw material in the manufacture of rubber, paint, wax, varnish, plastic, matches, insulation material, painting and printing products, medicines and explosives.

Table 11. Production of damar (1993 to 1999)


Damar (MT)


5 149




3 869


1 556


6 423


7 887


24 884


4 976.8

Source: Badan Pusat Statistik (2000)

Kemenyan (Styrax spp.) is a tree from the family of Styracaceae growing at 1 000 to 1 500 m above sea level (Anonymous 2000). The resin of the tree is called kemenyan resin (benzoin resin); locally it is called kemenyan (incense). North Tapanuli in North Sumatra Province is well known as the production centre for kemenyan resin in Indonesia. The two kinds of kemenyan known by local farmers in North Tapanuli are kemenyan toba (Styrax sumatrana) and kemenyan durame (Styrax benzoin). Kemenyan toba is preferred because of its better quality and price in local markets (Anonymous 2000).

The total area of kemenyan in North Tapanuli was 22 670 ha in 2000 with production of 2 000 to 3 000 tonnes per year. This figure was lower than the figure in 1990 when the total area of 22 793 ha produced 4 000 to 5 000 tonnes per year. Kemenyan planted on community land as a heritage, is now dominated by old trees (more than 20 years old). Traditionally the kemenyan business is run by local farmers. The harvesting of resin is done conventionally by tapping the tree once a year.

Production of kemenyan has been declining because of the inadequate trading system and unstable prices. The price of kemenyan varies between Rp.25 000 to Rp.50 000/kg and the price at the farm gate is around Rp.5 000 to Rp.12 000/kg. On international markets, kemenyan from Indonesia is sold for US$4/kg (Anonymous 2000). Kemenyan resin from Sumatra contains 30 to 35 percent of balsamic acids. Kemenyan is marketed in Java and exported to Singapore and Malaysia. There are five classes for the quality of kemenyan traded on domestic markets.

Agarwood, aloewood, eaglewood and gaharu are all names for the resinous, fragrant and extremely valuable heartwood produced by the family Thymeleaceae. Gaharu is the Bahasa Indonesia/Malay term for agarwood (Zich and Compton 2001). Gaharu is a piece of wood or root that has been modified chemically by a fungi-type infection.

There are eight tree species producing gaharu in Indonesia, all coming from the family of Thymeleaceae. They derive from the genera Aetoxylon (1 species), Aquilaria (2 species), Enkleia (1 species), Gonystylus (2 species) and Wikstroemia (2 species) (Sidiyasa [1986] in Mai and Suripatty [1996]). In West Kalimantan, Misran and Sukendar (1988) found that the angkaras tree (Aquilaria malaccensis Lak) is another tree species that produces gaharu. In East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) two trees species that produce gaharu have been identified, i.e. cue or sue (Wikstroemia adorosaemifolia) and homa (Gyrinops cumingia). Both species are also of the Thymeleaceae family (Universitas Nusa Cendana-UNC 1996). In Irian Jaya, two species of Wikstroemia are found in Manokwari, i.e. gaharu sirsak (Wikstroemia polyantha) and gaharu cengkeh (Wikstroemia tenuiramis) (Mai and Suripatty 1996).

Gaharu collection is done by local people in groups, each group consisting of three to five people. The group spends three to seven days looking for gaharu in the forest. When gaharu is found in a particular tree, the tree will be cut manually using axes or knives. One tree usually produces about 0.5 to 4 kg of gaharu (UNC 1996). The current estimates indicate that the total number of Aquilaria trees harvested in a given year in Indonesia varies from 30 000 to 100 000 trees (Soehartano and Newton 2001).

Table 12. Price of gaharu at the farm gate, and for traders and businessmen in 1995/1996

Gaharu classes

Gaharu seekers (Rp/kg)

Gaharu collectors (Rp/kg)

Gaharu businessmen (Rp/kg)


700 000

1000 000

1 500 000

Kelas II

300 000

400 000

600 000

Teri Hitam

75 000

100 000

150 000

Teri Bunting

40 000

60 000

100 000


25 000

35 000

50 000

Source: Universitas Nusa Cendana (1996).

For the past 20 years, Indonesia has been one of the major gaharu exporting countries (Direktorat Jenderal PHPA 1997, in Soehartano and Newton 2000). Gaharu contributed up to Rp.6.2 billion to foreign exchange earnings in 1995. The present price of gaharu is about Rp.2.3 million/kg for the super class (Kompas 2001).

Due to intensive exploitation, gaharu has been included in Appendix II of the Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) since 1994 and therefore the harvesting of gaharu and its exports should be limited (see also Soehartano and Newton 2001). However, gaharu cultivation in Indonesia is being developed by the Biotechnology Laboratory of Agriculture Faculty, University of Mataram (Kompas 2001).

Kopal is the gum collected from trees of the Araucariaceae family, such as Agathis philippinensis warb, A. hamii MDR, A. alba Warb, A. celebica KDS, A. bornensis Warb, A. lorentifolia Salisb, A. damara, A. beccarii Warb, A. labillardieri, A. robusta, A. macropyhlla, A. australis and A. celebica (Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986).

The regions that produce kopal in Indonesia are Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, Irian Jaya and Java. Before World War II, the average production of kopal was 11 000–12 000 tonnes each year. This represented about 80 percent of the world’s kopal production and Irian Jaya was the biggest producer. After World War II, kopal production in Indonesia declined to 2 000–4 000 tonnes per year and Sulawesi became the biggest producer (Soenardi 1980).

The export figures of kopal for the last four years (from 1993 to 1997) were recorded at 1 886 tonnes, 2 063 tonnes, 1 168 tonnes and 1 600 tonnes, respectively (Biro Perencanaan 1999). Of these numbers, the total volume of kopal traded by Perum Perhutani is about 542 tonnes.

Table 13. Volume, value and price of kopal exported by Perum Perhutani (1995 to 1999)


Export volume (MT)

Export value (US$)

Price (US$/MT)



207 167




253 233




173 940




18 239




81 000



1 108

733 669

3 172.6



146 734


Source: Perum Perhutani (2000, recalculated)

Most of the kopal is exported to the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Italy and Japan and only very little is consumed locally. Domestically, kopal is used as a raw material for the production of paint and varnish. Kopal is also used for enamel making, glue, plastic and other uses such as coating material for textiles, printing inks and adhesives (Suryamiharja and Buharman 1986).


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