There will be many instances where forest reproductive material will be propagated in the field, outside nurseries. The following are some examples.
Direct seeding - this is sometimes practiced in special cases (such as Teak in taungya systems, or with pines), but - if broadcast - will require larger quantities of seed to ensure proper stocking. The seed may need to be coated with repellant to avoid consumption by rodents etc.
Natural regeneration - many silvicultural systems have been developed to help regenerate both temperate and tropical natural forests. A main aim is to ensure an optimal number and distribution of the desired species of seed trees, promote dissemination of seed, and optimise the ground conditions for the growth of natural seed fall and existing seedlings. Some systems include measures for supplementing the natural regeneration by direct seeding or using plants raised in a nursery. The system chosen will depend on the forest type and aims of management.
Forest plantations can sometimes provide shelter for regeneration of neighbouring natural forest species that would otherwise not be able to establish themselves in open conditions. This is especially useful if the aim is to rehabilitate and protect exposed land, for example in watersheds where it is difficult to re-establish the original forest species directly.
See FINDING OUT MORE - SELECTED REFERENCES - SILVICULTURE for information on silvicultural systems
Vegetative propagation - vegetative material (e.g. cuttings) can be planted direct in the field to form plantations, individual trees, agro-forestry systems, or living constructions to stabilise soils - so-called bio-engineering. This term should not be confused with genetic engineering or biotechnologies.
See the section IMPROVEMENT for an overview of these technologies.