There many excellent references available related to forest reproductive material. We have selected those we think will be of most use, grouped them by theme, and annotated them with a description of contents and their particular relevance (in some cases we have used a CABI abstract). Some are indicated as a "must read" for any project.
Guide to Handling Tropical and Subtropical Forest Seed
Schmidt, L. 2000
Danida Forest Seed Centre, pp 511.
An essential must-read guide for anyone working on tropical and subtropical seed. The chapters cover: seed biology, development and ecology; planning and preparation for seed collections; seed collection; fruit and seed handling between collection and processing; seed processing; phytosanitary problems and seed treatment; seed storage; dormancy and pretreatment; germination and seedling establishment; seed testing; genetic implications of seed handling; microsymbiont management; seed documentation; and trade and transfer of forest seed. The publication largely supersedes the DFSC/FAO publication "A Guide to Forest Seed Handling".
Obtainable from the DFSC - for address, see ORGANISATIONS - DFSC
Tropical Forestry Handbook
Volumes 1 and 2
Pancel L (editor) 1993
Springer Verlag, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A comprehensive coverage of tropical forestry. Vol.1 chapters are: Geology and soils; climatology; ecology; remote sensing; forest inventory; genetics and its application to tropical forestry; forest seed handling; nursery management; mineral nutrition of tropical trees; species selection; forestation; and silviculture of tropical natural forests. Vol.2 chapters are: land evaluation and forestry management; watershed management; range management; agroforestry; wildlife conservation and management; pest management; fire management; forest roads; harvesting; non-timber forest products; trade and marketing; ergonomics/labour; extension; economics; project/enterprise management; and policy.
Forest Tree Seeds at the End of the 20th Century: Major Accomplishments and Needs.
A State of the Knowledge Report on Forest Tree Seeds
Edwards, D.G.W. Compiler. 1999
IUFRO Unit 2.09.00 Seed physiology and technology.
This is a concise and informative overview, concentrating on seed production, seed storage and longevity, and seed quality testing and nursery performance. A must-read.
Is available at the following webpublication:
Forest Genetic Resources, FAO
See ORGANISATIONS - FAO
Recent Advances in Tropical Tree Seed Technology and Planting Stock Production
Proceedings: International Symposium,
12 - 14 June, 1995, Haad Yai, Thailand
Tapa, A.C. Editor, 1996
ASEAN Forest Seed Centre, Muak-Lek, Thailand
There are some 40 papers grouped under the following headings: High quality seed for high quality planting stock; Seed quality: collection, handling and processing; Seed quality; storage, testing and certification; Production of high quality seedlings: physiology, morphology, and standardization; Alternative planting stock techniques; Beneficial stock production techniques. General papers stress the need for top quality seed to endure high quality planting stock and the need to carefully plan and implement seed collection, handling and storage activities. Specific papers deal with various techniques to improve the storage and viability of some tropical species.
Genetic Conservation and Production of Tropical Forest Tree Seed
Proceedings: International Symposium,
14 - 16 June, 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand
Drysdale, R.M.; John, S.E.T.; Yapa, A.C. 1994
ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre, Muak-Lek, Saraburi, Thailand
Papers on the genetic conservation theme highlight many controversial issues concerning: development vs conservation; conservation and forest management; and strategies for in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Papers on seed production are of a practical "how-to" type, with several case studies.
Tree Seed Problems, with special reference to Africa
Proceedings of the IUFRO Symposium of the Project Group P.2.04.00 'Seed Problems'
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 23028 November 1992
Some, L.M.; de Kam, H. 1993
Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands
Papers are grouped in the following themes: General, regional and country reports; Genetic quality of seed; Seed pretreatment and germination studies; Seed collection, handling and storage; Diseases and insects; Control of seed quality; and Direct sowing.
The Importance of Managing Forest Genetic Resources and Reproductive Material for Sustainable Forest Management
Proceedings of the Seminar on Forests and Trees in Environment and Development Co-operation
Odebo, Denmark, 27 April. 1998
DANIDA Forest Seed Centre
Paper topics include: biological diversity; management of forests for diversity and flexibility; productive functions of forests; socio-economic functions of forests; and international agreements.
USDA-FS Woody Plant Seed Manual
Publication of the handbook on seeds of trees and shrubs, produced by the USDA Forest Service, the Woody-Plant Seed Manual (USDA Misc. Publ. 654) included 420 taxa in 140 genera. An updated and expanded manual, Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States (USDA Agric. Handbk. 450) was published in 1974, containing data for approximately 800 taxa in 188 genera. Advances in tree seed technology in the last quarter-century have dictated the publication of a new revision, also named the Woody Plant Seed Manual. The revision process by a team of Forest Service scientists and cooperators from universities and other government agencies is now underway. The book will contain almost 1,300 taxa in 230 genera. When complete, the manual will be formatted and made available as a traditional printed book and electronically on a CD-ROM and the final webpublication in Adobe PDF format.
As parts of the manual become available, they will be made available on the following webpublication:
An Introduction to Seed Technology
Thomson, J.R. 1979
Leonard Hill (252 pp)
A good, simple, introduction from an agricultural perspective.
Danida Forest Seed Centre (DFSC) Publications
The DFSC has published a wide range of papers and leaflets which are very valuable resource - many are must-reads for any tree seed project. The series presents new or adapted techniques and methodologies, and descriptions of equipment. They also include popular editions of the results of DFSC's own research and development work, as well as results from other institutions. Some of the notes have previously been published elsewhere. They are grouped under the following headings:
Case studies: Application of guidelines and technical notes in specific area
Results and documentation: Publication of analyses of e.g. provenance trials, carried out between DFSC and other institutions
Guidelines and technical notes: A continuation of DFSC's Technical Notes series giving guidelines for a range of subjects useful to all our readers. Topics include: seed collection and processing; seed testing, storage and pretreatment; seed health and international transfer of seed; nursery techniques; tree improvement and gene conservation; and management.
Lecture Notes: these are primarily compilations intended for training courses, presenting more comprehensive information on aspects of seed procurement, tree improvement and gene-resource conservation. Each note may be read independently. Topics include: general introduction; seed sources; tree improvement and gene conservation;
Species leaflets: Aimed at seed technicians, extension workers and farmers, these two-page leaflets contain information on practical seed handling for some 65 tree species. All leaflets are available in English, some also in Spanish.
For full details of the publication titles, many of which are available on line, visit the webpublication:
Risks of species introductions in tropical forestry
Hughes, C.E. 1994
(Oxford Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK)
Commonwealth-Forestry-Review. 1994, 73: 4, 243252, 272273; 77 ref.
Tropical tree seed has been moved around the globe on an unprecedented scale over the last three decades. Benefits and risks associated with introductions of tropical trees are reviewed. The current approach to species introductions in forestry is summarized and the marked lack of procedures covering movement of tropical tree germplasm discussed in relation to policies covering biocontrol agents and transgenic plants. General principles and specific guidelines that might be used to formulate a more rational approach to forestry introductions are presented and problems involved in assessment of risks associated with introductions pointed out. A more cautious approach to species introductions is advocated and importance of species choice and advantages and limitations of native and exotic species and seedless varieties are discussed.
Forest Trees as Invasive Aliens
Richardson, D.M. 1998
Conservation Biology, pp 1826 Volume 12, No.1.
A comprehensive review paper that provides the background to introduced species both tropical and temperate, the species currently used for plantations, their extent, those that are considered weedy, and makes suggestions as to solutions.
Species monographs and leaflets
There are many publications, either monographs or leaflets, that are concerned with one particular species. These may cover the whole range of information about their biology, ecology, and silviculture, or maybe limited to details about propagation and seed. The individual species are too numerous to mention here. Check the following organisations for details further information:
ORGANISATIONS - OFI for species monographs
ORGANISATIONS - CATIE for leaflets
ORGANISATIONS - ICRAF for leaflets
ORGANISATIONS - DFSC for leaflets
SELECTED REFERENCES - USDA-FS Woody Plant Seed Manual
CABI Global Forest Compendium
See ORGANISATIONS - CABI - Compendium
International Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm Collecting and Transfer
20 pp. ISBN 92-5103571-7.
Available direct from FAO, or on line at
This voluntary code, adopted in 1993, provides broad guidelines concerning collection and transfer of plant germplasm, and proposes procedures for requesting and/or issuing licences for collection missions; guidelines for collectors; and responsibilities and obligations for sponsors of missions, gene bank curators, and users of genetic material. It also calls for participation of farmers and local institutions in collecting missions and proposes sharing of benefits with host country and farmers. As such, the code provides helpful support in drawing up Material Transfer Agreements where required by the ITPGR.
Seed Science and Technology Journal (SST)
Edited by: Anne-Bulow-Olsen
International Seed Testing Association (ISTA)
This journal is published by ISTA in 3 issues a year, together containing 600-800 pages. Contributions are written in English, French or German, and include a summary in English. In 1973 SST was launched to replace the Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association which had been published for many years and contain many historically interesting articles (a General Index is available). The new journal contains original papers and review articles in all areas of science and technology which may be applied to the production, sampling, testing, storing, processing and distribution of seed. The journal is designed to meet the needs of research workers, advisers and all those involved in the improvement and technical control of seed quality. SST also records the proceedings of the Association's meetings and the International Rules for Seed Testing. These are published as supplements and are not included in the subscription price.
For more information about the journal, visit the webpublication:
International Rules for Seed Testing
Complete set of Rules (3 parts) valid 1st January 2002
Available in English, German & French
Versions in Spanish & Portuguese are in preparation.
ISTA's primary instrument in promoting uniformity in seed testing procedures are the International Rules for Seed Testing, which lay down detailed standard techniques and procedures. The publication includes two parts: `Rules' prescribing principles and definitions, and `Annexes' describing in detail, assisted by many tables, the methods to be used. The Rules and Annexes are designed for the principal crop species of the world but apply in principle, if not in detail, to any species of crop plant not mentioned in the text.
The International Rules for Seed Testing are approved and amended from time to time at Ordinary Meetings of ISTA on the basis of advice tendered by the Technical Committees of ISTA. As of July 1, 1999, the Rules and Annexes published as Vol.27, Supplement, 1999, will be in force.
Additional information on seed testing can be found in various ISTA Handbooks, however without having legal character.
Explanatory note: The complete set of the currently valid International Rules for Seed Testing (in force as of January 1, 2002) include the following 3 separate publications : item 0.5 :Int.Rules for Seed Testing 1999 (SST Vol.27, Supplement 1999) item 0.5.1:Rules Amendments 2001 (SST Vol.29, Supplement 2, 2001) item 0.5.2:Annex to Chapter 7, Seed Health Testing Methods)
ISTA Handbook of Tree and Shrub Seed Testing
Gordon, Dr.A.G.; Gosling, Dr.P.; Wang, Dr B.P.S. 1991
International Seed Testing Association (ISTA)
1st edition, 190 pages, 28 photographs, 30 illustrations, 14 tables.
ISBN 3-90654920-8, available in English
This handbook is designed to fill the need for a comprehensive reference book for anyone anywhere in the world interested in testing tree and shrub seeds. Although it covers mostly those seeds moving in international trade, it will provide a starting point for persons with little or no experience who want to begin testing tree and shrub seeds. For the serious analyst, it must be stressed that this handbook does not replace the International Rules, but is meant to be used in conjunction with these and the Handbook on Seedling Evaluation.In order to make this handbook as comprehensive as possible, chapters on X-radiography and the Indigo Carmine method were included. The inclusion of these two widely used, but not currently Rules-standardized testing procedures should not be construed as granting these methods the status of official prescriptions.
Handbook on Tropical and Sub-Tropical Tree Seed Testing
Poulsen, K.; Parratt, M.; Gosling, P. 1998
International Seed Testing Assopciation (ISTA)
1st edition; 204 pages, over 50 illustrations
This book contains an introductory chapter on seed testing, with consideration of the special difficulties of tropical and sub-tropical tree seeds, followed by sections on approximately 40 species. There is a line diagram of each species’ seed/fruit and sometimes foliage, plus sections on flowering, fruit ripening, collection and processing, then seed testing information on purity/thousand pure seed weight statistics, plus methods of dormancy breakage, germination and storage.
Micro-organisms associated with Tree Seed. World Checklist 1990
Mittal, R.K.; Anderson, R.L.; Mathur, S.B.
International sedd Testing Association (ISTA)
Published in conjunction with Forestry Canada, Petawawa National Forestry Institute;
Information Report PI-X-96 English and French. 57 p.
SBN 0-662-57306-4/ISSN 07143354
The ISTA Forest Tree and Shrub Seed Committee’s Tree Seed Pathology Working Group’s task of identifying seedborne tree pathogens that could cause serious problems if transported to other geographic areas led to the compilation of the first Checklist in 1985. The need for an update was soon recognized, and this 1990 edition is the result. Literature on the microorganisms associated with tree seeds is available from various sources which are sometimes inaccessible to researchers. The present revised Checklist follows the pattern of its 1985 predecessor. The information is presented alphabetically according to host (Latin nomenclature), followed by a list of associated microorganisms with their bibliographic reference(s) and the countries of origin. 339 works are cited; a pathogen index is included.
Project Seed Laboratory 2000 - 5000
van der Burg, W.J.(editor); Bekendam, J; van Geffen, A; Heuver, M.
International Seed testing Association (ISTA). 70pp.
Originally published as part of SST 11/1983, No.1 (out of stock). It is a re-edition of a paper prepared in 1979 at the request of FAO. A description is given on how a seed testing station, testing between 2000-5000 samples annually, in tropical and subtropical areas could be established. Directives and general considerations concerning staffing, organization of the work, layout of the building and the equipment needed are given. 46 figures are included. A list of books and journals for a basic seed testing laboratory, updated in 1994, is appended.
Principles and Practice of Seed Storage
Justice, O.L.; Bass, L.N. 1978
United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook no.506 (289 pp)
A useful text aimed at agricultural crops.
IUFRO Seed Symposium: Recalcitrant Seed
Proceedings of the Conference (IUFRO Project Group 2.04.00)
1215 October 1998. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Marzalina, M.; Khoo, K.C.; et al. Editors
This symposium provided a forum for seed technologists working in the field pf tropical recalcitrant seeds to review their achievements, report on research findings, and to exchange current knowledge. Also included a workshop on Cryopreservation of Tropical Tree Germplasm. Organised by: IUFRO, Malaysian Research Institute and Forestry Departments, with IPGRI, FAO and DANIDA.
Plant Propagation: Principles and Practice
Hudson T. Hartmann, H.T.; Kester, D. 2002
896 pp. with CD-ROM format
A hallmark book, one of the most successful of its kind, which provides an excellent coverage of all aspects of the propagation of plants - both sexual and asexual - with considerable attention given to human (vs natural) efforts to increase plant numbers. The book presents both the art and science of propagation, and conveys knowledge of specific kinds of plants and the particular methods by which those plants must be propagated. A five-part organization outlines general aspects of plant propagation, seed propagation, vegetative propagation, methods of micropropagation, and propagation of selected plants.
Tropical Trees: Propagation and Planting Manuals
Vol 1. Rooting Cuttings of Tropical Trees
Vol 2. Raising Seedlings of Tropical Trees
Vol 3. Growing Good Tropical Trees for Planting
Vol 4. Preparing to Plant Tropical Trees
Vol 5. Planting and Establishment of Tropical Trees
Longman, K.A. 1993 - 95
Commonwealth Science Council, Marlborough House, Pall Mall, London, SW1Y 5HX, U.K.
This series is aimed at the field practitioner, is well illustrated, and very clearly presented. Highly recommended.
Roadside Bio-engineering: a reference manual
Howell, J. 1999
His Majesty's Government of Nepal.
An excellent practical manual explaining the various techniques - many using vegetative propagation - for using plants (including trees) to stabilise slopes.
Rapid propagation of fast-growing woody species
Baker, F.W.G. 1992
CASAFA Report Series No. 3; many ref. viii + 125 pp
CAB International; Wallingford; UK
Eleven papers and recommendations are included from a symposium organized by CASAFA (Committee on the Application of Science to Agriculture, Forestry and Aquaculture) in late 1989. An introductory chapter (Hulse, J.H.) discusses Plant cell and tissue culture: progress and prospects. Ten other chapters address rapid and mass propagation of a number of tropical and temperate genera, including Acacia, Casuarina, Eucalyptus, Musa, Paulownia, Populus and Salix, and bamboos. An index is provided.
The Organisation of Small-Scale Tree Nurseries
Shanks, E.; Carter, J. 1994
Rural Development Forestry Study Guide No.1
Rural Development Forestry Network
Overseas Development Institute
This guide explores the organisational and managerial aspects of small-scale nurseries, and assesses the processes of decentralisation and diversification. There are case studies from Bolivia, Kenya, Nepal, Sudan, Tanzania, and Vietnam.
An Introduction to Forest Genetics
Wright, J.W. 1976
(463pp.; 78 fig., 36 tab.; 12pp. of ref.)
Academic Press.; London; UK
The author has brought together much valuable information in this relatively neglected area of breeding. The book has a three-fold purpose: as an introductory text for students of tree breeding, to help experienced foresters in breeding techniques, and to help evaluate new varieties of trees as they become available. As such the book is not only concerned with tree breeding per se but is also concerned with the general principles of genetics and breeding. Recommended as a good overview of the topic.
DANIDA Forest Tree Seed Centre Technical Notes
An extremely valuable set of resources on many topics, including genetic improvement
See SELECTED REFERENCES - GENERAL - DFSC
Forest Genetic Resources (FAO annual news bulletin)
FAO publishes an annual bulletin "Forest Genetic Resources" (formerly "Forest Genetic Resources information") in English, French and Spanish with a global distribution. This annual bulletin includes new findings and national experiences and programmes, and is a very useful source of latest information. The bulletin is now also available on the Internet.
For more information, visit the webpublication
Certification of genetically modified forest plantations
Strauss, S.H.; Coventry, P.; Campbell, M.M.; Pryor, N.R.; Burley, J. 2001
International Forestry Review 3(2), 2001. pp 87 - 104
ISSN 1465 5489
This is a very useful overview of genetic modification in forest plantations from the perspective of certification. The authors review the reasons why the Forest Stewardship Council will not particiating schemes to certify forest management involving GM trees, and put forward counter arguments suggesting that certsitaions could be useful tool for helping to encourage the wise use of genetic engineering. A must-read.
Silviculture in the Tropics
Tropical Forest Ecosystems and Their Tree Species - Possibilities and Methods for their Long -Term Utilisation
Lamprecht, H. 1989
Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH (296 pp)
A good general text, covering natural forest regeneration and afforestation - with silvicultural details of individual species.
Guidelines for Developing, Testing and Selecting Criteria and Indicators (C&I) for Sustainable Forest Management
Prabhu, R.; Colfer, C.J.P.; Dudley, R.G.
This manual provides methods for the development and evaluation of criteria and indicators (C&I) which can then be used to assess the sustainability of forest management. The manual is written primarily for researchers, people or groups interested in evaluating C&I for assessments of forests in new areas, or as a reference for readers wanting to know how CIFOR’s Generic Template was produced. The methods presented are aimed at the development of sets of C&I for natural forest at the forest management unit (FMU) level, especially in the tropics. Following an introductory chapter focusing on the overall purpose, specific objectives, and the C&I development process, three chapters (2-4) explain how to prepare for C&I testing, how to conduct a test, and how to analyse the results. Subsequent chapters (5-7) explain the conceptual basis of C&I development, with three case studies offered as examples, and suggested additional reading materials. Specific forms and tools that have been used in the course of CIFOR’s testing are also presented (Chapter 8), with examples of ways to present the results. The final chapter (9) provides possible baseline sets of C&I, available to users for evaluation and testing in their own contexts.
See also ORGANISATIONS -CIFOR
Managing Protected Areas in the Tropics
MacKinnon, J and K; Child, G and Thorsell, J 1986
IUCN and UNEP (pp 295)
A useful handbook, providing principles, guidelines and case studies
The Forests Handbook
Vol.1 An Overview of Forest Science;
Vol.2 Applying Forest Science for Sustainable Management.
Editor: Evans, J. 2001
ISBN 0-632048182 (set)
For more information, visit www.blackwell-science.com
An authoritative text providing a comprehensive background to and latest developments in forest sciences. The chapter "History and Impact of Forest Management" in Vol. 2 is a useful and balanced overview.
Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity. Technical Guidelines
Guarino, L.; Ramantha Rao, V.; Reid, R. 1995
CAB International (on behalf of IPGRI, in association with FAO, IUCN, and UNEP)
ISBN 0-85198-964 0
A comprehensive reference work aimed at both new and experienced collectors, as well as those with a general interest in plant genetics, breeding and biodiversity. Provides the prospective collector of plant germplasm with generic as well as specific, and theoretical as well as practical, information.
see ORGANISATIONS - CABI for contacts
Handbook of the Convention on Biological Diversity
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2001
This official Handbook, compiled by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, contains the full texts of the Convention, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the decisions of the Conference of the Parties from 1994 to 2000. It presents all the most important information about the Convention and the Protocol, including a description of the background to the Convention and its institutional arrangements, a guide to the decisions adopted and a guide to ongoing activities in relation to particular Articles and thematic areas. Two indexes allow users to search for key terms and for particular Articles, decisions and recommendations.
The accompanying CD-Rom contains the electronic book (e-book) of the Handbook, automatically indexed and cross-referenced, with full search facilities. It also holds all the relevant background material to the Convention, linked to relevant decisions and other sources of information.
See http://www.earthscan.co.uk/asp/bookdetails.asp for details.
Ethnobotany. A Methods Manual
Martin, G.J. 1995
WWF International; UNESCO; Royal Botanic Gardebs, Kew.
Chapman and Hall
ISBN 0-412-48370 x
A useful manual which is part of a series of 'People and Plants' Conservation Manuals.
Forest Conservation Genetics: Principles and Practice
Young, A.; Boshier, B.; Boyle, T. 2000
CABI International 360 pp
This excellent text is suitable for advanced students, research workers and professionals in forestry and in plant genetics and conservation biology. There are 22 chapters, grouped into five parts integrating genetic, ecological and socioeconomic information. The book also includes, as a CD-ROM, the population genetics software package POPGENE. Contributors include international authorities from the USA and Canada, Europe, South-East Asia, Australia and New Zealand.
Part 1: Basic principles
Basic genetics; Population genetics; Genetic tools: the use of biochemical and molecular markers.
Part 2: Genetic Processes
Mating systems; Gene flow in forest trees; Small population processes; Selection;
Part 3: Threats to in situ genetic conservation
Effects of logging and other forms of harvesting on genetic diversity in humid tropical forests; Forest fragmentation; Effects of environmental pollution on the genetics of forest trees; Disease threats and the conservation genetics of forest trees; Hybridisation and forest conservation,
Part 4: Domestication and ex situ conservation
Sampling the gene pools of forest trees for ex situ conservation; Effect of forest tree domestication on gene pools; Magnitude and implications of gene flow in gene conservation reserves;
Part 5: Monitoring, socioeconomics and policy
Genetic markers as a tool for bioindication in forest ecosystems; Criteria and indicators for the conservation of genetic diversity; Economics and conserving forest genetic diversity: Rethinking stakeholder involvement in biodiversity conservation projects; Politics, policies and the conservation of forest genetic diversity; Limitation and future directions.
Reproductive Ecology of Tropical Forest Plants
Bawa, K.S.; Hadley, M. (Eds.), 1991.
Man and the Biosphere Series. Volume 7. UNESCO, Paris, and Parthenon Publishing, Carnforth. 421 pp.
UNESCO ISBN: 9231026690
Parthenon ISBN: 1-850702683
Series Editor J.N.R.Jeffers
The aim of this book is to review recent developments in the reproductive ecology of tropical forest plants, and to explore the implications of current findings on forest structure, function, management and conservation. It also examines how insights gained from reproductive ecology, defined in a broad sense to include seedling establishment and regeneration, can be helpful in the management of tropical forest resources, and it signposts directions for future research.
The book comprises eight sections. The first introductory section emphasizes the practical application of research in plant reproductive ecology. The next six sections are concerned with Phenology, Plant pollinator interactions, Sexual systems and gene flow, Seed and fruit dispersal, Seed physiology, Seed germination and seedling ecology, Regeneration, and Reproductive biology in relation to tree improvement programmes. Each section is preceded by a commentary which seeks to provide a general perspective for the papers and highlights their main points. The final section consists of a concluding statement about the workshop in Malaysia, which gave rise to the book, and the general state of tropical forestry.
Biopiracy or Green Petroleum?
Expectations and Best Practice
ten Kate, Kerry, 1995
Overseas Development Administration, 61pp
A useful summary, available from the Department for International Development (DFID), 1 Palace Street, London.
1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants
Walter, K.S.; Gillett, H.J. [eds] (1998).
Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. xiv + 862pp.
Available from IUCN Publications Services Unit,
219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL,
Tel. 44 1223 277894,
Fax. 44 1223 277175,
Forest genetic resources conservation and management: Vol. 2 in managed natural forests and protected areas (in situ).
IPGRI (with FAO, DFSC) 2001
pp 87 ISBN 92-9043-472-4
This guide is the second volume of three concerned with forest genetic resources. It aims to demonstrate the long- and short-term benefits attainable through genetic conservation, and to provide practical guidance to in situ conservation strategies and methodologies to planners, decision makers, and professionals involved in day-to-day activities in forest conservation and management.
Plant Biotechnologies for Developing Countries
Proceedings of an international symposium organised jointly by the Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Co-operation (CTA) and FAO.
Luxembourg, 2630 June, 1989.
Sasson, A.; Costarini, V.
CTA and FAO
Mainly on agricultural crops, but has a chapter on biotechnology and the genetic improvement of trees.
Vol. 1: Genetics and Biotechnology; Vol. 2 Conservation and Application
Ahuja, M.R.; Libby, W.J. (Editors) 1993
Springer-Verlag; New York, Berlin, Heidelberg
An advanced practical textbook in two volumes which covers: juvenility, maturation and rejuvenation in clonal propagation of trees; genetics of clones; population biology of clonal deployment, propagation and field testing of clones; clone identification; clonal physiology; regeneration and variation in plant tissue cultures, the role of somatic embryogenesis in clonal forestry, and developments in biotechnology, including the molecular structure of trees and gene transfer.
Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry
Within this extensive range of textbooks, four volumes are of particular relevance:
Vol. 1 Tree Crops - Propagation - In vitro; Vol. 2 Trees - Propagation - In Vitro (also vols 3 and 4)
Bajaj, Y.P.S. Editor 1986
Seedling biotechnology in tropical trees: A forester's view
Luukkanen, O. 1997
Paper presented at International Foundation for Science (IFS) Workshop "Recent Advances in Tree Biotechnology for Tree Conservation and Management", Florianopolis, Brazil, 1519 September, 1997
A good summary of techniques and their potential for forestry, for both temperate and tropical species.
Development of plant cryopreservation technology applications in agroforestry and forestry
Benson, E.E.; Bruns, S (ed.); Mantell, S (ed.); Tragardh.C (ed.); Viana, A.M. 1998
(School of Molecular and Life Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee, Bell Street, Dundee, UK)
Recent advances in biotechnology for tree conservation and management.
Proceedings of an IFS Workshop, Florianopolis, Brazil, 1519 September 1997. 1998, 257271; 3 pp. of ref.
International Foundation for Science (IFS); Stockholm; Sweden
This overview presents the major developments in plant cryopreservation research in the context of the agroforestry and forestry industries. Major emphasis is given to evaluating the potential role of cryopreservation in integrated forestry conservation strategies.
Economics of tree improvement in development projects in the tropics
Foster, G.S.; Jones, N.; and Kjaer, E.R. 1995
In: Environmental and economic issues in forestry:
selected case studies in Asia (edited by S. Shen and A. Contreras-Hermosilla.
pp 95 - 128, World Bank Technical Paper No. 281,
The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Deliberate introduction of species: Research needs
Ewel, J.J., et al. (including Hughes, C.E., Leakey, R.B., Lugo, A. E.)
BioScience, August 1999, Vol. 49, No. 8. pp 619 - 630
Special edition on Species Introductions: Benefits and Costs.
A useful summary, putting forest introductions into context with agriculture etc. The areas of agreement on species introductions are summarised, followed by a discussion of research needs: (i) to better evaluate risks and benefits, (ii) on purposeful introductions; and (iii) to evaluate and mitigate impacts of introductions.Conclusions centre on three aspects: (i) Development of a broadly accessible information system to support evaluation of organisms proposed for import; (ii) Evaluation of potential impacts of intoductions based on the attributes of the communities within recipient environments as well as the introduced organism, and (iii) Organisms considered for introduction to be classified by their potential effects, then proposed for regulation accordingly.
Tree seed in forest development
Article on the Australian Tree Seed Centre's webpublication.
Emphasises the importance of getting quality seed, and gives a good example of the relative cost of seed in plantation programmes. The article can be found at the following ATSC webpublication page:
Tree Seed Technology Training Course. Instructors Manual and Student Outline
Bonner, F.T.; Vozzo, J.A.; Elam, W.W.; LAnd, S.B. Jr. 1994
General Technical Report, SO 106 September 1994
USDA Southern Forest Experimental Station.
The manual is intended primarily for training seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course on forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. Topics covered are: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality evaluation, seed protection; seed basics for nurseries, and seed programs.
The World's Forests - Rio+5 International Initiatives Towards Sustainable Management
Grayson, A.J.; Maynard, W.B. Editors 1997
Commonwealth Forestry Association
A useful reference book of the various initiatives
The World's Forests - Rio+8: Policy, Practice and Progress Towards Sustainable Development
Soderland, M.; Pottinger, A. Editors 2001
Commonwealth Forestry Association
A companion reference book to Rio+5 (see above), providing details of the main regional and local initiative arising from the international initiatives.
Seed Procurement and Legal Regulations for Forest Reproductive Material in Tropical and Subtropical Countries
Proceedings of an International Symposium
Wolf, H. Editor. 1993
English revision: Allanson, Mrs.S.(555 pp)
Published by the GTZ-Forestry Seed Centre, Muguga, P.O.Box 41607. Nairobi, Kenya
Distributed by the Kenya Forestry Seed Centre, P.O.Box 20412, Nairobi, Kenya
This conference was the first held by GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) on this subject, and was also a regular meeting of IUFRO Working Party S2.0221. Other sponsoring organizations were KEFRI (Kenya Forestry Research Institute) and FAO. There are 5 opening addresses (by representatives of the 4 sponsoring organizations and by the Kenya Minister for Research, Science and Technology), followed by a summary of the main recommendations of the conference, and the texts of 27 papers (by various authors), presented in 5 sections. There are 3 sets of recommendations: (i) Regulations for the control and recommendations for the use of forest reproductive material; (ii) Collection, production, testing and distribution of forest reproductive material; and (iii) Research on forest reproductive material. The 5 sections containing papers are: I. The production and quality of forest reproductive material (8 papers); II. The role of tree improvement for the production of forest reproductive material (7 papers); III. Trade in and movement of forest reproductive material (4 papers); IV. Regulations for forest reproductive material (4 papers); and V. The role of tree seed centres (4 papers).
Regulation of the genetic qualities of forest reproductive material: problems and gaps.
(French title: Reglementation des qualites genetiques des materiels forestiers de reproduction: problemes et lacunes)
Fernandez, R.; Terrasson, D.; Arbez, M. 1994
(CEMAGREF, Domaine des Barres, 45290 Nogent-sur-Vernisson, France)
Revue-Forestiere-Francaise. 1994, 46: 1, 718; 12 ref.
A review is made, from a French perspective, of the basic principles of EU regulations on forest reproductive material, viz. selection and identification of the material, and State responsibility for selection and control.
Plantation Forestry in the Tropics - Tree Planting for Industrial, Social, Environmental and Agroforestry Purposes
Evans, J 1992
Clarendon Press 418 pages
A good standard text, including sections on seed and propagation . The new edition has been revised to provide up-to-date accounts of silvicultural practices, rural development issues, and the wider role that tree-planting plays. The chapters on agroforestry and protection forestry have been rewritten, while throughout the book the important place of social forestry is recognized.
Contents are:Part I Introduction: Introduction; Why plantations?; Man-made forest in tropical countries; Plantation organization and structure; Part II Land, social and economic factors, and planning in plantation development: Land and plantation development; Some social and economic factors in tree-planting and plantation development; Planning the plantation enterprise; Part III Plantation silviculture: What to plant?; Seed collection, supply, and storage; Forest nurseries; Plantation establishment; Plantation maintenance; Nutrition of tree crops; Dynamics of stand growth; Thinning; High pruning; Rotations and regeneration; Protection - an introduction; Part IV Tree-planting and plantation forestry: in rural development, for soil conservation and rehabilitation, and environmental considerations: Tree-planting in rural development and agroforestry; Protective afforestation; Afforestation of inhospitable publications; Ecological factors and long-term productivity; Bibliography; Index
Handbook for Preparing and Writing Research Proposals
Reid, C.P.P. 1999
Vienna, Austria, IUFRO Special Programme for Developing Countries, 2000. 164 p.
A very useful handbook for anyone wanting to put together a proposal for funding. Practical, clear and easy to read. A Must-read for researchers.
Guidelines for Forest Sector Development Co-operation: Forest in Sustainable Development
Volume I: Strategic Approach
Volume II: Tools for Project Cycle Management
Volume III: Tools for Project Cycle Management
European Communities - Commission 1996
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, L2985, Luxembourg
A comprehensive set of guidelines for people involved in various stages of the project cycle, particularly aimed at EU projects. Helpful for general project preparation, whoever the potential funding agency. Available as hardcopy, or at the following webpublication: