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151Kuchelmeister, G. 1991. Urban and Peri-urban Multipurpose Forestry in Development Cooperation: Experience, Deficits and Recommendations. Unpublished report funded by Commission of the European Communities 164p.
152Leach, G. 1987. Energy and the Urban Poor. Institute of Development Studies (IDS) Bulletin, 18 (1): 31–38.
This issue of the IDS Bulletin has a theme of Energy and Poverty. This paper reviews trends in energy fuel use for cooking, heating and lighting in several urban centres in developing countries (Lae, Papua New Guinea; Bombay and Hyderabad in India; Manila, the Philippines; and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) including electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood in relation to several levels of household income. The paper reviews levels of efficiency of unit energy costs for each fuels in each of the urban centres, as well as different lamp designs in terms of lighting efficiency.
153Kupsch, Y. editor. 1985. A million trees for Medellin. Project Profiles: Sociedad Columbiana de Ecologia Antioqua-Medellin, Columbia. Tree Project News, Vol. 1(2), pp.11.
This is a brief report of a tree planting campaign in Medellin, Columbia. Appropriate tree seedlings for urban settings are sold by school ecological groups. Sales are primarily door-to-door and in the streets.
154Lado, C. 1990. Informal agriculture in Nairobi. Land Use Policy. July. 90:257–266.
This study examines urban agriculture in a relatively large Third World city - Nairobi. This article focuses on urban farmers, their spatial distribution and characteristics, cultivation practices, crop types, consumption patterns and crop produce disposal. It is concluded that urban agriculture contributes to food self-sufficiency and helps raise the nutritional standards of poor urban residents, particularly female-headed households. Therefore, there is a need to formulate a comprehensive land use plan which incorporates food production and socioeconomic structures for urban centers in Kenya.
155Lane Organisation. 1988. Feasibility study for an Orangi [Pakistan] Pilot Project (OPP) forestry programme, a preliminary report. Lane Organization.
This report evaluates both the current status and future potential for urban forestry development in Orangi, Pakistan. Species and planting techniques are discussed. While current planting in Orangi is geared towards amenity (shade, ornament, recreation) the population is apparently aware of the potential use of trees for firewood, timber, fruit, and fodder. This report, though it deals specifically with Pakistan, provides a very strong framework for discussion of the problems and possibilities of urban forestry. Specific limitations which must be overcome for successful urban planting are explored. Separate planting projects are designed for different sites within urban area. Also the background for a baseline survey of tree planing is provided.
156Leach, R.; Mearns, R. 1989. Beyond the woodfuel crisis: in People, Land and Trees in Africa. People, Land and Trees in Africa. Earthscan Publications Ltd. London. x + 309pp; 18pp of refs.
This book looks from the viewpoint of the energy crisis of the poor at the advances made in government and aid agency projects to overcome the woodfuel crisis in Africa. This crisis can only be solved by going beyond the narrow confines of energy to consider all the needs of local people and the potential for change. Drawing on a wide range of case histories, the authors describe the gains in farming and forestry and woodfuel supply - that have come about through this broader, people-centred approach. They also write about woodfuel prices, markets and other key elements of survival strategies for the cities. Some chapters deal specifically with urban centres, including a critical review on peri-urban plantations. The book concludes that huge efforts will be needed to recover from the failures of the past, but shows that important lessons are at least being learned and that new roads to success can be mapped. Part I deals with rural areas in five chapters: Trees for Rural people; Forestry For Land Management; Constraints on Change; Meeting the Constraints; and 24 Rural Case Studies. Part II deals with urban centres in four chapters: Paying the Price; Trees for the Cities; Fuel Switching and Saving; and six urban case studies.
Language: English
AN code (CAB): F320864
CAB code: 0F Forestry Abstracts 1989 050-03558; IF Forest Products Abstracts 1989 012-01137; 7V Agroforestry Abstracts 1990 003-00465
157Lee, Sing Kong. 1985. How to green an island: The secret of Singapore. Tropical Forests, pp. 29–31. 1985.
In spite of its continued thrusts in industrialization and urbanization, Singapore remains a model of how to preserve and maintain rural greeneries and parklands. The functions of parklands are described and guidelines on how to implement a garden city concept are given. Success factors and challenges of Singapore's greening campaign are briefly discussed as well.
158Lee Smith, D.; et al. 1987. Urban food production and the cooking fuel situation in urban Kenya. Mazingira Institute. Nairobi. National Report: Results of a 1985 National Survey. Mazingira Institute, Kenya.
This study analyzes the patterns of food and fuel production and subsistence consumption by urban households in Kenya, based on a sample of households in six cities, including Nairobi. It shows that almost 75 percent of urban households grow part of the food they consume, because store-bought food is so prohibitively expensive. Further, the majority cook with woodfuel. Despite their efforts to economize, the urban poor spend a very large portion of their income on food and fuel. Moreover, available land is in short supply, and woodfuel is becoming increasingly scarce. The authors recommended that extension services be provided for urban agriculture and suggest that unoccupied urban land (such as road, rail, and building right-of-way) be on a short- or medium-term basis to individuals for farming. They also suggest that the government provide financing for social forestry in urban and semi-urban areas, and support the use of affordable subsistence products to replace fuelwood.
160Evans, J. 1989. The planting stock. Urban Forestry Practice. Edited by Hibberd, B.G. London, Forestry Commission (UK) Handbook No. 5. pp. 72–77.
Discusses types of planting stock (bare root, container, root-balled), size, quality and health of plants.
161Lipkis, A.; Lipkis, K. 1990. The simple act of planting a tree. Product of four years Citizen Foresters' training held at the Tree People headquarters in Los Angeles, USA.
The book describes functions of urban forests, how to organize thee community for tree planting, funding and management and monitoring of projects. It is more than a primer on planting trees as a guide for improving the urban landscape. It is an important blueprint for bringing people together who care about the environment and making community efforts blossom. Simple acts can produce so many positive results. Although the book is based on experience in the USA many lessons learned are interesting to reflect on for urban forestry in developing countries as well. Tree People have also directly supported tree planting in developing countries. Surplus bare root fruit trees that would have been burned at the end of the selling season were given for planting in Africa after intensive research on the viability on this approach.
162Barker, P.A. 1989. Reproductive biology as a factor in genetic improvement of urban trees. Proceedings of the 6th Conference of the Metropolitan Tree Improvement Alliance (METRIA), Mentor, Ohio, June 14–16, 1988. METRIA vol. 6, 27–34.
163Lowe, M.D. 1992. Shaping cities. World Watch Institute, Ch.8: pp119–137, State of the World, W.W. Norton & Co., New York.
167Malhotra, K.C.; Kumar, M.V. Man - Tree Relationship in an Urban Setting: A Socio-Ecological Study. Anthropology, Development and Nation Building, Kalla, A.K.; Singh, K.S. (Editors), Concept Publishing Co., New Delhi, pp 273–290.
168Mascarenhas, A.C. 1986. Some issues in feeding African Urban areas. Food and Nutrition, Vol. 12 (1), pp. 50–57.
While this article primarily provides background information on the problems associated with urbanization, it also provides an interesting examination of the ways in which government policies effect urban agriculture. The article bases its suggestions for future urban agriculture and development planning upon an examination of the policies which hinder agricultural production.
169Harris, R.W. 1992. Arboriculture: Integrated management of landscape trees, shrubs and vines. Second Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall. 674 pp.
Includes information on planting, transplanting and maintenance.
170Maydell, H.J.v. 1986. Trees and shrubs of the Sahel. Their characteristics and uses. GTZ, Eschborn.
This book deals with multipurpose trees and shrubs in the Sahel. It is a very useful source of information for arid and semi-arid areas; numerous woody plants are described with regard to their uses and site adaptabilities, including species suitable for amenity planting.
171Kiser, B. 1991. Trees and aftercare: A practical handbook. Wallingford, UK, British Trust for Conservation Volunteers. 160 pp.
Includes chapters on planting for conservation and amenity, trees and the law, safety equipment, seed collection, tree nurseries, planting and early care, aftercare and maintenance.
172McNeil, J. 1990. Sustainable development in the urban forest. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Society of Arboriculture in Toronto, Ontario.
McNeil describes current issues in urban forestry and describes the strategy of an urban forestry project in Oakville, Ontario. The Town Council's commitment to Oakville's urban forestry program led to its success. First, a municipal greenspace inventory was conducted and each of the greenspaces was classified into established categories. Environmental policies are implemented through the coordination of urban foresters, arborists, landscape architects, planners, biologists and engineers, however, the separation of these individuals into different departments makes coordination difficult. Public awareness is built through a trail system that offers the public access to the land.
173Dunball, A. 1985. The importance of urban roadside planting in the United Kingdom. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Urban Horticulture held in Bronx, N.Y., June 21–23 1983. Karnosky, D.F.; Karnosky, S.L. Editors. Improving the Quality of Urban Life with Plants. pp. 28–34.
Discusses the physical benefits of street trees, especially to climate.
174McPherson, E.G. 1988. Functions of buffer plantings in urban environments. Proceedings of the International Conference ‘Windbreak Technology’ Edited by Brandle, J.R., held in Lincoln, Nebraska, June 1986. New York, Elsevier. pp.281–298. Also reprinted in Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 22/23: 281–298.
Buffer plantings are linear strips of vegetation that have been either retained or purposefully planted in urban environments. Buffer plantings function as environmental regulators that help stabilize the urban ecosystem while simultaneously separating incompatible land uses and providing visual amenity values. “Such buffers can provide visual privacy; reduce noise levels; reduce and retard storm water runoff; help maintain water quality; increase property values; provide habitat for wildlife; moderate microclimates; and reduce the energy required to heat and cool nearby buildings” (from Proceedings summary p.281). Sensitive land planning integrates existing buffers and new plantings into the urban fabric to maximize potential benefits. A comprehensive program would restrict the removal of existing vegetation, provide protective measures for vegetation not removed during development, and require planting of additional buffers with new developments.
176Meza, H.M.B. 1992. Current situation of the urban forest in Mexico City. Journal of Arboriculture 18 (1): 33–36.
178Moll, G. 1989. Improving the health of the urban forest. Moll/Ebenreck (eds). Shading our cities. A resource guide for urban and community forests. Washington.
This short article indicates how to improve the health of the urban forest for long term survival. It notes that changes in genetic progress have shifted from selection for aesthetic appeal to selection for survival. Checklists from nurseries to planting are included. These trends are hardly reflected in urban forestry programs in developing countries.
179Moll, G. 1989. In search of an ecological urban landscape. Moll, G./Ebenreck, S.: Shading our Cities. A Resource Guide for Urban and Community Forests. pp. 13–24.
This article argues that understanding the state of the urban forest is a sure way to grasp a sense of the ecological state of the city. Urban forestry is also defined geographically and the difference from rural forest is shown. References are made to a successful urban forestry project in a desert city. Finally it is argued that the future challenge is to make the urban environment itself more suitable for trees and that urban forest managers should play a more active role in urban planning. In the light that ecological urban landscaping is still in its infancy in many urban forestry programs in developing countries this article provides significant arguments for this approach.
180Moll, G. editor; Ebenreck, S. editor 1989. Shading our cities. A resource guide for urban and community forests. Washington. Island Press.
This book gives a state-of-the-art account of urban forestry in the USA. It argues that shading our cities encourages us to find better ways to integrate living trees into our work and home environments. The aesthetic benefits of parks and tree lined streets are obvious, but trees can also reduce energy demand by providing cooling shade, improve air quality, protect water supplies and signal a community's permanence and stability. This is the first compilation of articles from a wide spectrum of viewpoints designed for the concerned public as well as for interested processionals. Included are practical measures to save existing trees, information on how to start an urban forestry program and profiles of successful projects in the USA. The innovative suggestions for private and community actions are worth reflecting on for those looking for practical ideas to improve the quality of urban life in developing countries as well.
182Moll, G.; Gangloff, D. 1987. Urban forestry in the United States. Unasylva, Vol.39 (155): 36–45.
183Mollison, B. 1978. Permaculture two: Practical design for town and country in permanent agriculture. Source:-???-
This and other publications on permaculture makes practical recommendations for the design, establishment and management of vegetation. Many examples and ideas can be applied in urban forestry in developing countries.
184Montalembert, M.R.; Clement, J. 1983. Fuelwood supplies in the developing countries. FAO Forestry Paper 42.
The primary objective of the present report is to draw the attention of governments and the international community to the seriousness of the problem before present trends become largely irreversible. The study analyses zone by zone the situation as regards fuelwood needs and supplies accessible to the people. Results clearly indicate that experience in fuelwood deficiency is most serious in highly populated areas.
185UNESCO. 1986. Use, handling and management of urban green areas. Proceedings of the International Seminar, Barcelona, Spain, 21–24 April. 1986. 110pp.
Language: Spanish; English; French
186Murray, S. 1992. Urban Forest Planning in Quito, Ecuador. Proceedings of the 5th National Urban Forest Conference, Los Angeles, California, November 1991, Rodbell, P (Editor), p 213–216.
187National Academy of Science 1980, 1983. Firewood crops: shrubs and tree species for energy production. NAS Vol. 1 (1980), Vol. 2 (1983), Washington.
This is a standard manual of tree species especially suited for fuelwood. A panel has chosen the most productive species in terms of multipurpose uses that are adapted well to different sites, are easy to establish, require minimum care, and survive well in difficult environments. It sought out trees that could coppice, fix nitrogen, grow rapidly, and produce wood of high calorific value with an absence of sparks or toxic smoke. The book also indicates that some of the species are also grown in cities. This book is especially valuable for peri-urban fuelwood plantations and other forms of fuelwood production. It is also noted that (e.g. in Ethiopia) peri-urban fuelwood plantations have been successful in solving the problems of the capital.
189Ebenreck, S. 1989. The value of trees. Moll, G.; Ebenreck, S. editors. Shading our cities. Washington DC. Island Press. pp.49–57.
The economic as well as the amenity value of trees in cities.
190Newcombe, K. 1981. Energy conservation and diversification of energy sources in and around the city of Lae, Papua New Guinea. Ecology in Practice. Editors: Di Castri, F.; Baker, F.W.G.; Hadley, M. Part II: The Social Response. Tycooly International Publishing Limited, Dublin. pp. 88–111. 1981.
This article provides a detailed look at the Ecosystem Approach used by UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Program. Their comprehensive attempts at restructuring the energy flow of Lae, Papua New Guinea include allotment gardening, composting of wastes and for the creation of gardens, production and planting of fruit trees for amenity purposes, and short rotation agroforestry on peri-urban fuelwood plantations. The project attempts to utilize energy within the system to increase food and fuel production.
191Newcombe, K.; Pohai, T. 1981. The Lae Project: An ecological approach to Third World urbanization. Ambio, Vol. 10(2–3), 73–78.
This article is a revealing analysis of pre-project research that was done in Lae, Papua New Guinea. The research was done as part of a Man and the Biosphere Program which is now attempting to extend tree planting, gardening and agroforestry to the hillsides surrounding Lae as part of a comprehensive urban development project. The social, nutritional, and cultural changes which have taken place are quite revealing. The research found that the eating patterns of the urban residents were different from those in the rural areas and that production schemes had to be geared specifically to urban tastes.
192Niñez, V. 1985. Working at half-potential: Constructive analysis of home garden programmes in the Lima slums with suggestions for an alternative approach. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 7 (3), 6–14. 1985.
In Peru home gardening has long been an important production scheme. In this article typical composition and garden “arrangements” are described to emphasize the fact that indigenous knowledge is important in planning home garden agricultural projects. The survey that is reported in this article examines the nutritional and economic benefits resulting from the Peruvian home gardens. It also reveals that the primary purpose of the garden is very much dependent upon the gender of the gardener. Women tended to orient the garden towards subsistence food production while men tended to opt for production oriented towards sale. A second portion of the article examines past garden projects in Peru. Finding that most of these projects were unsuccessful the author offers some helpful suggestions for project planning. The importance of self-help components in projects is emphasized.
193Niñez, V. 1985. Home gardens for South America: Constructive analysis for policy formulation. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Tropical Homegarden, Bandung, Indonesia. 2–9 December 1985.
This article describes why a Peru home garden project failed, because it did not incorporate indigenous knowledge of gardening. This paper, in supporting increases in homegarden projects in Peru, gives a detailed description of the typical Peruvian garden. The species grown, methods of cultivation, and types of cultivators are all presented. The nutritional, economic, and social benefits of homegardens are all discussed and a high estimated return on investment in gardening is calculated. The second portion of this paper is an analysis of homegarden projects which have been unsuccessfully initiated in Peru. While the information regarding the projects that have been initiated in the region is limited, the follow-up suggestion are quite informative. Many of the projects did not incorporate indigenous homegarden and food production techniques; they unnecessarily tried to introduce a completely new system. These new systems did not gain acceptance. This and other oversights doomed the projects to failure almost from the start.
194Niñez, V. 1986. The household garden as lifeboat. Ceres 112, Vol. 19(12), July–August, pp. 31–36.
This article, in describing some of the differences between tropical and temperate home gardens, examines two projects: A “successful” Sri Lankan project and an “unsuccessful” Peruvian project. The differences in their approach and outlook are examined and compared. Suggestions for policy planning are then made on the basis of the comparison.
195Heisler, G.M. 1990. Tree plantings that save energy. Proceedings of the 4th Urban Forestry Conference, St. Louis, Oct. 1989. Washington, DC, American (USA) Forestry Association. pp. 58–62.
196O'Keefe, P.; Raskin, P. 1985. Crisis and opportunity. Fuelwood in Kenya. Ambio, Vol. 14 (4–5), pp. 220–224.
In this discussion of woodfuel shortages in Kenya peri-urban plantations for woodfuel (charcoal, fuelwood) are one suggested approach. Though this article argues that the long time-frame and spatial constraints limit the extent to which peri-urban plantations can help, their proximity to urban centres increases their value.
197O'Rourke, T. 1990. An International Urban Forestry Network. Proceedings of the 4th Urban Forestry Conference. Rodbell, P.D. (ed.) St. Louis, Missouri, Oct. 15–19, 1989, pp. 81f.
This article reports on increased interest in urban forestry activities in Mexico and other Latin American countries by international banks, private voluntary organizations and other groups. As a result more of them are asking the US Forest Service for assistance in solving urban forestry problems. Suggestions are made ways of exchanging information and an international network in urban forestry has been launched by the US Forest Service. This article clearly indicates the need for strengthening networking.
198Olembo, R.J.; Rham, 1985. Protection of the Environment in Urban Settlements. Effects of Trees on the Microclimate Urban Forests. Proceedings of the 9th World Forestry Congress, Mexico. Vol. 2, pp.667–674.
199Olembo, R.J.; Rham, 1987. Urban forestry in two different worlds. Unasylva, Vol.39 (1), 26–35.
This article highlights the fact that the lack of planning involved in urbanizing in developing countries often results in the loss of greenspace. While encouraging urban forestry, this article indicates that there are many problems to be taken into consideration. The provision of greenspace is often a low priority in planning. The shortage of accessible resources in urban areas increases the risk of theft. And the availability of land in these urbanizing areas is low, making species selections difficult and land hard to find. In the light of all these problems efforts are encouraged. Trees can improve air and water quality help regulate temperature levels, and provide recreation areas. The article warns, however, that attempts at large-scale urban pre-planning in developing countries may be impossible because of funding and resource restrictions.
Language: English (LS: Spanish, French)
AN code CAB: F194230; AGRIS: 88-025334
CAB code: 0F Forestry Abstracts 1988 049-00686
200Olet, E.D. 1980. Urban forest management in Uganda. Proceedings of the Symposium. Andersen, J.W. and Plexman, C.A. (eds.) “Urban Forest Management Within the Commonwealth of Nations”: Agenda subhead 5: Trees in Rural and Urban Development. Eleventh Commonwealth Forestry Conference, Trinidad and Tobago, 7–26 September, pp. 145–151.
Uganda's peri-urban forestry programme is conceptually advanced. As this article explains. Ugandans have created peri-urban fuelwood plantations, and have used fuelwood and fruit trees for ornamentals in roadside plantings. Urban forestry and agroforestry are generally lacking. And it is suggested that the survival rate of plantings and the extent of urban activities could be greatly enhanced by intensified educational efforts.
201OECD 1979. Agriculture in the planning and management of peri-urban areas, OECD Vol.I and Vol.II. Paris.
This study provides a detailed analysis in peri-urban areas. Urban forestry is dealt as one activity within urban agriculture.
202Onganga, O. 1992. Urban Forestry Development in Kenya. Proceedings of the 5th National Urban Forest Conference, Los Angeles, California, November 1991, Rodbell, P (Editor), pp 217–219.
205Paolinelli, F. consultant. 1985. UNDP/OPS project SUD/85/R51. Italy/Sudan rehabilitation and development programme - Darfur. Evaluation of the forestry campaign 1988 and suggestions for future programmes. UNDP-OPS, Project SUD/85/R51.
This report provides a detailed evaluation of the forestry campaign in Sudan near the city of El Fasher. A survey was conducted to evaluate the demand and preference for trees in both rural and urban environments. Three environments are described: the greenbelt of El Fasher, the downtown areas of El Fasher and the villages on the periphery of El Fasher. Suggested guidelines for planning future projects are proposed including: concentrating on social forestry efforts, educating the community, and promoting local forestry efforts, including nurseries.
206Parkash, R.; Khanna, L.S. 1983. Theory and practice of silvicultural systems. Dehra Dun.
This book contains a chapter on management of roadside, avenue and canal plantations. There are various departments with a mandate for these sites, such as Public Works Department, Irrigation Department. It is argued that transfer to the Forest Departments for raising avenues and plantations would improve the situation of these linear plantations. Choice of species, design and silvicultural treatments are dealt with.
207Parmar, C. 1989. Wild fruits of the sub-Himalayan region of India. Agroforestry Today Jan.–Mar. 90, Vol.2, No.1.
Agencies that plant ornamental trees along roadsides and city streets almost invariably choose species based on their ability to give shade and bear attractive flowers. But these plants serve only one purpose - beautification. The author shows that some wild fruit trees and other multi-purpose trees are excellent candidates for urban forestry because they are both ornamentals and bear fruits and other valuable products. Since they are also tough and require low care one can conclude they might be very important for urban social forestry programs.
208Pilasi, E.O.V. 1990. Nuevo analysis cientifico para ios espacios verdes de las modernas ciudades. Proceedings of the 19th World Congress, IUFRO, Montreal.
Language: Spanish
209Pokorny de Marcet, C. 1992. The greening of Guatemala City. Proceedings of the 5th National Urban Forestry Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, November 1991, Rodbell, P. (Editor), pp 220–221.
210Pollard, D.F.W. 1977. Impressions of urban forestry in China. The Forestry Chronicle, Vol 53(5) October, 294–297. 1 ref, 2 pl. 1977.
Roadside plantings in China have historically served a variety of purposes. Trees are planted to suit different needs. This article reports that most urban trees that have ornamental value also produce economically valuable fruits, nuts and oil. The extensive planting in China has been coupled with research into the types of trees which best withstand different types of pollution. Research and planting efforts are complemented by classroom education and “fieldwork”. This article provides a good overview of the broadbased approach that the Chinese have to urban forestry.
AN code (CAB): F628991
CAB code: 0F Forestry Abstracts 1980 041-06445
214Profous, G.V.; Loeb, R.E. 1990. The Legal Protection of Urban Trees: A Comparative World Survey. Journal of Environmental Law, 2 (2): 179–192.
37 countries involved in the survey, from Argentina to Yugoslavia.
216Sommers, P. The UNICEF home gardens handbook - for people promoting mixed gardening in the humid tropics. UNICEF 55pp. 18 refs. 9 illus. 11 tbls.
217Rerkasem, B.; Rerkasem. K. 1985. A Discussion Paper on the Management of Homegardens. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Tropical Homegarden, Bandung, Indonesia, Dec. 2–9 1984.
218Richardson, S.D. 1966. Forestry in Communist China. Chapter 7. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
Chapter seven of this book examines arboricultural activities in China in the 1960's. Species which are used for different functions are identified. Often the planting technique is also explained. Species often serve several purposes; some of the species which are selected have spiritual or economic as well as ornamental value. And roadside species often provide fuelwood as well as ornamentation. Chinese forestry is particularly interesting because of the attention that is given to tree growing in the schools. Viewed as an art, techniques of tree growth have a long history in China.
219Richardson, S.D. 1978. Urban forestry - apartheid or integration? Proceedings of the 7th World Forestry Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 4–18 October 1972, Vol.III, Third Technical Commission: Conservation and Recreation, 1978 pp.3801–3820. 33 refs, Instituto Forestal Nacional.
This paper examines the concept of urban forestry as it has been applied in a variety of settings. The article contends that the traditional urban greenspace does not always suit the needs of the poor - often the group which the project is supposed to aid. The needs of the poor majority in many developing countries are often not met by conventional forestry, with which they are unfamiliar. Urban greenspace must be planned to suit inhabitants' concepts of recreation space. The paper mentions some successful “parks” which have been created.
Language: English; Spanish; French
AN code (CAB): F602360
CAB code: 0F Forestry Abstracts 1980 041-04955
221Rin, U.C. 1983. The tree species of [Taiwan] Urban Forestry. Quarterly Journal of Chinese (Taiwan) Forestry, Vol. 16, No. 3.
Considerations in species selection for conventional forestry are discussed and the dendrological and arboricultural characteristics of 10 species promising for Taiwan are briefly described: Ginkgo biloba, Calocedrus (Libocedrus) formosana, Dalbergia sissoo, Erythrina variegata var. orientalis, Pterocarpus indicus, Myrica rubra, Calophyllum inophyllum, Koelreuteria formosana, Fraxinus formosana and Jacaranda acutifolia.
222Rocheleau D.; Weber, F.; Field-Juma, A. 1988. Agroforestry in dry land Africa. ICRAF. Nairobi.
Practical handbook for agroforestry researchers, fieldworkers in subhumid and arid regions of Africa. The book begins with guidelines for planning and evaluating agroforestry projects, emphasizing full participation by local communities. The second section describes a wide range of agroforestry practices appropriate for different sites in the rural landscape, including crop and pasture land, slopes and gullies, stream banks, home gardens, roadsides and public places. The final section brings together useful information for the field worker, such as check lists of multipurpose tree species, guidelines for interviews, sample questionnaires, lists of references and contacts, and definitions of agroforestry terminology. Although this focus is on rural landscape, the parts dealing with trees and shrubs along roads and paths around houses and public places, along waterways and floodplains and boundaries (living fences) are of great relevance for urban forestry. This book is strongly recommended for urban foresters and others working in semi arid areas.
223Tingle, W.R. 1992. Watershed masterplanning: a key to erosion control in the urban environment. Proceedings of the 23rd Conference of the International Erosion Control Association ‘The Environment is Our Future’, held in Reno, Nevada, USA. Feb. 18–21 1992.
224Salleh, M.N.; Wong, Y.K.; Ng, F.S.P. 1990. The tropical garden city - its creation and maintenance. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Malayan Forest Record No 33. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 100 pp. 10 refs. many col. pl.
Creating and maintaining a garden city in the humid tropical zone requires an approach that is different in many details from the approaches used in other climate zones. The message of this book is that with planning and civic action, cities can be transformed into gardens so that people can live and work in a balanced and healthy environment. With special reference to Kuala Lumpur and Singapore this book shows what can be done to create a tropical garden city. Parks, roadside planting, planting and maintenance practice in urban forestry, turf management, nursery, and park administration are the major topics covered. Excellent color photos illustrating the important messages and summary of most important woody plants for various urban niches in the humid tropics makes it an even more important book for (conventional) tropical urban forestry. However urban gardening and other basic need-oriented urban forestry practices from the poor man's point of view are not the theme of this book.
AN code (CAB): C149900
CAB code: 0F Forestry Abs. 1993 054-0002; 0c Horticultural Abs. 1992 062-07888; 7C Ornamental Horticulture 1992 018-01775.
225Sanchez de Carmona, L. 1981. Ecological studies for regional planning in the valley of Mexico. Ecology in Practice. DiCastri, F., Baker, F.W.G., and Hadley, M. (eds.) Part II: The Social Response. Tycooly International Publishing Limited, Dublin, pp. 63–74.
Faced with the realization that urbanization is going to continue and must be managed. Mexico has initiated programs to increase urban greenspace. This paper reports on a study of initiatives to improve the quality of life in Mexico City. In an attempt to encourage gardening, pamphlets have been published and distributed. There is also an interest in the creation of a park system and greenbelt.
226Sanyal, B. 1985. Urban agriculture: Who cultivates and why? A case-study of Lusaka, Zambia. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 7 (3): 15–24.
This article reports the results of a survey on urban gardens in Lusaka, Zambia. It looks at the number and types of people that garden, evaluating their economic status as well as the amount of time they have lived in an urban area. While some attention is paid to the type and composition of the garden, the survey concerns itself primarily with the cultivators.
229Freidberg, S. 1993. Feeding third world cities: an annotated bibliography. Unpublished, FAO, 1993.
230Schwenke, M. consultant. 1987. FAO project TCP/MOZ/4512. Mozambique: Rehabilitation of forest cover in and around Maputo. Consultant's report.
This report provides an examination of an FAO urban and peri-urban forestry project in Maputo, Mozambique. It indicates some of the changes that are needed in Maputo and also highlights some elements of the project which need strengthening and adaptation. The main value of this report is that it illustrates that urban project planners need to take into consideration some variables which do not always exist for rural project planners. Education needs to be directed somewhat differently. And technical solutions need to take into account the location of the land and the possible need for the space to serve recreational purposes while, for example, limiting erosion or growing fuelwood.
232Sheikh, M.I. 1976. Arboriculture in Pakistan. Proceedings of the Symposium on ‘Trees and Forest for Human Settlements’ in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 11–12 June. IUFRO, Pl.05 Project Group on Arboriculture and Urban Forestry.
This paper is an examination of arboricultural activities in arid and semi-arid Pakistan. The harsh ecological conditions make special maintenance and irrigation procedures mandatory. The article provides information on planning, and irrigation procedures. It also identifies species which have been used in plantings.
233Shelter Afrique 1991. Sustainable Urban Development. Project Proposal. Nairobi.
According to the project proposal Shelter Afrique intends to implement a sustainable urban development project in 3 countries in Central/ Southern Africa. Social forestry will be one important component, Agroforestry was identified as promising urban forestry land management technology.
234Muogeot, L.; Pepall, J.; Lachance, A.; Lee, M.; Eberlee, J. 1993. Farming in the city: the rise of urban agriculture. Reports Oct. 1993 21 (3) 3–25 IRDC Canada.
235Shigo, A.L. 1991. Modern Arboriculture: A systems approach to the care of trees and their associates. Durham, New Hampshire, Shigo and Tree Associates, USA. 424 pp.
237Sien, C.L. 1979. Planning and environmental management in Singapore. Mac Andrews, C.; Sien C.L. (eds.). Developing Economies and the Environment, The Southeast Asian Experience. Mc Graw Hill Southeast Asia Series, Singapore.
This chapter gives historic background to the urban planning activities which are taking place in Singapore today. While little attention is given specifically to urban forestry activities, the integration of forestry and other activities into the urban planning process is well illustrated. The idea that long-term planning, done in the early stages of urbanization, can aid in the provision of necessary amenity space is supported by the Singapore example. It describes the economic and industrial development of Singapore and the subsequent urban renewal programme. Managing Singapore's urban environment includes physical planning, environmental pollution control and improving the physical attractiveness of the urban environment. Singapore Government controlled the planning process which included the creation of greenlinks and landscaped pedestrian walks and the provision of open space. The Parks and Recreation Division of the Public Works Department controls the landscaping, planting of trees and shrubs, maintenance of the plants and design of open spaces.
238Hull, R.B., IV; Ulrich, R.S. 1992. Health benefits and costs of urban trees. Proceedings of the 5th National Urban Forest Conference, Los Angeles, Nov. 1991. Washington, DC, American (USA) Forestry Association. pp.69–72.
239Siki, B.F. 1984. Agriculture, fuelwood, and conservation farming in the Atzera Range, Lae, Papua New Guinea. Jackson, J.K. (ed.) Social, economic, and institutional aspects of agroforestry. The United Nations University, Tokyo, pp. 86–88.
This paper describes a plan for the outskirts of Lae, Papua New Guinea. While the primary aim of the project is to create a fuelwood supply, an agroforestry scheme is proposed. The rationale behind the planning and the status of the project are reviewed within the article.
241Smit, J. consultant. 1992. Urban Agriculture in Latin America, Africa and Asia. UNDP Project GLO/84/007 paper prepared by R.D.C. Consultants, 1711 Lamont Street, Washington DC 20010 (Smit, J. Senior Consultant), 37pp.
242Smit, J.: Nasr, J. 1992. Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities: Using Wastes and Idle Land and Water Bodies as Resources. Environment and Urbanisation, 4 (2): 141–154.
243Storrs, A.; Storrs, J. 1984. Discovering trees in Nepal and the Himalayas. Published in Kathmandu, Nepal.
This book on woody plants in the Himalayas makes some references to trees in settlements.
244Streiffeler, F. 1987. Improving urban agriculture in Africa: A social perspective. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol.9 (2), pp.8–13.
This article provides an overview of African urban agriculture especially on the social dimension. While a long history of urban agriculture, incorporating trees exists in Africa, it is not well-developed. The article notes that urban agriculture should be considered in a different light from rural agriculture because of its high intensity. Different technologies and cultivation techniques must be employed, and as a result education becomes an important tool. The experiences of one project in Zaire are also related within this article. The problems which were encountered in the project were attributed to poor management structuring and organization support. And it is felt that greater governmental regard for the potential of urban agriculture might help foster project development.
246Swaminath, M.H. 1988. Techniques of raising instant trees. Myforest, March 88, Vol.24 (1): 1–5.
Under a social forestry program the roadside avenue plantations have become one of the major components of afforestation in Karnataka Estate, India. However the success is not very encouraging as the problems of maintaining planting till the safe stage is very high in terms of cost and time. Recently the Forestry Department in Bangalore has developed a technique for producing instant trees that would reduce the cost of maintenance. Details of the technique are given. Out of the thirty tree species tried in the experiment for production of instant trees, Tamarindus indica, Samanea saman, Peltophorum feruginium, Swietania macrophyla, Ficus religiosa and Delonix regia have shown maximum performance. Advances with instant trees can also be directly applied in rural forestry.
247Talarchek, G.M. 1987. Indicators of urban forest condition in New Orleans. Journal of Arboriculture 13 (9): 217–224.
248Tang, J.L. 1983. Urban forestry and wood utilization. Quarterly Journal of Chinese (Taiwan) Forestry, Vol. 16, No.3.
This article highlights the fact that wood utilization and urban forestry can be combined.
249Territory Development Department of Hong Kong. 1990. Metroplan Landscape Strategy (MLS) - proposed implementation framework. Hong Kong.
Although most of the fringe areas are covered by statutory plans and zoned “Green Belt”, the deteriorating urban fringe landscape is a result of the proliferation of temporary uses such as squatters and the lack of management responsibility. Until the full revision of the Town Planning Ordinance has been completed effective implementation of the land use designations will hinge on the good will of individual departments to carry out adequate development control. The Territory Development Department of Hong Kong has prepared a proposal to embark shortly on a major landscape rehabilitation programme for the urban fringe of Hong Kong. Various government departments will be involved in the implementation of the plan. Under the long term planting and woodland extension programme, about 3000 hectares of Urban Fringe Area will need woodland planting.
250Thaman, R.R. 1978. Urban agriculture and home gardening in Fiji: A direct road to development and independence. Proceedings of the Fiji Society, Vol.14. Suva, Fiji, December 1984.
This article examines Fijian home and community gardens and supports work by the development community to foster their increased predominance. Home gardens promote a self-help approach to increased food availability and, as this article points out, they eliminate the problems associated with appropriate and equal distribution to the poorest segments of society. This article contains a detailed description of species commonly found in Fijian home gardens. It also identifies common uses for each species. The paper also shows that tree crops and agroforestry home gardens are a very significant urban and peri-urban land use in the Fiji.
251Thaman, R.R. 1985. Mixed home gardening in the Pacific Islands: present status and future prospects. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Tropical Homegardens, December 2–9. Bandung, Indonesia.
This paper provides an insightful and in-depth look at the history and status of urban home gardens in the Pacific Islands. The paper examines the species produced in the different islands and looks at the ways in which the species are used. It finds that these species are used for a variety of purposes including food, handicraft, souvenirs, and medicine production. The predominance of certain species is related to the age of the settlement and the tenure status of the residents. And it is found that different species are produced in dooryard gardens as opposed to urban gardens located on undeveloped urban tracts. The paper also examines some of the problems encountered by urban cultivators who found that poor soil quality, water and land shortages, as well as a lack of institutional and cultural support for gardening activities, hindered cultivation activities. In some cases a simple lack of knowledge regarding home gardening existed; though this probably also resulted from traditionally poor conditions for cultivation. The article finally examines the social and cultural advantages associated with increases in the predominance of home gardens and closes with a list of potential routes for the development and extension of urban home and community gardening.
253Tiwari, K.M. 1983. Social Forestry for rural development. Dehra Dun.
This book demonstrates that tree planting is a crucially important activity which provides significantly social and economic benefits. It deals with some of the planning aspects of tree plating practises and makes proposals with a view to ameliorating the situation of the poor. Although written for rural areas, the technical information, e.g. on road-, rail- and waterside planting can be applied in urban forestry.
255Mathews, J.R. 1991. Benefits of amenity trees. Proceedings of the seminar ‘Research for practical arboriculture’ held at the University of York, April 1990. Edited by Hodge, S.J. 1991. Forestry Commission (UK) Bulletin No. 97, pp.74–80.
Reports on a study of the aesthetic, physical and economic benefits of amenity trees.
256McPherson, E.G.; Nowak, D.J.; Sacamano, P.L.; Prichard, S.E.; Makra, E.M. 1993. Chicago's evolving urban forest: initial report of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. Report, General Technical, US Forest Service. No.NE-169.55 pp.
The project was to research questions about the role of urban vegetation in environmental management.
257Tucker, J. 1994. Urban and community forestry in Israel. Unpublished paper. FAO Library.
Based on a 6-week study tour to examine the current status of community and urban forestry in israel.
258UNICEF. Urban examples for basic services development in cities. Urban agriculture. Meeting basic food needs for the urban poor. UNICEF UE-9. Urban Resource Systems. San Francisco.
259UNSO 1986. project ETH/85/X01/A. Establishment of fuelwood plantations for the town of Debre Birhan (Phase II). UNSO/ETH/85/X01/A Project Document.
This project document describes the goals and activities of a project for reforestation and fuelwood production in the urban and peri-urban areas near Debre Birhan. The paper reviews other fuelwood plantation projects and project proposals in Ethiopia. Perhaps most interestingly, the report gives a fairly in-depth analysis of the social, economic, and ecological changes that might result from the project. The ways in which the plantations might change traditional sex roles, fuelwood markets or water flow are all examined.
260USDA. 1990. Benefits of urban trees: Urban and community forestry: Improving our quality of life. United States Department of Agriculture Southern Region, Forestry Report R8-FR 17.
USDA pamphlet on the benefits of urban trees. These include: reducing of air pollution, fighting greenhouse effect, conserving of water and reduction of soil erosion, saving energy, modifying of local climate, increasing community economic stability, reducing noise pollution, and increasing property values. Finally, the pamphlet encourages participation in urban and community forestry programs.
261USDA. 1989. Developing and establishing urban and community forestry programs: an introductory guide. Report from United States Department of Agriculture Southern Region, Forestry Report R8-FR 16.
This guide outlines the steps to establishing urban and community forestry programs. Developing program support must be the first step, including community outreach and involvement. Setting up the program usually requires establishing a legally constituted board, or committed to act as an advisory group to the city government. Boards make recommendations to the city, assess the community urban forest situation, and may prepare comprehensive community plans. Developing a budget to support the program can provide an opportunity to demonstrate the value of urban tree care. Successful programs are based on well-defined goals and objectives. Accomplishing program objectives includes: resource maintenance (removal and replacement, pruning, fertilization), new tree plantings and planning for utilization of labour and equipment.
262Uwasomba, B.C. 1976. Vegetation design for human settlements in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Symposium ‘Trees and Forests for Human Settlements’ in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada 11–12 June. IUFRO, P1.05 Project Group on Arboriculture and Urban Forestry.
In this review of Nigerian urban and rural vegetation it becomes apparent that traditional rural concepts regarding flora have not been widely adopted or adapted to urban settings. Though regions created with European influence have been landscaped, there is little landscaping in the areas where indigenous peoples live. No hypothesis is provided as to why this might be the case.
263Vagale, L.R. 1977. Environmental pollution in urban areas and environmental management: an ecological approach. The Polytechnic, November 77,52 pp. Ibadan.
This publication also deals with the recreation environment and argues that with a few exceptions Nigerian cities are seriously deficient in recreation space. It argues in favour of careful planning of recreational areas to combat noise, dust, litter, pollution of water, excessive traffic and depletion of fauna and flora.
264Lindert, P.van; Westen, A.van. 1991. Household Shelter Strategies in Comparative Perspective: Evidence from Low-Income Groups in Bamako [Mali] and La Paz [Bolivia]. World Development 19(8): 1007–1028.
266Lindert, P.van; 1991. Women in Natural Resources. Special issue: Urban Forestry Volume 12 (3) March.
267Vasey, D.E. 1985. On estimating the net social and economic value of urban homegardens. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Tropical Homegardens, December 2–9. Bandung, Indonesia.
This paper provides a structure for cost-benefit analysis of urban home gardens. Particular attention is paid to the importance of land and water availability, and the cost involved in obtaining them. These costs must be weighed against the nutritional, economic, recreational and sanitation benefits obtained from urban home gardening.
268Vasey, D.E. 1985. Household Gardens and their Niche in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 7(3), 37–43.
According to this survey, 80 of the urban population of Port Moresby have some sort of garden, thus gardening is seen as a natural subsistence and income generating activity. Difficulties faced by would-be gardeners relate to land tenure problems and land availability. The survey reveals the impact that gardening has on the region's economy, employment and technology. The author offers suggestions which might increase the quality and efficacy of the gardens.
269Becker-Ritterspach, R.O.A. 1978. Nepal: Urban renewal, the restoration of Bhaktapur. Unasylva (FAO). (1978). v. 30 (121) p. 2–10.
270Kase, Y.; Yamaguchi, K. 1979. Peri-urban agriculture in Anjo area (Nagoya area) [Japan] (L' agriculture peri-urbaine dans l' aire d' Anjo (region de Nagoya) [Japon]). Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Agriculture in the planning and management of peri-urban areas (Volume 2. Studies of examples presented by OECD member countries and political reports on some political options). L'agriculture dans l'amenagement des aires peri-urbaines (Volume 2. Etudes de cas presentees par les pays membres de l' OCDE et Rapports politiques sur certaines options politiques). 75 - Paris (France). OECD. 1979. p. 377–423. Language: English; French AN code (AGRIS): 79-461159
271Jalong, P.N. 1978. The impact of forestry department on the social and economic activities of urban centres in central and northern Sarawak. Proceedings of the 6th Malaysian Forestry Conference. 11–17 Oct 1976. Jabatan Perhutanan Negeri Sarawak, Kuching (Malaysia). Published 1978. v.2 p.15–26. 6 tables; 15 ref.
Language: Malaysian (LS: English)
AN code (AGRIS): 79-425847
273Wilson, C.L. consultant. 1975. FAO; IUFRO. Emerging tree disease problems in urban ecosystems. FAO Forest Resources Div. 2. FAO/IUFRO World Technical Consultation on Forest Diseases and Insects. New Delhi (India). 7 Apr 1975. 4pp.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 76-085309
274Jorgensen, E. 1975. FAO; IUFRO. Tree disease problems in urban and amenity forestry. FAO world technical consultation. Forest Resources Div. 2. FAO/IUFRO Forest Diseases and Insects. New Delhi (India). 7 Apr 1975. 10pp. (FAO FOR IUFRO DI 75 17 57.).
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 76-085276 or 75-037799
275Holmes, F.W. consultant. 1975. FAO; IUFRO. Urban tree care and problems. FAO Forest Resources Div. 2. FAO/IUFRO World Technical Consultation on Forest Diseases and Insects. New Delhi (India). 7 Apr 1975. 10pp. (FAO FOR IUFRO DI 75 17 56.).
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 76-084827
276Halperin, J. consultant. 1975. FAO;IUFRO. The control of insect pests in urban and recreational forestry in Israel. FAO Forest Resources Div. 2. FAO/IUFRO World Technical Consultation on Forest Diseases and Insects. New Delhi (India). 7 Apr 1975. 11pp. (FAO FOR IUFRO DI 75 17 59.).
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 76-084820 or 75-037798
280Suvit Sangtongpraow; Umpaiwan Deemark; Uthaiwan Sangwanich. 1984. Research on forest environmental biology, sub-project 2: influence of urban environment on a certain tree species: influence of air pollution on stomatal density of leaves of some roadside trees [Tamarindus indica L., in Thailand]. (Kan suksa chiwawitthaya sing waet lom khong pa khrong kan yoi thi 2 itthiphon khong sing waet lom nai muang to mai yun ton bang chanit ruang itthiphon khong monlaphawa akat to khwam na naen khong bai pak bai khong mai yun ton khang thanom bang chanit.). Research Reports from Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). 1978–1979: Kasetsart Univ. [Rai ngan khon khwa wichai 2521–2522 mahawitthayalai kasetsart.] Bangkok (Thailand). 1982. p. 268. Received 1984.
Language: English; Thai
AN code (AGRIS): 85-109098
281Wan Sabri; Wan Mansor. 1983. Forests for outdoor recreation in Malaysia. Proceedings of the ASEAN Forestry Congress. Manila (Philippines). 10–15 Oct 1983. Manila (Philippines). 1983. 14 leaves.
Outdoor recreation research carried out by the Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia has indicated that there is a large volume of visitation to existing recreational areas. Recreation areas that are developed and managed by the government agencies will mainly satisfy the outdoor recreational needs of the urban lower income groups. Commercial outdoor recreation areas will mainly cater for the middle and higher income groups. The Forest Department has to play an important role not only in providing for outdoor recreational space but also in stimulating a variety of recreation patterns in its forests. This can be efficiently conducted by careful planning, utilizing a set of management guidelines, employment of professional staff related to outdoor recreation within its organization and a more cooperative relationship between the state and federal forest offices.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 85-072038
282MacLean, J.T. 1983. Urban forestry. April 1981 to December 1982. Quick bibliography series - National Agricultural Library (USA). no. 83-17. Jan 1983. 35 p.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 85-045034
283MacLean, J.T. 1984. Urban forestry. January 1982 to December 1983. Quick bibliography series - National Agricultural Library (USA). no. 84-19. Mar 1984. 26 p.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 85-045033
285Morgan, W.B. consultant. 1983. FAO project GCP/INT/365/SWE. Urban demand: studying the commercial organization of wood fuel supplies. Forestry Div. Wood fuel surveys. 1983. p. 53–73.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 84-038599
287Andresen, J.W.; Johnson, C. 1982. Is urban forestry education ready for the future? [Undergraduate college courses, arboriculture, urban areas, higher education, USA]. Journal of Forestry (USA). Oct 1982 v.80(10) p.658–659.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 84-000081
288Murray, S. 1994. Urban forestry management techniques in Ecuador: a low cost do-it-yourself approach. Proceedings of the 6th National (USA) Urban Forest Conference, ‘Growing Greener Communities’ Edited by Kollin, C. 14–18 Sept. 1993, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. pp. 66–69.
291Micha, F.R. 1978. The role of the private sector in managing the urban forest. Proceedings of the 8th World Forestry Congress. 16–28 Oct 1978. Direktorat Jendral Kehutanan, Jakarta (Indonesia). 1978. v. 28(pt. FOL-28-7) p. 1–9.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 82-725910
292Jones, A.R.C. 1978. Recreation and the role of urban forest. Proceedings of the 8th World Forestry Congress. Jakarta (Indonesia). 16–28 Oct 1978. Direktorat Jendral Kehutanan, Jakarta (Indonesia). v. 28(pt. FOL-28-12) p. 1–17.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 82-725895
293Good, J.E.G. 1978. Inventory systems and financial valuation of urban trees and forests. Proceedings of the 8th World Forestry Congress. Jakarta (Indonesia). 16–28 Oct 1978. Direktorat Jendral Kehutanan, Jakarta (Indonesia). v. 28 (pt. FOL-28-1) p. 1–9.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 82-725881
294Hultman, S. 1978. Outdoor recreation - wood production interfaces within the urban forest. Proceedings of the 8th World Forestry Congress. Jakarta (Indonesia). 16–28 Oct 1978. Direktorat Jendral Kehutanan, Jakarta (Indonesia). v. 28 (pt. FOL 28-6), 1–17.
Language: English
AN code AGRIS: 82-725721
CAB AN: F61170X
CAB code: CAB: 0F Forestry Abstracts 1980 041-05490.
297Tideman, P. 1978. A strategy for research on the development of guidelines for planning and design of the urban fringe. Proceedings of the 8th World Forestry Congress. Jakarta, Indonesia. Held 16–28 Oct 1978. Direktorat Jendral Kehutanan, v. 28(pt. FOL-28-2) p. 1–7.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 82-721862
300MacLean, J.T. 1987. Urban Forestry. 1984 to May 1987. Quick bibliography series - National Agricultural Library (U.S.) (USA). no. 88-06. Oct 1987. 16 p.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 88-055060
303Juanatas, M.C. 1986. Abnormalities and defects of urban trees in some selected areas in Southern Luzon [Philippines]: their cultural and management needs. Gregorio Araneta Univ. Foundation, Malabon, Metro Manila (Philippines). Malabon, Metro Manila (Philippines). Mar 1986. 130 leaves.
Of the different species planted in the study area of concentration, narra (Pterocarpus indicus) was found to be the most abundant followed by talisay (Terminalia catappa), cypress (Cupressus cusitanica), pine tree (Delorix regis) and ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala). These trees are openly seen and viewed on roadsides, schools, parks and provincial capitols. With regards to the present status of the trees inventoried and surveyed, the common injuries suffered by the trees were mostly caused by man, such as in the course of construction and repair caused by vehicular intrusion, by sharp knife injuries and damages caused by typhoon. Defects such as catface, bulge leaf spot and abnormalities such as crown deformation, root girdling, and cavities were also noticed. These were due to nutrient deficiency. For the maintenance and improvement of trees planted, subsequent application of fertilizer will improve the health and appearance of same and will enable them to withstand future attack by insects.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 87-107643
305Gilbertson, P.; Bradshaw, A.D. 1985. Tree survival in cities: the extent and nature of the problem. Arboricultural Journal (UK). 1985. v.9 (2) 131–142.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 87-065127
306Justice, C.L. 1986. The concept of the urban forest as applied to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Journal of Arboriculture (USA). July 1986. v. 12 (7), 178–181.
Urban forestry potential in Malaysia is discussed. Emphasis is on areas where amenity planting would be advisable. Suggestions presented are justified.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 87-042665
307MacLean, J.T. 1986. Urban Forestry. January 1986. Quick bibliography series - National Agricultural Library (U.S.) (USA). no. 86–25. Jan 1986. 21 p.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 86-074884
308Maudoux, E. consultant. 1985. FAO project TCP/BKF/4505(A). Forestry exploitation: the case of fuelwood supply for the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. (Organisation de l' Exploitation Forestiere: Cas du Ravitaillement de la Ville de Ouagadougou en Bois de Chauffe, Burkina Faso. Rapport de mission.). FAO project TCP/BKF/4505 mission report. 1985. 70 p.
Language: French
AN code (AGRIS): 86-045907
309Cassagne, B. consultant. 1987. The firewood problem in Tropical African villages. Case of Bangui (Central African Republic). Steps towards an agro-forestry solution. (Le probleme du bois de feu dans les villes d' Afrique Tropicale. Le cas de Bangui (RCA). Approche d' une solution agroforestiere.). Report for Montpellier University (France). 1987. 206 p.
Language: French
AN code (AGRIS): 90-139314
310Haveraaen, O. 1988. Fuelwood and fuelwood plantations in Africa. Proceedings of the Seminar on Bioenergy and Land Use in Africa. Aas (Norway). 11–12 Jan 1988. Vedeld, P. (ed.). Agricultural University of Norway, Aas (Norway). Norwegian Centre 'for International Agricultural Development; IIED, London (UK); NORAD, Oslo (Norway). Bioenergy and land use in Africa. Aas (Norway). Norges Landbrukshoegskole. Noragric Occasional Papers Series C. Development and Environment (Norway). no. 2. NORAGRIC. 1988. p. 59–71.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 90-067261
311Leach, G. 1988. Overview of bioenergy and land use in Africa. Proceedings of the Seminar on Bioenergy and Land Use in Africa. Aas (Norway). 11–12 Jan 1988. Vedeld, P. (ed.). Agricultural University of Norway, Aas (Norway). Norwegian Centre for International Agricultural Development; IIED, London (UK); NORAD, Oslo (Norway). Bioenergy and land use in Africa. Aas (Norway). Norges Landbrukshoegskole. Noragric Occasional Papers Series C. Development and Environment (Norway). no. 2. NORAGRIC. 1988. p. 9–19.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS):90-067258
313Esguerra, A.E. 1988. Abnormalities and defects of different trees in selected urban areas [in the Philippines]. Gregorio Araneta Univ. Foundation, Malabon, Metro Manila (Philippines). Malabon, Metro Manila (Philippines). 1988. 127 leaves.
Among the one hundred twelve species planted in the study areas,in the Philippines, fire tree is the most abundant, followed by ipil-ipil, narra, mahogany, coconut, cypress and McArthur palm. These species are often viewed in municipal parks, provincial parks, streets, roadsides, school campuses and hospitals. As to the defects/abnormalities of the species surveyed, common are those done by man using sharp instruments. This was found mostly in parks and school campuses. Other mechanical injuries are typhoon injury, root exposure, cavities, electrical interference and trunk injury. Natural defects observed are caused by insect, rust and spots, gas poisoning, bulges and nutrient deficiency. Both mechanical and natural defects are prevalent on the trunk and crown portions of a tree. With regards to planting, the surrounding where the plant is to be planted should be cleared of all kinds of vegetation. The type of soil should also be noted as it is this factor that the plant will primarily depend on its early stage. After planting, care and maintenance is also important. The tree must be guarded with stakes or any material that could protect them. This must be maintained until such time the root system is well established and strong enough to stand by itself. Watering, fertilizing and weeding is also needed. Application of insecticides and pesticides should be used when there is no other alternative to slip away the disease.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 90-017766
314Shehda, M.D. 1987. Urban forestry. Training Course on Remote Sensing for Urban Surveys and Human Settlement Analysis. Training Course on Remote Sensing for Urban Surveys and Human Settlement Analysis. Dehra Dun (India). 8–31 Dec 1987. Indian Inst. of Remote Sensing, Dehra Dun (India). Remote sensing for urban surveys and human settlement analysis. Report. Bangkok (Thailand). ESCAP/UNDP Regional Remote Sensing Programme. 1987. p. 135–141.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 90-017289
315Jim, C.Y. 1989. Tree-canopy characteristics and urban development in Hong Kong. Geographical Review (USA). 79(2), 210–225. Apr.1989.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 90-012147
320Beer, R. 1991. Trees in urban environments: what is their future? [social, cultural and landscape functions of trees and forests]. (L'arbre en ville:quel avenir? [fonction sociale, culturelle et paysagere de l'arbre et de la foret]. El arbol en la ciudad:?cual es su futuro? [funciones social, cultural y paisajista del arbol y del bosque]). Proceedings of the FAO World Forestry Congress, La foret, patrimoine de l'avenir. Paris (France). 17–26 Sep 1991. Forests, a heritage for the future. 10. Ministere de l'Agriculture. Revue Forestiere Francaise (France). no. sp. 1991. v.3 p.341–346.
Language: French
AN code (AGRIS): 92-106365
321Moll, G. 1991. Trees and green areas in urban environments [social, cultural and landscape functions of trees and forests]. (L'arbre et les espaces verts en milieu urbain [fonction sociale, culturelle et paysagere de l'arbre et la foret]. El arbol y las zonas verdes en el medio urbano [funciones social, cultural y paisajista del arbol y del bosque]). Proceedings of the FAO World Forestry Congress held 17–26 Sept. 1991. La foret, patrimoine de l'avenir. Paris (France). ‘Forests, a heritage for the future’. 10. Ministere de l'Agriculture. Revue Forestiere Francaise (France). no. sp. 1991. v.3 p. 335–340.
Moll gives a brief overview of urban forestry and the value of urban forests. Recommendations for their management: care with species selection; genetic improvements; development of parks and greenways; and using new planting techniques to ensure that trees have enough rooting area.
Language: French; English
AN code (AGRIS): 92-106364
322Guerin, J.C. 1991. Social, cultural and landscape functions of trees and forests. (Fonction sociale, culturelle et paysagere de l' arbre et de la foret. Funciones social, cultural y paisajista del arbol y del bosque.). Proceedings of the FAO World Forestry Congress, 1991, Paris, France, La foret, patrimoine de l'venir. 17–26 Sep Forests, a heritage for the future. 10. Ministere de l'agriculture. Revue Forestiere Francaise (France). no. sp. 1991. v. 3 p. 311–334.
Language: French; English; Spanish
AN code (AGRIS): 92-106363
323Sun, C. 1992. Community forestry in southern China. Journal of forestry (USA). (Jun 1992). v. 90(6) p. 35–40.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 92-091109
327Samba, L.J. consultant. 1988. FAO project TCP/PRC/8851. Deforestation problems and development efforts for rural and urban areas based on agroforestry. (Problemes du deboisement et tentatives de developpement des zones rurales et urbaines a partir de l'agroforesterie.). Final Report. Loubomo (Congo). 6–10 Sep 1988. Ministere de l'Economie Forestiere, Brazzaville (Congo). Sensitization Seminar on Agroforestry for Senior Staff in the Ministries of Forestry Economics and Rural Development. Oct 1988.p. 32–37.
Language: French
AN code (AGRIS): 92-014766
328Albrecht, J.; Weicherding, P.J. 1988. Second supplement to urban forestry: a bibliography. Minnesota Univ. (USA). Agricultural Experiment Station. St. Paul, Minn. (USA). Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Minnesota. [1988]. 67 p. Miscellaneous publication / University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station (USA). no. 53-1988.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 91-100178
329Openshaw, K. 1990. Fuelwood case study: Zambia and Botswana. Biomass assessment with particular reference to recent work done in Zambia and Botswana by the World Bank Urban Household Energy Projects. Seminar on Forestry Statistics in Africa. Blantyre (Malawi). 12–25 Nov 1989. Forestry Dept Report. Rome (Italy). 1990. p. 55–62.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 91-066070
330Biondi, D. 1988. Prosopis juliflora DC in Urban Forestry. Proceedings of the International Conference on Prosopis. 2. Recife (Brazil). 25–29 Aug 1986. Habit, M.A. (ed.); Saavedra, J.C. (ed.). FAO, Rome (Italy). Plant Production and Protection Div.; Ministerio da Agricultura, Brasilia (Brazil); International Prosopis Association, Recife (Brazil). The current state of knowledge on Prosopis juliflora. Papers. Rome (Italy). 1988. p. 169–173.
Prosopis juliflora has been increasingly used as an urban tree in cities in the Braziliab northeast. The main reason is their easy adaption and modest water requirements. This paper analyses the characteristics of P. juliflora and its potential for use in urban forestry.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 91-052501
331Zabala, N.Q. consultant. 1990. FAO project BGD/85/011. Arboriculture. FAO project report for Chittagong Univ. (Bangladesh). Inst. of Forestry. [np]. 1990. 72 p.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 91-052408
332Rasco, E.T.Jr.; Maghirang, R.G. 1989. Vegetable breeding and its role in home gardening. Proceedings of the Seminar Consultation Meeting held at Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). 5 Dec 1984. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Home gardening program in the Philippines. PCARRD Book Series (Philippines). no. 69. 1988. p.62–67.
Home gardening has been practiced since our ancestors started building permanent homes. Yet in 1983, vegetable production was only 447,500 tonnes out of the 2,660,175 t required by the country. Moreover; malnutrition is a serious problem, especially among pre-school children. Research into home gardening is lacking but the few who studied it agreed that home garden production is quite low. Rural and urban households differ in the amount of garden space available, access to technology, labour and material inputs motivation to grow vegetables, and social class. Based on these considerations, the vegetable crops suited for each of these households and their corresponding breeding objectives are listed. The varieties appropriate to urban home garden should be attractive, compact and determinate to maximize the use of limited space, shade tolerant, and nutritious. The few selected vegetables mentioned are bush snap beans, bush sitao, bell pepper, white potato, bush garden pea, tomato, muskmelon and watermelon. The vegetable varieties for rural gardens must be nutritious, perennial or with a long picking period, tolerant to poor soils, high yielding and resistant to drought, shade, pests, and diseases. The vegetables appropriate for rural gardens are pigeon pea, hyacinth bean, lima bean, squash, ampalaya, alugbati, winged bean, okra and pole sitao.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 91-041604
333Torres, E.B. 1988. Socioeconomic aspects of backyard gardening in the Philippines. PCARRD Book Series. Seminar-Consultation Meeting. Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). 5 Dec 1984. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Home gardening program in the Philippines. Received Feb 1989. PCARRD Book Series (Philippines). no. 69. 1988. p. 73–82.
A home garden is defined as an area within the home lot or elsewhere which is cultivated for household consumption. Household food production generally includes livestock, fish and crops. A survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute [Philippines] showed that three out of four Filipino households had a home garden, that more rural households in the low income brackets tend gardens, that 20 of food consumed by families are home produced, and that most number of home gardens are in the Visayas, as well as in Mindanao. Recent studies showed that traditional gardening is different from that recommended by enthusiasts with western orientation. Traditional gardening approximates the tropical forest ecosystem of multilayered plants with various requirements for sunlight and root zones. Home gardening should also include nonfood crops such as those for medicine, ornamentals, shade, windbreaks, etc. Initial findings of a PCARRD [Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, Natural Resources Research and Development] - funded socioeconomic study on landless agricultural workers, urban poor, subsistence fishermen and marginal farmers showed that constraints to gardening in the Negros [Philippines] sugar plantations are the availability of land and the landowner's attitude to it. In the cooperating plantations, however, the technicians still recommend inputs beyond the finances of the people. Traditional gardeners mimic the natural succession of the tropical rainforest and devise innovative ways of overcoming constraints. Horticulturists should learn from them.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 91-040051
335FAO 1990. Urban and peri-urban multipurpose forestry: an annotated bibliography. FAO Forestry Dept. Expert Consultation on Agroforestry in the Asia-Pacific Region. Bangkok (Thailand). 15–18 May 1990. 32pp.
The dramatic increase in urban population in developing countries with corresponding needs for food, fuel and shelter, and improving the quality of life in the city, calls for the design of strategies in which multipurpose forestry will play an important role. This annotated bibliography constitutes a first step towards identifying promising approaches and activities as a basis for building future programmes. The bibliography was drawn from a wide range of subjects including forestry, agriculture, nutrition, arboriculture, horticulture, city planning and landscape architecture. Eighty references are included in the bibliography. The entries of this 1990 bibliography have been included in this present 1995 bibliography.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 91-024238
336Gates, J.P. 1990. Urban Forestry. January 1987 to April 1990. Quick bibliography series - U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library (USA). no. 90–65. Aug 1990. 25 pp.
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 91-014735
337Gomez Lopera, F.; Salvador Palomo, P.J. 1993. New concept of urban green areas. (Nuevo concepto de areas verdes urbanas.). Revista de la Sociedad Espanola de Horticultura (Espana). (Sep 1993). (no.942) p. 23–28.
Language: Spanish
AN code (AGRIS): 93-110564
338Ruiz Altamirano, B. 1991. Trees and shrubs with urban importance at Cordoba City, Veracruz State.[Mexico] (Los arboles y arbustos con importancia urbana en la ciudad de Cordoba, Veracruz.). Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the National Institute of Forestry, Husbandry and Agricultural Investigation at Veracruz State, 4, Veracruz, Ver., Research and development results. INIFAP, Centro de Investigacion Regional Golfo Centro, Campo Experimental Cotaxtla, Ap. Postal 453, 91700 Veracruz, Ver. (Mexico). Publicacion Especial. Centro de Investigacion Regional Golfo Centro (Mexico). no. 8. INIFAP. Dec 1991. p. 106.
Language: Spanish
AN code (AGRIS): 93-107545
339Zabala, N.Q. consultant. 1991. FAO project BGD/85/011. Urban forestry and world forestry. Chittagong Univ. (Bangladesh). Inst. of Forestry. [np]. May 1991. 144 p. (FAO Forestry Div.).
Language: English
AN code (AGRIS): 93-097713

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