Projects and workshops
1. Alexander, R. (1995), Security, women, and tuna: a look at Fiji, in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 91-100.
The paper offers a model to approach security, women and tuna and goes through the description of two local industries, a canning one and an exporting one that produce particularly for foreign markets. Women face poor working conditions and exploitation.
2. Aslin, H.J., Webb, T. and Fisher, M. (2000), Fishing for women: understanding womens roles in the fishing industry, Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra (Australia), 109 pp.
This study forms part of a larger research project initiated by the Womens Industry Network (WIN), a South Australian-based non-government organization for women in the fishing industry, and the Social Sciences Centre of the Bureau of Rural Sciences (BRS). The research deals with women in the commercial fishing industry (sometimes termed the seafood industry), covering wild catch fisheries and aquaculture. Specifically, the research is based on the view that womens roles in the Australian fishing industry are poorly reflected in industry statistics, and womens contributions to industry output and productivity are poorly recognised.
3. Cahill, M. and Martland, S. (1993), Women in the Newfoundland fishery, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa (Canada), 28 pp.
In Newfoundland the fishery was the only occupational option for most women in fishing communities and they have had little if any experience in career planning. Women knew what they were going to do, and there was no need to look at alternatives. Since the cod fishing moratorium they have had to consider the alternatives and the prospect can be both frightening and challenging as women have a perceived responsibility to hold the family together and to regulate the balance between tradition and change in the communities. Until the psychological impacts of the moratorium are addressed many women may be unable to concentrate on their career options.
4. Chung, M. (1995) Linking population, environment, and gender: the case of Suva harbour, Fiji, in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 109-122.
Highlights the problems that women in Suva Harbour have to face. Women in Suva have to sustain to their households but their ability is affected by the degradation of inshore marine resources. Much of the government assistance has been directed to deep-sea fishing. The author calls for recognition of the value of fisherwomens production but also for recognition of the resources they draw upon.
5. Dias, J.C. and Joseph, C. (1992), Women in fisheries: an Indian perspective in The Fisherfolk of Asia: justice denied - Report and statement of the fifth Asian fisherfolk consultation, January 26-31 1992, Asian Cultural Forum on Development, Songkla (Thailand): 140-149.
Expands on the role of women in India where their potential has often been overlooked and analyses the Bay of Bengal Project (BOBP) experience and the positive results it obtained. Calls for a greater involvement of NGOs to stimulate and catalyse women s activities.
6. Fairbairn-Dunlop, P. (1995), Teach a woman to process fish and...., in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers, Ltd Suva (Fiji): 63-70.
Expands on a project, entitled The Women in Fisheries Support Project (WIFSP) in Papua New Guinea, a project targeting women and representing the incorporation of food security and income generating activities within a national project.
7. Gina-Whewell, L. (1995), Roviana women in traditional fishing, in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 19-27.
Paper on womens acceptable roles in relation to fishing grounds and common target species, equipment, techniques and methods, weather and tidal variations, and the impact on womens traditional fishing of contemporary fishing resources management practices.
8. Lefebure, N. (1995), Femmes océanes - Les grandes pionnières maritimes, Glénat, 332 pp.
Expands through the history on the increasing role of women as pioneers of the sea.
9. Lopez, L., Lovesio, B., Murguialday, C. and Varela, C. (1992), Un mar de mujeres - trabajadoras en la industria de la pesca, Grecmu, Ediciones Trilce, 141 pp.
A description of the fisheries sector in Uruguay and the progressive occult feminization of the sector. The strong demand for women is a consequence of shortage of capital and the necessity of manual work.
10. Martin, A-D (1994), Les ouvrières de la mer. Histoire des sardinières du littoral breton, Collection Chemin de la Mémoire, LHarmattan, Paris, 75 pp.
The author deals with the sardine canners of Douarnenez (Britanny, France), and explains the importance of the work of these women. She tells us of their relations with the factory, religion, men and money.
11. Matthews, E. (1995), The need for invertebrate conservation in the Pacific islands region, in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 123-136.
In Pacific islands men are increasingly being drawn into commercial fishing activities while women collect invertebrates, an activity not seriously taken into consideration by many fisheries department, and thus women are isolated from mainstream fisheries programmes. The authors calls for a new management strategy that would pay greater attention to women.
12. Ram, K. (1991), Mukkuvar women. Gender, hegemony and capitalist transformation in a south India fishing community, Allen and Unwin, Sydney (Australia), 266 pp.
This book explores the ambiguities and complexities of caste, religion, class and gender in the Catholic fishing community of the Mukkuvars, at the southern most tip of the Indian subcontinent. These coastal villages have been shaped by distinctive elements - a history of colonization by Portugese Jesuits, the work of fishing, and an unusual sexual division of labour. In addition, the micro-politics of power within the villages is being redefined by the new place of the fishing industry within the world economic order.
13. Ram-Bidesi, V. (1995), Changes to womens roles in fisheries development in Fiji, in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 71-90.
Case-study of women involved in fisheries in Fiji, who are active productive agents and have an important role in the sustainability of the resources. The author encourages the implementation of the UN World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) guidelines that call for strategies to enhance womens fishing activities by incorporating them with mainstream fisheries development and not the contrary.
14. Sasabe, M. (1995), Women workers in the Taiyo cannery, Noro, Solomon islands in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 49-62.
Presents case studies of women workers in two Japanese fish canneries in the South pacific, the Solomon Taiyo Ltd. and the Yazaki Samoa. Reviews the working conditions in the canneries and the effects of these conditions on womens health, diet and their lives in general. Also describes the social impact of the canneries and the exploitation of women.
15. Schoeffel, P. (1995),Women in fisheries in the Pacific islands: a retrospective analysis, in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 7-28.
Womens fishing is associated with subsistence, domestic production, and small-scale produce marketing. Overview of the obstacles and the role of women in commercial fishery, aquaculture and conservation and recommendations on how to help women.
16. Slatter, C. (1995), For food or foreign exchange? Subsistence fisheries and the commercial harvesting of marine resources in the Pacific, in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 137:147.
The author argues that placing emphasis on export-oriented fisheries production at the expense of subsistence fisheries, could have drastic effects on future food security, health and welfare of Pacific island people. Also argues that the subsistence fishery, in which common women predominate, is too often neglected and this reflects both a gender bias and a bias in the market.
17. South, G.R. (1995), Edible seaweeds: an important source of food and income to indigenous Fijians, in Fishing for answers women: fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 43-47.
Describes each of the seven species of edible seaweed available in Fiji. The description includes: name, method of harvest, location, price and method of preparation for eating. Mentions that Fijian women and girls are the key people involved in collection, marketing and preparation of these seaweeds.
18. Taniera, T. and Mitchell, J. (1995), Notes from Kiribati (August 1992), in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 28-32.
Collection of information on womens fishing in Kiribati. Women have a central socio-economic and cultural role in fishing in both the subsistence and cash sectors. Through the seemingly marginal activity of gleaning, women contribute significantly to meeting nutritional needs of their families. There is a need for specificity in defining womens work in fishing for there are key differences in activities that occur on reef and lagoon islands.
19. Tiraa-Passfield, A. (1995), Fishing activities of women of the Suva pony club squatter settlement, Fiji, in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 33-41.
Study on subsistence fishing carried out by women in a squatter settlement in the urban environment of Suva. Squatters settlements for people coming from the rural areas rely heavily on the surrounding environment for resources, such as seafood that can be gleaned from the mudfalts and other marine resources. Sometimes these resources are overexploited and the marine environment may be contaminated.
20. Vunisea, A. (1995), Subsistence fishing, women, and modernization in Fiji, in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 101:107.
Paper based on the authors research and work to record and document womens role in the rapidly changing subsistence sector in Fiji. He suggests that women should be viewed as necessary agents of change. Their immense contribution, especially to the economical, nutritional, and social survival of the family should be accorded proper recognition.
21. Whippy-Morris, C. (1995), Women in Pacific island fisheries: an annotated bibliography, in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 148:170.
Part of a more comprehensive bibliography on women and fisheries in the Pacific islands from 1979 to 1994.
22. Women and Fisheries Network (1995), Not just talk: the discussions that spawned the Women and Fisheries Network in Fishing for answers: women and fisheries in the Pacific islands, edited by Elizabeth Matthews for the Women and Fisheries Network, Oceania Printers Ltd, Suva (Fiji): 171-177.
Explains the reasons that brought to the creation of the Women and Fisheries Network, namely the need to pay more attention to womens fisheries activities in Pacific islands, the need to support the subsistence sector, to recognise womens economic contributions in semi-subsistence communities, for more research into the nature and significance of womens fisheries, to assist womens involvement in commercial activities. Highlights the Women and Fisheries Network project.
23. Ahmed, K.K., Rahman, S. and Chowdhury, M.A.K. (1999), Role of tribal women in reservoir fisheries of Bangladesh, Aquaculture Asia, 4 (1): 12-15.
A discussion is presented on the emerging role played particularly by the tribal women in activities related to reservoir fisheries in Bangladesh. It is based on a primary survey that identified womens roles in fishing, marketing and post-harvest activities of reservoir fisheries. The study was in two stages: the first covered 493 fishers in four major fishing grounds of Kaptai reservoir, and the second covered 100 fish retailers in the major markets.
24. Alamu, S.O. (1991), Assessment of women contribution to fishing industry and fish marketing in Kainji lake basin, Annual Report National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research, New Bussa (Nigeria), vol. 1990: 184-190.
This survey shows that there are many post-harvest activities in the fishing industry of the Kainji Lake basin in Nigeria in which women are expected to contribute substantially in order to raise the living standard of the family. Efforts should be geared towards assisting women in participating in post-harvest activities which can raise their living standard.
25. Alamu, S.O. (1993), The role of women fish mongers on commercial fish handling and marketing in Jebba lake basin, Annual Report National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Resources, New Bussa (Nigeria), vol. 1992: 152-162.
This survey, covering the role of women in fish handling and marketing in Jebba Lake basin, Nigeria, indicates that although women are mostly involved in these activities, the economic returns from their efforts are marginal due to poor handling and distribution of fish. Women should therefore be encouraged and enlightened in improved methods of fish handling and distribution. All these can be achieved through effective fisheries extension education, establishment of pilot projects and encouraging them to form cooperative societies.
26. Alamu, S.O. and Mdaihli, M. (1995), Socio-economic survey of women in artisanal fisheries in Kainji lake area: a case study of Wawu, Annual Report National Institute Freshwater Fisheries Resources, New Bussa (Nigeria), vol. 1994: 195-203.
The findings are presented of a survey conducted in the village of Wawu, Nigeria, to document the role of women in the various activities they conduct in the artisanal fisheries of Kainji Lake. The participation of women in social and economic activities are strictly moderated by religious injunctions. Definite extension messages which focus attention on the activities in which women are engaged inside their fenced compounds should be formulated and passed on to the women by female extension workers.
27. Alvares, MLM, and Maneschy, M.C. (1997), From invisible work to collective action: research and participation with women from the fishing communities of the Amazonian coast, Pla Notes, International Institute for Environment and Development, (30): 62-65.
An account of a project aiming to characterise the roles of women in the families of local fishers, in the fishing productive system and the fishing communities on the coast of the State of Para, Brazil. Activities were planned to build or strengthen channels for political participation by women in fisher communities, and womens associations were formed.
28. Anon. (1995), Omstilling i fiskeindustrien - bedre jobber for kvinner?, Rapport Nordlands Forskning, (10).
This research report deals with some important issues whether economic restructuring in the fishing industry contribute to create better jobs for women. It raises some questions whether the transformation of the fishing industry, subject to increasing modernization and rationalization, creates favourably conditions for the development of competence and skills. The report raises another important question regarding the transformation of the fishing industry and its ability to induce changes in the traditional social division of labour based on gender. It is important because the majority of workers engaged in production are women and work in the fishing industry is often the only employment opportunity for women in many coastal communities in northern Norway.
29. Anon. (1997), Women growers backed by Xunta, Fish Farming International, 24 (6),[vp].
The cultivation of clams and oysters in northwest Spain is being given a major boost this year by the three-year Plan Galicia of the Xunta de Galicias Conselleria de Pesca, Marisqueo e Acuicultura. This follows a successful pilot project called Plan 10 (it was carried out in ten selected Galician areas). Tens of millions of clam and oyster seed will be on grown to market size in inter-tidal areas by organised groups of women, or mariscadoras.
30. Anon. (1999),Women do fish!, Aquaculture Asia, vol. 4 (1): 8-9.
A summary report is provided of the symposium on women in Asian fisheries, held in November 1998 during the 5th Asian Fisheries Forum in Thailand. Knowledge of the contributions of women in the fisheries sector is only evolving slowly and still lags behind that of other rural sectors in Asian countries. It was concluded that one way to help rectify this situation would be for the governments in Asia to cover gender questions on fisheries and aquaculture in their regular agricultural censuses. Specific actions agreed to be taken by the participants are detailed and general recommendations from the Symposium are included.
31. Bay of Bengal Programme for Fisheries Development (1996), World womens conference in China: some impressions, in PHF News, (5): 8-10.
A brief discussion is given of the personal experiences of the author during participation at the 4th World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China (September 1995) and the NGO Forum, detailing in particular the various workshops held related to the fisheries sector.
32. Bhaumik, U., Pandit, P.K. and Chatterjee, J.G. (1990), Participation of fisherwomen in inland fisheries activities - perceived problems and measures, Environment and Ecology, 8 (2):713-716.
The study was undertaken in five progressive districts of West Bengal to identify the socio-economic problems as perceived by rural women-folk which impeded their participation in various inland fisheries activities. To mitigate these problems they suggested some measures to overcome them.
33. Bhaumik, U., Pandit, P.K. and Chatterjee, J.G. (1993), Involvement of women in the development of inland fisheries, Environment and Ecology, 11(3): 641-644.
An investigation was carried out in five districts of West Bengal to involvement of women in inland fisheries development. A total of 201 women was interviewed at random with a schedule. Participation of women in net weaving was found to be the most preferred job and majority of them earned between Rs. 100 and 200 per month which supplemented family income for better living.
34. Bhaumik, U. and Chatterjee, J.G. (1999),Achievements of Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kakdwip, Bulletin Center Inland Capture Fisheries Resources Institute, Barrackpore, CICFRI, (India), (86).
The main objectives of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kakdwip, India are to provide a strong support and linkage through training, demonstration and on-farm testing for increasing productivity of fisheries and agricultural crops in deltaic areas of Sunderbans. This Kendra has been functioning since 1979 and has made significant contributions for the betterment of its clientele, even in terms of participation of women folk; of participation of rural women of Sunderbans in decision making process related to fishery, in natural and extent of women participation in crop production and fishery activities.
35. Binkley, M. (2000), Getting by in tough times - Coping with the fisheries crisis, Womens Studies International Forum, 23 (3): 323-332.
In response to the current fisheries crisis, Nova Scotian coastal fishing dependent households are scrambling to get by. In the past, these households relied on long-term financial planning strategies, but in these tough times those strategies are breaking down, and are being replaced by short-term coping mechanisms. These attempts to get by include changing household livelihood strategies such as spending and saving practices, and changing work patterns inside and outside the home, as well as within the household fishing enterprise. By restructuring their work fishing-dependent households hope that they can get by until the fishery bounces back.
36. Bravo, M. (1996), Market economy poses problems for Concheras, Intercoast Network, (28): 4.
The cockle-gathering done in the village of Bunche, Muisne Canton, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador is all done by women known as concheras. The Association of the Bunche Concheras has attempted to increase the income they received from selling their cockles. The pilot sales were facilitated by personnel of the Coastal Resources Management Program (PMRC) and the Artisanal Fisheries Assessment Program (PRAPESCA).
37. Bringmann, N. (1996), Ideals and reality: women fish vendors in a south Indian village, Occasional Paper no. 62 Nijmegen: Third World Centre/Development Studies, Catholic University of Nijmegen.
The paper is based on conversations with female fish vendors in a fishing village in the Southern Indian State of Kerala; it discusses the social position and identity of these women within their caste.
38. Cecily, PJ. (1990), Employment for women [in India], ANN. INDUST. FISH. ASSOC., 7: 95-98.
With a view to educating the coastal women on fish preservation and processing techniques especially in handling low cost fish the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India launched a scheme for the welfare of fisherwomen in collaboration with Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT) and the Centre for Research and Training in Poverty Alleviation and Women Welfare (CRATPAW), Cochin.
39. Chapman, G. (1998), Women in aquaculture research and development in three Asian countries. Lao PDR: role of women in fisheries research and development - situation and needs, Aquaculture Asia, 3 (4): 18-19.
Fisheries research and development activities in Lao PDR are currently in the early stages of growth; hence, there is a great opportunity for promoting the participation of women. Fisheries management will soon be essential and human resource development is a constraint. Women will have to assume important roles in research and development efforts, and will therefore require equal opportunities for advanced education and practical field experience. In research, it is encouraging to see that women are occupying positions from project director to field research technician with support from the Department of Livestock and Fisheries. Because women are so active in almost all aspects of capture fisheries and aquaculture, it is essential for them to be genuinely involved in research and development efforts focusing on the users and resources. Aid projects have an opportunity and responsibility to advance the role of women in the sector, and all groups, including women, need to be given the opportunity to engage in fisheries research and development.
40. Crossan, R. (1993), The container thats become a symbol, Bay of Bengal News, Madras, (50): 22-25.
In northern Tamil Nadu in South India, an aluminium fish marketing container, designed by fisherwomen, has become a symbol of womens ability to access state funds, improve their social status and become actively involved in the process of development so that their specific needs may be met. Particular reference is made to the 2 fishing villages of Killai and Devanampattinam. They have been among the beneficiaries of a fish marketing container scheme. The formation of Fisherwomens Cooperative Societies (FWCSs) has given women a forum to discuss problems and search for solutions.
41. Das, S.K. (1997), The Khasi women and their role in fish marketing, Aquaculture Asia, 2 (4): 39-40.
A brief discussion is presented on the role that the Khasi women of Meghalaya, India, play in the marketing of fresh fish, considering also the various problems they face, such as lack of cold storage facilities and appropriate fish preservation technologies, escalating cost of fish transportation and frequent strikes.
42. Davis, D. and Gerrard S. (2000), Gender and resource crisis in the north Atlantic fisheries, Womens Studies International Forum, 23 (3):279-286.
The article calls for more awareness on the impact of for the north Atlantic fisheries crisis on women. It points out the need to develop, expand and refine a critical and feminist perspective.
43. Davis, D.L. and Nadel-Klein, J. (1992), Gender, culture, and the sea: contemporary theoretical approaches, Society and Natural Resources, 5 (2): 135-147.
Social science studies of fishing communities have tended to be highly focused on male activities and to regard womens work as domestic or as merely supplemental to that of men. This review article is intended to update the material presented in an earlier, more comprehensive essay on gender in the maritime literature. It examines some contemporary exceptions to this androcentric tendency, suggesting that understanding of local fisheries can be greatly enhanced by re-examining the role of gender in fishing communities and in fisheries production.
44. Davy, F.B. (1991), Mariculture in Japan: current practices, World Aquaculture, 22 (2): [np].
The Japanese fisheries industry has undergone major change in recent years. The number of fishermen has declined, and their mean age has increased because few of the younger generation are entering the industry. Women now comprise about 17 percent of the labour force, and the majority are in aquaculture.
45. Delano, P. and Lehmann, D. (1993), Women workers in labour-intensive factories: the case of Chiles fish industry, European Journal of Development Research (London), 5 (2): 43-67.
The work is based on a questionnaire survey and interviews conducted in 1992 and 1993 in Chile. The article investigates the reason for the high number of women working in labour-intensive factories. (www.ilo.org)
46. Diaz, E. (1999), Women workers: feeling insecure, SAMUDRA Report, Brussels, (22): 37-39.
The Chilean fisheries sector provides large quantities of marine products for export, which has enabled it to establish a very effective and dynamic place in international trade and which has given it a very important role in the national economy. An examination is made of the main aspects of the working conditions and quality of jobs in the sector, giving particular emphasis on women workers, who represent nearly 50% of the full-time workers in the sector. The job market in the fishing industry has a marked division of labour by gender. Particular tasks are only allocated to men, and others only to women; the latter tend to be more short-term and insecure, often caused as much by cultural factors as by structural and economic ones. Women are usually best at undertaking tasks which involve handling raw material, and as a result, are assigned specific roles in the production process. These tasks are generally low paid and offer poor job security
47. Felsing, M., Brugere, C., Kusakabe K. and Kelkar, G. (2000), Women for aquaculture or aquaculture for women?, INFOFISH International (3): 34-40
The article analyses the role of women in the aquaculture sector in Southeast Asia. Aquaculture is becoming very important in the region but the role of women has often been adversely affected. The article tries to identify some ways to alleviate the problem.
48. Flores, P.E. (1996), Women in Ecuadors fishing families, Intercoast Network, (28): 7-8.
A recent study by members of Ecuadors coastal management project, Programa de Manejo Recursos de Costeros (PMRC), has examined the role women play in the post-larval fishery, not just in the capture and cleaning of post-larvae, but in the context of everyday community life. The post-larvae fishery not only serves to provide the basic resource for development of the shrimp industry, but also represents an alternative source of work and income.
49. Gammage, S. (1996), El Salvador: women in fisheries. The tattered net of statistics, SAMUDRA report, Brussels, (16): 13-17.
A discussion is presented on the important role played by women in the fisheries of El Salvador. Official statistics for El Salvador reveal that very few women fish, approximately 6%; however, observing the daily activities fishers and the pattern of household involvement in fish production and processing in the country indicates this figure to be very different. Quantitative surveys conducted often fail to capture the gender diversity of the fishing economy. Reference is made to a survey conducted of mangrove households in 1993/94 in El Tamarindo to document the nature and extent of the relationship men and women had with the resource base.
50. Geistdoerfer, A. (1996), Femmes de pêcheurs - du mythe aux luttes sociales, Bulletin du Centre de Culture Scientifique Technique Industrielle Maritime de Lorient, CCSTI LORIENT, (5), June.
Reports on an exhibition with the same title and highlights role of fisherwomen since the last century in Britanny (France).
51. Gerrard, S. (2000), The gender dimension of local festivals. The fishery crisis and womens and mens political actions in north Norwegian communities, in Womens Studies International Forum, 23 (3):299-309.
This article is a description and analysis of changes and maintenance in the construction of gender and community. The background for the article is the crisis related to the north Norwegian cod fishery, which resulted in heavy regulations. The focus of the research is whether the changes in public and political gender roles and community relations, observed in 1989 and 1990 are still maintained in the late 1990s. The main question concerns womens community work. The author has focused on local community days or summer festivals organised in many fishing villages in northern Norway during the 1990s. By means of participant observation and actor-oriented perspectives, the author describes and analyses maintenance and changes in gender roles, relationships, identities and knowledge.
52. Gomathi, B. (1998), A tale of two tricycles, Phf News, (13): 5-7.
A brief account is given of the experiences of two communities in Tamil Nadu, India, regarding the use of tricycles by women fish vendors to assist them in reaching fish markets quickly. Numerous management problems were encountered by women in Periakuppam, near Mahaabalipuram -- it was difficult to find a reliable driver, the village men were hostile, and the sangam women often quarreled with each other regarding costs and rights to use the vehicle. This resulted in the fact that much of the time the tricycle remains unused. However, when tricycles were made available to women fish vendors in Nagapattinam, the results were much more successful.
53. Gopalakrishnan, A. (1996), Role of women in Indian shrimp farming, Naga. Manila, 19 (4): 16-18.
Women in India are involved in various facets of shrimp farming, including pond construction, seed collection, collection of feed materials and preparation of feeds, pond maintenance and post-harvest handling.
54. Hall-Arber, M. (1996), Hear me speak: Italian and Portuguese women facing fisheries management, Anthropologia, 8: 221-248.
Two of the major groundfish ports in the northeast are Gloucester, dominated by first- and second-generation Italians, and New Bedford whose groundfish fleet is predominantly Portuguese. Women of the two ports face the same potential impacts associated with the current crisis in the fisheries. Loss of incomes, vessels and homes has already begun. In Gloucester, women have transformed an organization that began as a campaign to promote cooking of underutilized species of fish into an active lobbying force, collaborative problem-solving agency and pro-active civic group.
55. Kamila, A. (1995), Fish marketing containers for women vendors, PHF News, (1): 6-7.
The findings are presented of a study commissioned by the ODA Post-Harvest Fisheries Project conducted in South India with the aim of producing a suitable container for the transportation of fish by women. Various designs were developed, based mainly on suggestions made by women themselves.
56. Kaplan, I.M. (1999), Suspicion, growth and co-management in the commercial fishing industry: the financial settlers of New Bedford, Marine Policy, 23 (3): 227-241.
Origins and organization of New Bedford financial settlement houses are examined. Settlement houses are an important part of the extensive fishing community and have made significant historic contributions. Most contemporary and many of the earliest settlers are female and womens contributions to the fishing industry are discussed. Emphasis is also placed on the fisher-based solution that settlement houses represent; implications for use in co-management strategies and the need to reduce the adversarial atmosphere in fisheries governance are discussed.
57. Keefe, M-L and Young-Dubovsky, C. (1996), Promoting diversity in the fisheries, Fisheries, 21 (1): 14-15.
The American workplace is changing. The 1950s image of the white male leaving the wife and family every morning to work his 9-to-5 job has been replaced by dual career families, non traditional working hours, day care, single parents, and a more diverse workforce. Females and minorities are no longer limited to traditional jobs and professions. However, the fisheries profession, as part of the larger environmental science and resource management field, still fits the 1950s image well.
58. Kibria, MdG, Edwards, P., Kelkar, G. and Demaine, H. (1999), Women in pond aquaculture in the oxbow lakes of Bangladesh, Aquaculture Asia, 4 (4): 7-14.
Fish and fisheries play an integral part of the culture and tradition in the life of the people of Bangladesh. The country has some 600 oxbow lakes created from dead river-bends scattered over the southwestern region of the country. The introduction of community management in 23 of the common property oxbow lakes has involved active participation of women. Women are successfully included in the management of oxbow lake fisheries under the Oxbow Lake Small-Scale Fishermen Project II. An assessment is made of the technological and socio-economic effects of Fish Farming Group pond aquaculture, with emphasis on the involvement of women. Some recommendations are made based on social, technological and gender aspects for the future sustainability of Fish Farming Groups.
59. Klein, J.N (2000), Granny baited the lines - Perpetual crisis and the changing role of women in Scottish fishing communities, Womens Studies International Forum, 23 (3): 363-372.
The extended North Atlantic fisheries crisis has greatly transformed the sexual division of labour along the coast of Scotland. Only a handful of places remain where virtually every household relies on fishing, and the Scottish fishery no longer depends heavily upon womens work. However, even where fishing has ceased to be a primary resource base, the idea of fishing heritage remains a potential source of income. A number of the smaller east coast communities now depend upon tourism and touristic representations of the fisher past as much as, if not more so, than they do upon the fishery itself. Depictions of women feature prominently in fisher museums and heritage displays. This article explores the significance of gender representations for local identity management in the context of perpetual crisis.
60. Krishna Iyer, JVR, Amma, J. (1995), The jurys verdict, SAMUDRA Report, Brussels, (13): 41-43.
Excerpts are given from a public hearing held in India regarding womens struggles for survival in fisheries. Particular emphasis is made on the inhuman working and living conditions of women in fisheries. Most of the women are used as forced labour and are in servitude; from the numerous testimonies and written reports presented, it may be seen that the provisions of the relevant labour laws are being totally violated.
61. Larkin, M. and Abord-Hugon, C. (1995), A good start, Oxfam-Canada, SAMUDRA Report, (13): 32-38.
A discussion is presented on the outcome of a conference conducted in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada in March 1995 regarding the role of women in fisheries. The conference allowed women to get a better sense of their situation, of the problems they face and of their strength. It also helped start a reflection of what women expect for the future of the fishery and of coastal communities. Four themes were selected for further discussion: unemployment insurance and government policy, changing the image of the fishery, fishery and the environment, and working in networks and organizations.
62. Madhu, S.R. (1991), After Victoria falls: women in fisheries and aquaculture, ALCOM News, (4): 10-15, 1991.
A brief account is given of topics discussed at a seminar held at Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe entitled Gender issues in fisheries and aquaculture. Various FAO projects were referred to: ASEAN Project for Women; Womens fish processing, Sierra Leone; Fish market for fisherwomen, Besant Nagar, Madras, India; Fisheries development in Lake Kivu, Rwanda, and Smoking kilns in Malawi. FAO policies on women issues were examined and strategies for future projects summarized.
63. Matthews, E. (2001), Integrating womens subsistence fishing into Pacific fisheries and conservation programs, InterCoast, Winter 2001: 18-19.
The author analyses the role of women in the Pacific Islands where the general perception is that women dont fish, they just collect shells. However, women engage also in other activities but they face environmental degradation affecting the invertebrates. The author calls for a greater integration of womens needs into fisheries management.
64. Miki, Natsuko (1999), A study on the working status of fisherwomen in Memoirs of the faculty of fisheries, Hokkaido University, vol. 46 (1): 101 pp.
In recent years, the shortage of fishery male workers has become extremely serious in Japan. The objective of this study is to clarify how such a situation has affected to the work of the wife of the fishing operators household.
65. Mili, S.N. (1997), Marketing of handloom products made by Rakhain women, Coxs Bazar, Phf News, (12): 25-26.
Details are given of a pilot venture conducted in Coxs Bazar, Bangladesh, in order to train the Rakhain fisherwomen in weaving and marketing handloom products as an alternative income source.
66. Minh, L.T., Huong, D.T. and Tuan, N.A. (1996), Women in Cantho City are profitably involved in fish nursing activities, Aquaculture Asia, 1 (2): 40-41. (Journal available on Internet at Homepage: http:/www.agri-aqua.ait.ac.th/naca).
The findings are presented of a study conducted regarding the participation of women in fish nursing in the main fish fingerling production area, Cantho City, of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. It was observed that all 33 families who were nursing fish in 1995 hired women and that women contributed about 38% to total labour use. None of the women had vocational training in aquaculture but more than half had finished high school.
67. Mohapatra, B. (1998), Empowering women: A success story from Orissa, Phf News, (13): 12.
A brief account is given of the success story of women fish vendors in Orissa, India. Regarding the use of ice boxes to maintain the quality of the fish during transportation from the landing centre to the market. A womens group was formed, following assistance by the Post-Harvest Fisheries Project in 1995, to manage four ice boxes. Women entered into an agreement with the traders who brought ice into the village, brought fish and carried catches back: the traders would given women ice free of cost and women would ensure supply of fish in good condition.
68. Munk-Madsen, E. (1996), Women in fisheries: in the sea of womens concerns in SAMUDRA Report, Brussels, (14): 24-26.
An overview is provided of the NGO Forum on Women, which was held during the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China. Particular mention is made of the various workshops related to women in fisheries which were attended by the author.
69. Munk-Madsen, E. (2000), Wife the deckhand, husband the skipper Authority and dignity among fishing couples, Womens Studies International Forum, 23 (3): 333-342.
One response of small-scale fishing entrepreneurs in north Norway to the resource crisis of the 1990s has been the pooling of family labour to keep all potential profits from reduced quotas within the household and family unit. In their everyday practices of living and working together, these couples struggle to maintain economically viable lives through ecologically and socially sound fishing schemes. This article examines what happens in the power relationship between skipper and crew when women board a fishing vessel. Drawing on data from two case studies of wife/crew and husband/skipper relations, the author focuses on how the issue of skippers authority is dealt within the context of gender equality characteristic of Norwegian society and demonstrates how mens authority is actively created by their wives as they fish together.
70. Nam, S., Vibol, O., Viseth, H. and Nandeesha, M.C. (1998), Women in small-scale aquaculture development in Cambodia, Aquaculture Asia, 3 (1): 20-22.
The findings are presented of a survey conducted among 215 families involved in fish culture in Prey Veng and Svey Rieng Provinces in Cambodia, in order to determine the involvement of women in the small-scale aquaculture sector. The survey identified constraints to and opportunities for the participation of women in the sector, and also examined the access to and control of resources in regard to fish culture at the family level, verifying the position of women in regard to these issues owing to the introduction of a new activity.
71. Nandeesha, M.C. (1996), La mujer en la pesca de los países de Indochina - Les femmes simpliquent à la pêche dans les pays Indo-Chinois, INFOFISH International, (6): 15-21.
Women play an important role in fisheries in the Indo-Chinese peninsula, but their contributions have not been adequately recognized. PADEK, recognizing the most important role of women in fisheries, organized a national workshop in Cambodia in 1994, and a regional Seminar on Women in Fisheries in 1996. The objectives of the seminar were to assess the situation of women in various sectors of fisheries in the region, identify the problems encountered and develop programmes to overcome the problems experienced by them.
72. Neis, B.L. (1996), Gender: marine stewardship council. cut adrift, SAMUDRA Report, Brussels, (16): 35-39.
Although important cultural and class differences exist, women depend on fishery resources for food, work income and identity. Yet, they tend to have less control than men over these resources and the associated wealth. Initiatives in fisheries management and fisheries conservation are rarely scrutinized for their potential impacts on women. A discussion is presented on the proposal for a Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) development by the World Wide Fund for Nature and Unilever, which is believed to share this weakness.
73. Neis, B. (2000), In the eye of the storm research, activism and teaching within the Newfoudland fishery crisis in Womens Studies International Forum 23 (3): 278-298.
This paper examines the 1990s fisheries crisis in Newfoundland and Labrador from the point of view of a feminist researcher, activist and teacher involved in that crisis. The formation and work of the Newfoundland and Labrador Womens FishNet, a voluntary group of feminists of which the author was a founding member, provided her with the sisterhood and organizational and strategic resources she needed to move beyond this impasse. FishNet activities provide the focus for the second section of the paper. The author emphasizes the ways FishNet helped to empower its members and women from fishery communities but close with a discussion of some of the factors that contributed to its collapse. In the final section, the author examines some of the lessons she has learned from her experience as a researcher, teacher and activist working on feminist fisheries issues within Newfoundland and Labrador during the fisheries crisis.
74. Norr, J.L. and Norr, K.F.(1992), Womens status in peasant-level fishing, Society and Natural Resources, 5 (2): 149-163.
The women of Minakuppam, a small hamlet of ocean-going fishermen located just outside the city of Madras in Tamil Nadu, India, are more active and less limited in their daily social activities and have more power than women in most Indian farming villages. This contrast is extended with evidence on womens status in fishing and agricultural communities in other predominantly agrarian societies. Several crucial features of political economy account for womens status in these communities.
75. Pettersen, L.T. (1996), Crisis management and household strategies in Lofoten: A question of sustainable development, Sociol. Rural., 36 (2): 236-248.
The paper examines the ways in which fishing families in Lofoten, Norway, responded to the cod crisis occurring at the end of the 1980s and to the changes in the regime of fisheries management. It asks whether the fishing population has experienced sustainable development. The vantage point is the study of household strategies in response to hostile changes in their environment, focusing on womens roles within the fishing households.
76. Pisua, L. and Leonardo, A. (1998), Peruvian fisheries: women can fish too, SAMUDRA Report, Brussels, (21): 33-35.
A description is given of some of the findings of a study carried out in southern Peru to investigate the role of women in the artisanal fishery sector. The work of women in the processing and marketing segments is widely recognized, however as far as fishing is concerned, women are still highly restricted, equally by the machismo which exists amongst their fellow fishers as by the maritime authorities who will not provide them with licences to fish.
77. Radhakrishnan, N. (1994), The role of fisherwomen in the Bêche-de-mer industry in Proceedings of the national workshop on Bêche-de-mer, CMFRI, Cochin (India), CMFRI Bulletin, 46: 99-100.
Bêche-de-mer industry is essentially a cottage industry. Men are engaged in going out into sea and diving for the material. At some places women and children are engaged in collecting holothurians during low tide from muddy flats. After men return from sea the work can be taken over by women in degutting and boiling holothurians. The active participation of fisherwomen in this foreign exchange earning industry will certainly improve both the industry and the financial conditions of the fisherwomen.
78. Rettberg, S., Alamu, S.O. and Mdaihli, M. (1995), Fisherwomen of Kainji lake, Annual Report National Institute Freshwater Fisheries Resources, New Bussa (Nigeria), vol. 1994: 190-194.
The findings are presented of a survey conducted regarding the fisherwomen around Kainji Lake, Nigeria, in order to obtain data about the extent and structure of fishing activities of women. The information obtained indicate that women participate to a considerable extent in actual fishing activities. The number of women owning and operating fishing equipment is equal to that of men; the fishing intensity as well as the diversification of fishing gear is rather low. Women fish inshore more than offshore. The collection of data for catch statistics concentrates at present entirely on male fisherfolk; access to fisherwomen for data collection purposes is presently impossible because of the tradition that strangers are not allowed to talk to Muslim women. In order not to underestimate the catches, extrapolation from catches of male fisherfolk has to be done.
79. Roy, R.N. (1994), Once upon a fishing village: some thoughts on the evolution of fisheries extension, SWEDMAR Special Report 1994.
A long time ago, in the mid-seventies, it was quite reasonable to look at fisheries and fisherfolk development as finding ways of increasing production. Fisherfolk, particularly artisanal and traditional fishers, were using inefficient craft and gears, and therefore were not catching enough. Therefore, the argument went, if technology could be developed to enable small-scale fishers to catch more or grow more of the right type of fish, and earn more, they would be on the way to development.
80. Rubinoff, J.A. (2000), Fishing for status - Impact of development on Goas fisherwomen, Womens Studies International Forum, 22 (6): 631-644.
An ignored but significant group in the local economy, female vendors of the traditional Kharvi fishing community in Goa, India have, in many ways, benefited from recent fisheries development. Rather than being victims of technological development that has focused on fishermen, many Goan Catholic fisherwomen, in contrast to their Hindu counterparts, have made an economically successful transition from barefoot, headload peddlers in the villages to market entrepreneurs, working in small cooperative groups.
81. Safa, H. (1997), Where the big fish eat the little fish: womens work in the Free-Trade Zones, NACLA, 30 (5): 31-36.
In the new world economic order, poor countries must compete against one another by offering lower wages to attract transnationals. In this race to the bottom, women workers pay most dearly (abstract from NACLA, www.nacla.org)
82. Samudra Dossier (1995), Public hearing on the struggles of women workers in the fish processing industry in India, held 23-24 June 1995, Cochin, Kerala, India, Women in Fisheries Series (1).
Women in Fisheries is a four-phased programme. The dossier analyses the seafood processing industry and the conditions of migrant women processing workers. It also collects some oral testimonies of the working and living conditions of women in processing plants.
83. Samudra Dossier (1995), Women first - Report of the women in fisheries programme of ICSF in India, Women in Fisheries Series (2).
It analyses the condition of fisherwomen in nine regions of India (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal). Women are playing an increasing role in the development of aquaculture but their contribution is not seriously taken into consideration by the State. Women are involved in pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest phases.
84. Samudra Dossier (1995), Women for sustainable fisheries - Report of the first phase of the women in fisheries programme of ICSF. Women in Fisheries Series (3).
Reports of the first phase of the Women in Fisheries programme of ICSF implemented in the Philippines, Thailand, India, Ghana, Senegal, Spain, France and Canada. And how the programme has proceeded.
85. Samudra Dossier (1995), Globalization, gender and fisheries - Report of the Senegal workshop on gender perspective in fisheries, Women in Fisheries Series (4).
Exposure of the workshop of Senegal which marks the official end of the first phase of the Women in Fisheries Programme and the beginning in Brazil and Ghana.
86. Siar, S.V., Samonte, G.P.B. and Espada, AT (1995), Participation of women in oyster and mussel farming in western Visayas, Philippines, Aquaculture Research, 26 (7): 459-467.
This paper provides baseline information on the involvement of women in small-scale coastal aquaculture such as the farming of slipper oyster.
87. Skaptadóttir, U.D. (2000), Women coping with change in Icelandic fishing community, Womens Studies International Forum, 23 (3): 311-321.
In Iceland we find great commitment to market solutions in the fishery as exemplified by the individually transferable quota system (ITQ). This management system, along with the states diminishing commitment to regional planning, have had marked impact on the people who live in fishing communities. In this article, the authors explores some of the consequences of these changes on womens lives within a particular fishing village. The inhabitants of the village have not been able to take advantage of the new system in which fewer and larger companies are taking over. The coping mechanisms adopted by women stress community and working together whereas men respond more on an individual level. The already existing gender divisions within fishing communities underpin the different responses and coping strategies.
88. Smith, G.W., Laughton, R. and Dora, S. (1994), Is salmon angling success gender biased? An analysis of catch records, Fisheries Management and Ecology, 1 (2): 139-141.
Despite many anecdotes describing the success of female anglers, the assumption that women are more successful anglers than men has not been assessed critically. In the present study, catch records for the years 1970 to 1991 from one estate on the River Spey, Scotland have been analysed to test whether there is gender bias in angling success, and in particular whether female anglers are more successful at catching large salmon than their male counterparts.
89. Stockholm University (1995), Women, men and living aquatic resources - A gender perspective on development of coastal areas, Gender Discussion paper Series (2) The working group on gender and fisheries, Development studies unit, Department of social anthropology.
The paper offers an analysis of the role of women in the fishery sector and particularly of this sector could be more sensitive to gender and how a more gender perspective could be better integrated in development projects. It spans from the definition of the sector to harvest and post-harvest situation, to processing and marketing, the institutional arrangements for managing coastal resources and environments and to development cooperation in the sector. Finally, it suggests strategies for the future, a selected bibliography and guidelines for a gender perspective on development of coastal area.
90. Sultan, S. (1991), Role of women in fisheries, FISH. CHIMES., 11 (4): 43.
A brief examination is made of the role played by women in fisheries in rural environments in India. Areas in which women may be encouraged to participate include: capture fisheries; transportation, processing and marketing; nets and gears; and, ornamental fisheries. It is concluded that there is a need for a plan for the induction of women in the fisheries sector under various appropriate schemes
91. Sundararajan, M. and King, D. (1998), The role of women in India in value-added processing and marketing of fish, FAO Fisheries Report (577): 71-81.
An examination is made of the role played by women in producing value added products and marketing, considering also the experiences of the Department for International Development Post Harvest Fisheries Project. Details are given as to how women perform their tasks in the post-harvest sector, either at home or as labourers in commercial processing units, highlighting also the special problems encountered by women. The use of ice boxes, fish drying, fish smoking, marketing, credit access and transport-related issues are described.
92. Tana, T.S. (1998), Women in aquaculture research and development in three Asian countries. Cambodia: women in fisheries education, research and development, Aquaculture Asia, 3 (4): 16.
Women have been deprived of good education, improved status, and active participation in development due to the cultural barrier that existed in the traditional Cambodian society. However, the situation is rapidly changing, and in recent years emphasis has been laid on providing opportunities for women participation in all sectors of fisheries.
93. Thomas, M., Balasubramaniam, S. and Kandoran, M.K. (1996), Role performance of fisherwomen and the associated variables, FISH. TECHNOL. SOC. FISH. TECHNOL. [INDIA], 33 (1): 51-57.
The major roles performed by fisherwomen and the average time spent on these roles are analysed. While pre-processing and fresh fish marketing are major roles performed by fisherwomen in Kerala, fresh fish marketing and fishing net fabrication are major roles for fisherwomen from Tamil Nadu villages.
94. Verstralen, K. and Isebor, C. (1997),Conditions socio-économiques des pêcheuses, transformatrices de poisson et mareyeuses de Ogheye, Nigeria, Lettre du DIPA (IDAF newsletter), Cotonou, (36): 20-23.
The findings are presented of a study, conducted in the framework of the Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, to investigate the costs, earnings, and expenditure structures of fisherwomen, fish processors and fish traders in Ogheye, Nigeria. Findings show that the activities and responsibilities of women go far beyond providing household support or supplementing household income.
95. Williams, M. J. and Nandeesha, M.C (1998), Summary of the proceedings and conclusions of an 1998 international symposium on women in Asian fisheries, held on 13 November 1998, Bay of Bengal News, 11 (13): 32-33.
Women in fisheries are marginalized in planning and policy-making; in some offshore fisheries in the Philippines and in fish processing plants in India, women are paid below minimum wages. When they have access to the right technologies, women are productive. NGOs and agricultural banks are helping hundreds of women entrepreneurs and fish producers through technical assistance, loans and credit and fostering self-help groups.
96. Yahaya, J. (1994), Determinants of womens economic participation in the small-scale fisheries sector, Peninsular Malaysia, Naga. Manila, 17 (1): 46-48.
This paper specifically examines the main determinants of women participation in income-earning activities in Peninsular Malaysian small scale fisheries.
97. Yen, L.H. (1998), Women in aquaculture research and development in three Asian countries. Vietnam: role of women fisheries faculty in aquaculture training and research, Aquaculture Asia, 3 (4): 17.
The University of Agriculture and Forestry in Ho Chi Min City has a faculty of fisheries which offers a degree programme. It has the main responsibility of providing human resources to manage the fisheries sector in south Vietnam. The number of women staff has been increasing over a period of time and at present they constitute about 38% of the total staff complement. The University has been able to attract many women students. The increased number of students has been due to the job opportunities in the sector.
98. Bogan, D. and Knight, P. (1998), The lives of fishermens wives, Oregon Sea Grant Publications, available from the Oregon Sea Grant Communications, video clip 20 minutes.
Commercial fishing is a life filled with change: changing weather, changing markets, changing regulatory climates, and a changing resource. For many, whats constant are the family, and the spouse who keeps things going while the fisherman is at sea. In this 18-minute video four Oregon fishermens wives talk about their lives and the roles they play as working partners in their families, their communities, and the businesses on which their livelihoods depend.
99. Television Trust for the Environment (TVE - 2000), Fishy Business, reports on the Nampula Artisanal Fisheries Project, a project financed by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)- Government of Mozambique- the OPEC Fund for International Development (OPEC Fund), available from TVE or from the Communications & Public Affairs Unit of IFAD, documentary 2 minutes.
Documentary reporting on an IFAD project, the Nampula Artisanal Fisheries Project of 1993. There are four main objectives in the project: fisheries support, financial services, institutional strengthening and rural infrastructure. Support has been provided for the establishment of savings clubs. Some 57 have been formed, comprising in most cases of 5-15 women.
100. Abbasi, A. S. (1994), Rural women in fishing communities: an overview of CIRDAP action research programme experiences in selected CIRDAP member countries, in Workshop on research and training on population and development dynamics of rural fishing communities in Asia and Africa, Dhaka 24-26 January 1994, FAO/CIRDAP, 124: 152.
Analyses the CIRDAP initiative Action Research Project on Rural Women in Fishing. Communities(RUWFIC) in four selected countries, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. The initiative was aimed at helping rural women and their families in fishing communities and enhancing their participation in development efforts by involving them in decision making and in implementing those decisions. The author highlights the action programmes for the development of women activities in these countries.
101. Abelenda, A. (2000), La mujer en el sector industrial pesquero uruguayo in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 95-98.
Explains the role of women in the industrial fishery sector of Uruguay. Women are very present in cutting and in packing. Women are also present in technical tasks such as quality control and inspection.The author underlines some of the social drawbacks of working in this sector, in particular the lack of a fixed salary.
102. Adebiyi, O. (1998), Harmful fishing practices in the coastal belt of Nigeria: use of non selective fishing gears, Programme for the Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, Cotonou, Benin, IDAF/WP/125, 21 pp.
The findings are presented of a study conducted in the brackish and marine fisheries, lagoons and creeks of southern Nigeria to document the use of non-selective fishing gears with excessively small mesh sizes leading to significant quantity of immature fish being landed and marketed. Marketing is carried out by women, especially in fish and shellfish, both wholesale and retail.
103. Anon. (1995), Country Paper - Malaysia in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Explains womens contribution to the fishery sector in Malaysia, in particular the lack of recognition of their work which is often associated with supplementing the income of the household, and their role in fish processing is more or less taken or granted. There is a clear-cut division of labour where women provide labour in the value-added activities.
104. Anon. (1995), Country profile - Solomon islands in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Explains womens role in fishing activities in the Solomon islands. Womens contribution is mostly limited to local diet and for cash in local and export markets. However there is no recognition of this role by the government and often in fishing projects women are not included.
105. Anon. (1995), Womens role in fishing communities in West Africa and the framework for detailed studies in Report of the ninth IDAF liaison officers meeting, Conakry, Guinea 9-10 November 1995. Cotonou, Programme for Integrated Development Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, IDAF/WP/73: 56-61.
A discussion is presented on the role played by women in fishery communities in West Africa, considering in particular activities conducted in the framework of the programme Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa. Details are given of the various activities and findings in each country individually.
106. Antunes, I. (1998), Ladies run a gold mine in Juwanas fish auction market, in Proceedings of socio-economics, innovation and management, 4-7 December 1995, Bandungan, CRIFI, Jakarta (Indonesia): 243-257.
For the past twelve years, the river of Juwana has seen many changes. Fishing activities expand towards a semi-industrial fishery exclusively reserved to men. The production of fish increases considerably and gives rise to numerous new activities. Within this new context, women seized new opportunities. Their gold jewelry provides a secure capital to run their enterprise. Today, part of the distribution of fish is mainly in the band of those ladies. Over the years, some of them have become real entrepreneurs and play an active role in Juwanas fish auction market.
107. Ayala Galdós, M.E. (2000), El papel que desempeña la mujer en el sector pesquero peruano in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 73-86.
The author analyses the role of women in the fishery sector of Peru and highlights the main sanitary, economic, social and training problems they face. She introduces also some of the projects present in the country focusing on women.
108. Begum, R. (1995), Role of women in fisheries development in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Women in Bangladesh are involved from pre-harvesting stage to marketing. They are engaged in fish net making, fishfood preparing, raring, processing, washing, cleaning, salting, drying, and also packaging. They also work in some processing plants. The author gives suggestions to improve their condition.
109. Beltrán Turriago, C.S. (2000), El rol de la mujer en el sector pesquero colombiano in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 57-65.
Expands on the role of women in the fishery sector of Colombia and on the division of labour between men and women. Offers also an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of women in the fishery sector, on the presence of some organizations created for gender issues and on the lessons learned from previous experiences.
110. Biribudo, W. (1995), Women in fisheries development programme in Papua New Guinea in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Reviews a Governments Programme, entitled the Women in Fisheries Development Programme designed to teach thousands of women the technique of handling, preservation and processing of fish. The long-term aim is to encourage women to set up their own small-scale income-generating activities involving fish and shell fish and to reduce dependence on imported fish and fish products.
111. Bondja, M. (1995), Productive micro-projects for women in Cameroon in Report of the ninth IDAF liaison officers meeting, Conakry, Guinea 9-10 November 1995. Cotonou, Programme for Integrated Development Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, IDAF/WP/73: 73-75.
A brief description is given of the project Productive micro-projects in favour of women in Cameroon, whose objective is to contribute to the improvement of the socio-economic conditions of women and their families, with the major goal being to increase the revenue of women. The project financed activities exercised by women, such as fish smoking and trade, since up until now, most financial institutions are geared towards the producers, i.e. the fishermen and the fish culturers.
112. Bortei-Doku, E. (1991), Migrations in artisanal marine fisheries among Ga-Adangbe fishermen and women in Ghana, in Cotonou, Fishermens Migrations in West Africa. Programme for Integrated Development for Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, Haakonsen, J.M., Diaw, M.C. (eds), IDAF/WP/36: 180-208.
An examination is made of fishermens migrations in Ghana, with particular respect to observations regarding the Ga-Adangbe traditional canoe fishermen. Current levels of migrations along the Ga-Adangbe coast are described, outlining the major types of migrations - the aprodo and the hefoo. Benefits and difficulties incurred during migration trips by both the fishermen and women involved are examined briefly.
113. Cassidy, R. (1992), A Pacific directory of videos relating to women, fisheries and the environment, South Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia).
The directory offers a list of videos which deal with women, fisheries and the environment but focusing in particular on those produced in the Pacific. The entries include a short abstract and are arranged alphabetically by author and specify the minutes of recording, the recording system, the format and the distribution.
114. Cecily, P.J. (1998), Development programme for women in fisheries Conference symposium on advances and priorities in fisheries technology, Cochin (India), 11-13 February 1998, Balachandran, K.K. (ed), Iyer, T.S.G. (ed), Madhavan, P. (ed), Joseph, J. (ed), Perigreen, P.A. (ed), Raghunath, M.R. (ed), Varghese, M.D. (ed): 523-526.
Role of women in fisheries is now being increasingly recognised. However, lack of financial support, management skills, planning and operational constraints retard the progress of their participation. The priorities and targets with regard to increased awareness and information to ensure project success are discussed. Commitment and support of policy makers and government are essential to achieve the goal. The success of project implementation also depends on sharing of infrastructure with research and educational institutions. Appropriate steps are needed at state level to implement gender sensitive projects. Adequate funds also need to be provided for dissemination of technological advancement to the target women group.
115. Conlu, P.V. (1994), Development of fisheries in the region: the role of Filipino women in fishing communities, in Workshop on research and training on population and development dynamics of rural fishing communities in Asia and Africa, Dhaka 24-26 January 1994, FAO/CIRDAP: 49.
Fishing industry in the Philippines plays a pivotal role in the overall economy as well as in the social re-structuring of their own communities. General trend points to an increasing and substantial participation of women in labour force, in particular in activities such as fish/shrimp fry collection, fish marketing, mend fishing gears, pre-harvest and many others. The paper highlights the basic roles and responsibilities of women in the fishing community, special efforts should be made to provide the needs of women workers and their families in the rural areas.
116. Davis, M.T., Newell, P.F. and Quinn, N.J. (1997), An urban womens subsistence fishery off Suva Peninsula, Fiji: Potential threats and public health considerations, in Papers presented at symposium 8, VIIIth Pacific science inter-congress, the University of the South Pacific, Fiji, 13-19 July, 1997, Seeto, J. (ed), Bulai, N.(ed), USP, Suva (Fiji), 1998, no. 3: 35-44.
The intertidal zone around Suva Peninsula, Fiji supports separate finfish and invertebrate subsistence fisheries. This important source of fresh marine food for many low income families around metropolitan Suva may be threatened through foreshore reclamation projects and by anthropogenic biochemical pollution. Damage to or loss of this invertebrate intertidal fishery would remove a significant area where urban dwellers can pursue this traditional (non-cash) means of seafood acquisition.
117. Diallo, S. (1995), Womens role in fishing community of Kamsar, Boké préfecture, Republic of Guinea, Report of the working group on womens key role and issues related to gender in fishing communities. Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa (IDAF) Cotonou, Benin, Satia B.P. and Wétohossou C.Z (eds.), IDAF/WP/79: 30-32.
In addition to the traditional roles of household chores and childrens education, women of the fishing community of Kamsar in the Guinea Republic are engaged in artisanal fisheries activities especially fish processing and marketing. Smoking is the most common processing technique. Women are important intermediaries between fishermen, processors and consumers; they also play an important role in the supply of means necessary for the fishing industry. It is concluded that since women play such an important role in the development of fisheries in Kamsar, it is necessary to adjust the development strategy in order to reinforce womens position in the fisherfolk community of Kamsar.
118. Dias, C.J. and Joseph, C. (eds) (1993), The fisherfolk of Asia: justice denied. Report and statement of the Fifth Asian Fisherfolk Consultation, January 26-31, 1992, Songkla, Thailand, Asian Cultural Forum on Development (ACFOD), Bangkok (Thailand).
The publication presents the report and statement of the Fifth Asian Fisherfolk Consultation, which covered the specific country situation, the regional realities and the peoples responses and experiences. Discussions regarding the country situations in Bangladesh, Taiwan, and Thailand, fishery ecosystems, community case studies (Chilika Fisherfolk, Beserah fishing village, Karachi fisherfolk and fishworkers, Ha Nam Ninh fisheries) and action responses (Fishing community integrated development project (Thailand); Women in fisheries: an Indian perspective; Manila Bay forun: a bay of hope; NACFARs role in fisheries) are included as appendixes.
119. Drammeh, O.K.L. (1996), Current gender sensitive vision in the fisheries sector, in Report on gender awareness workshop for fisheries officials and extension agents, 13th-17th May 1996, Programme for the Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, Cotonou, Benin, IDAF/WP/ 93: 29-30.
A brief examination is made of the role played by women in the fisheries sector of the Gambia, highlighting in particular the problems they face. Women are in a disadvantaged position as policies, projects and programmes are all heavily biased towards men. Current actions and thought patterns tend to favour the emancipation and empowerment of women in all aspects of society. Government is now fully committed to taking concrete actions towards the attainment of a National Vision for Gender and Development within a planned period of 10 years.
120. European Commission (1994), Fisheries and aquaculture - Operational guidelines for the incorporation of gender in project/programmes preparation and design, Directorate General for Development, Brussels, 43 pp.
Guidelines for the analysis of the multi-faceted roles of women and men in the fish and seafood production sector and useful for the planning of future projects targeting women.
121. FAO (1990), The role of women in fisheries development, in Committee on Fisheries Nineteenth Session, Rome, 8-12 April 1991, FAO-FIP-COFI/91/4.
In response to the directives of the Committee on Fisheries at its Eighteenth Session in April 1989, the document reviews the prevailing patterns of womens economic contribution to fisheries, aquaculture and associated activities but also the obstacles to womens access to development projects in the fishery sector. Finally it offers a series of recommendations.
122. FAO/Government Cooperative Programme (1993), Enhancement of the role of women in inland fisheries and aquaculture development project, southern Africa region, project findings and recommendations, FAO, Rome (Italy), 9 pp.
Rural communities in the SADC region (Southern Africa Development community) are characterised by a high proportion of female-headed households as a result of male migration, very diverse per capita supply patterns and a high dependence on subsistence level. One of the follow-up actions recommended by the workshop was to strengthen acquisition of gender specific socio-economic information for inland fisheries and aquaculture planning and project formulation.
123. FAO (1995), Un avenir plus juste pour les femmes rurales - Un futuro más justo para las mujeres rurales, Sustainable development department, FAO, Rome (Italy).
Information included in the pack serves to create a greater awareness of the situation of women in the agricultural, forestry and fisheries sector in developing countries.
124. FAO/UNFPA Coop. Programme (1995), Improving the status of disadvantaged women in small-scale fishing communities of Capiz and Pangasinan, The Philippines. Project findings and recommendations, FAO/FI:PHI/89/P16; (FPA/PHI/916/FPA) Terminal-Rep, 1995.
The findings are presented of a project conducted regarding the improvement of the living conditions of small-scale fisherfolk, with particular emphasis on women, in the Philippines. Project participants were identified through a benchmark socio-economic survey of the target coastal communities in Capiz and Pangasinan.
125. FAO (1996), Informe del taller La mujer y el enfoque de género en la pesca artesanal y la acuicultura costera, 8-12 July, Tunapuy, Sucre State (Venezuela), Regional Office of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago (Chile), FAO-RLC-96/35/DERU-58 RLC/96/35-PES-28, 44 pp.
The report is based on the conclusions and recommendations of the workshop, more focus should be given to gender question in issues such as organization, commercialization, financing, new technology and experiences of women working in the fishery sector in Latin American countries.
126. Fátima Marques de Mesquita, E. (2000), O papel da mulher brasileira no setor pesqueiro in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 39-44.
The author analyses the role of women in the fishery sector of Brazil and expands on the activities of an association that targets women, the Associação livre dos maricultores de Jurujuba (ALMARJ), Niterói, Rj, Brasil.
127. Fernández Amorín, S. (2000), El rol de la mujer en la actividad pesquera artesanal uruguaya in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 99-106.
Expands on the role of women in artisanal fisheries in Uruguay. Women have to divide their time between household activities and some productive activities such as processing and post-captures. However their participation in the fishery sector is still limited. The author calls for more projects targeting women.
128. Gracy, M.M. (1998), Impact of technological advancement on socio-economic conditions of women in fisheries, Kerala in Proceedings of the national symposium on technological advancements in fisheries and its impact on rural development 5th-7th Cochin, CUSAT, Cochin (India): 552-558.
Women in fishing communities play important role in the fisheries sectors in terms of their involvement in fish related activities viz. fish vending, fish drying, prawn peeling, sorting, grading, fish packing, and net making. The technological advancement in fisheries has brought a lot of changes in the socio-economic conditions of fisherwomen adversely affecting their livelihood. This paper attempts to highlight the role of women in fisheries and the impact of technological advancement on socio-economic conditions of women. The proper policy implication to accord the role of women in fisheries is also suggested.
129. Heinbuch, U. (1994), Population and development in fishing communities: The challenge ahead. Cotonou, Programme for the Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, IDAF/WP/63, 54 pp.
A discussion is presented on population growth and socio-economic development in IDAF countries, considering also fisherfolks perceptions on population-development interrelationships, making reference to case studies from the Gambia, Ghana and Nigeria. It is concluded that fishery-oriented interventions should be community-based, involving fisherfolk in all steps from identifying problems to the development and implementation of potential solutions. The empowerment of women plays a vital role in the socio-economic and demographic development process and so the economic and social status of women in fishing communities should be enhanced in order to put women in a position to make joint decisions with their husbands.
130. Houndékon, B, Tempelman, D.E. and IJff, A.M.
(1990), Rapport du séminaire sur les activités
féminines et le développement communautaire dans les projects de
pêches artisanales en Afrique de lOuest 7-9 May 1990,
Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West
Africa, IDAF, Cotonou, Benin, DIPA/WP/30,
The major objective of the Meeting was to exchange experiences concerning fisherwomen activities and community development in artisanal fisheries in Africa.
131. Jallow, A.M. (1996), Gender sensitive measures in the fisheries sector, in Report on gender awareness workshop for fisheries officials and extension agents, 13th-17th May 1996, Programme for the Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, Cotonou, Benin, IDAF/WP/93: 23-28.
Overview of the role of women in the fisheries sector and with respect to their social environment and identification of specific aspects of women in fisheries.
132. Josupeit, H. (2000), La mujer en la pesca, in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 7-8.
The author presents an overview of the role of women in the fishery sector and briefly gives some examples of women participation in Asia and Africa. Calls for more involvement and more concern on their activities.
133. Kailola, P. (1996), Strengthening of national fishery policy. Vanuatu. Technical report. An assessment of the role of women in Vanuatu, FAO Bangkok, (Thailand), FAO FI-TCP/VAN/4552-Technical-Report-2, 111 pp.
The findings are presented of an investigation carried out in Vanuatu regarding the national role and needs of women in fisheries matters, gathering as much information as possible from and about women fishers in the six Vanuatu provinces. Recommendations are made to increase awareness of the contribution that womens fishing activities make to the national economy and the nations well-being, to promote the increased involvement of Vanuatu women in national fisheries development activities, and to enhance income-earning opportunities for women based on and around fisheries. Undertakings such as grow-out fish farming, value-adding, maintenance of quality, wise resource management and marketing can utilize the skills and situation of women as part of communities.
134. Kiley, P.W., Mora Mardones, O and Neira Etcheverry, C. (1990), Rol de la mujer en la pesca artesanal en América Latina y estrategias para mejorarlo, FAO, Santiago (Chile), 36 pp.
The findings are presented of a study conducted to determine the role of women in artisanal fisheries in Latin America and also to suggest ways to improve the integration of women in the fishery sector. It is concluded that development strategies regarding artisanal fishing should take into account the family as a whole and not women as an isolated factor.
135. King, D. and Salagrama, V. (1998), Experiences with artisanal fisherfolk on the east coast of India, Balachandran, K.K. (ed), Iyer, TSG(ed), Madhavan, P(ed), Joseph, J(ed), Perigreen, PA(ed), Raghunath, MR(ed), Varghese, MD(ed), in Advances and priorities in fisheries technology, society of fisheries technologists (India), Cochin (India), Publisher Society of Fisheries Technologists: 496-500.
Post-harvest fisheries Project of the Department for International Development (DFID) of the British Government, working with the artisanal marine fisherfolk communities of the East Coast of India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, had been identifying suitable need based processing methods to make them accessible to the fisherfolk. The socio-economic, institutional and environmental impacts of the interventions were studied prior to implementation of any activity with special emphasis on women.
136. Lambeth, L. (1999), An assessment of the role of women within fishing communities in the Republic of Palau, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia), 32 pp.
Fishing is an important activity for men and women, both for production of food for the inhabitants and as an income-generation activity. Women practise some form of fishing (handlining, spearing, trapping, and reef gleaning at low tide), more and more they fish with small motor boats. However, women face problems of transport and the lack of a central market. The authors list some recommendations to improve womens situation in the fishery sector of Palau.
137. Lambeth, L. (2000), An assessment of the role of women in fisheries in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia), 37 pp.
A review on the social and economic role of women in fisheries in Pohnpei, including activities such as harvesting, processing and marketing of marine resources. Fishing is an important activity for the community and many villagers are involved in some form of subsistence and artisanal fishing or collecting. Artisanal fishermen and women sell their catch from a number of outlets in the main centre, Kolonia. The large-scale commercial fisheries activities involve foreign fishing vessels, a small number of Pohnpeian men and women are employed in processing tuna steaks and loins for export.
138. Lambeth, L. (2000), An assessment of the role of women within fishing communities in Tuvalu, Field Report no. 2, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia), 29 pp.
Review of the social and economic role of women in the fisheries sector. A main restriction for women is the traditional division of labour; fishing perceived as the capture of fin fish is the domain of men while women in Tuvalu are involved in reef gleaning, and much of the processing and marketing of the fish that men catch,all these are activities not considered by regional and national agencies while planning for the development and management of the fisheries of Tuvalu. A list of recommendations is offered.
139. Lambeth, L. and Abraham, R. (2001), An assessment of the role of women in fisheries in Kosrae Federated States of Micronesia, Field Report no. 3, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia), 26 pp.
Review of the social and economic role of women in the fisheries sector. Historically, fishing has been an important activity for women, involved in harvesting, processing, and marketing of marine resources. However they lack appropriate training in these areas. Moreover, the small-scale fisheries sector faces some problems such poor environmental practices and overharvesting of inshore marine resources. The report provides also guideline to assist government and interest groups in finding solutions to these problems.
140. Leal, A.M., Cabuhay, E. and Banez, V. (1993), A consolidated manual of training activities for womens groups of PHI/89/P16, Manila (Philippines), FAO PHI/89/P16, 166 pp.
The manual contains the product of the latest revisions and improvements in the training activities of the Project Improving the status of disadvantaged women in small-scale fishing communities of Capiz and Pangasinan, in the Philippines. It is intended primarily for field workers and its major purpose is to serve as a guide in the conduct of training activities for womens groups.
141. Legaspi, A.S. (1995), Role of women in fisheries development in the Philippines in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July-1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
The author explains the contents of some major projects targeting women. They play an important role in post-harvest activities and in marketing and to some extent in fish production. Explains the needs and problems of women and gives recommendations to improve womens situation.
142. Manike, A. (1995), Role of women in fisheries development in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Reports on the role of women in the fishery sector in the Maldives islands. Women deal mainly with processing of fish and the salted-dried reef fish for export. However women are used to work only at home, this constituting a main constraint for a grater involvement.
143. Matthews, E. (1993), Women and fishing in traditional island cultures in Workshop on people, society and Pacific islands fisheries development and management: selected papers, August 1991, South Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia): 29-33.
An examination is made of the various roles played by women in traditional fishing activities in the Pacific Ocean Islands. Most women tend to fish in shallow waters close to shore, without the use of canoes and with no implements other than baskets and sticks. Reasons why the role of women is often restricted to shallow water fishing practices are discussed, commenting also on the importance of this often overlooked aspect of fish collection.
144. Mdaihli, M. and Donda S., (1991), The role of women in the Chambo fisheries of the south-east arm of lake Malawi, the upper shire river and lake Malombe, GOM/UNDP/FAO Chambo fisheries research project, Malawi. FI:DP/MLW/86/013, Field Document 13, 9 pp.
Analyses the situation of women in the project working area in the fisheries of Chambo. Female participation in fish trading is low, the main factors being traditional patterns of labour division, the lack of start-up capital and the limited access to the resource. The majority of the female traders are heads of household.
145. Menezes, K. (1991), Improving marketing conditions for women fish vendors in Besant Nagar, Madras, Small-scale fisherfolk communities in the Bay of Bengal, Madras (India), BOBP/WP/66, 25 pp.
In August 1990, a fish market run exclusively by women fish vendors came up in Besant Nagar, Madras. This paper describes why the market was needed, the activities that culminated in the setting up of the market, the role of various organizations, and their perceptions of the process by which the market became a reality. The market was constructed by the Corporation of Madras. The Bay of Bengal Programme for Fisheries Development (BOBP), provided expertise, including the services of a social worker to help train women in community organization.
146. Merrikin, P. (1990), Women in fisheries - A selective annotated biblography, FAO Fisheries Circular, No. 811, Rev. 1. Rome, FAO, 37 pp.
The bibliography presents some 152 references to literature regarding women in both the production, processing and marketing of fish, and also the sociological, economic sectors of the industry. The citations are arranged alphabetically by author and then chronologically. Geographical and subject indices are also included.
147. Mora M.O., Lopez B.M.T., Witham K. P., Neira E. C. and Saavedra P.A. (comps) (1990), Informe del taller sobre la integración de la mujer en la pesca artesanal. Pacifico Sur-Oriental. Concepción, 4-6 de Septiembre de 1990, FAO, Santiago (Chile), 59pp.
The report describes topics discussed at the workshop concerning sociocultural and biological/fishery aspects related to the integration of women in the artisanal fisheries of Chile and Peru.
148. Morales de Ramos, M.E. (2000), El papel que desempeña la mujer en el sector pesquero ecuatoriano in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 66-72.
The author gives an overview analysis of the role of women in the fishery sector of Ecuador and calls for some actions that need to be taken in order to improve their condition.
149. Murray, U., and Sayasane, K. (1998), Socio-economics and gender in aquaculture, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Bangkok (Thailand), FAO, Provincial Aquaculture Development, Lao, Field Document 2, FAO RAP/LAO/97/007, 102 pp.
The findings are presented of a study conducted in Lao PDR in the framework of the Provincial Aquaculture Development Project LAO/97 /007, to analyse the gender roles in aquaculture, from the preparation of fish ponds to production, including marketing, processing, access to credit, control over income, family health and nutrition.
150. Myine, A.A. (1995), Some salient aspects of Myanmar womens role in fisheries development, in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Analyses the role of women in the fishery sector of Myanmar. Fisherwomen are the most active in every aspect and in all levels of the fishing industry. However the author calls for an improvement of the role of women in the fishery sector with more training, credit.
151. Nair, M.K.R. and Girija, S. (1995), Application of low cost techniques in fish processing and its prospects as a vocation for fisherwomen of Kerala, in Proceedings of the national symposium on technological advancements in fisheries and its impact on rural development held at Cochin by School of Industrial Fisheries, Cochin University of Science and Technology 5-7 December, 1995, Hameed, MS (ed), Kurup, BM(ed) CUSAT, Cochin (India): 478-484.
In India, the developmental plan for marine fisheries lays emphasis on improving the lot of marginal fishermen. A concerted effort to coordinate the fishing would improve the subsidiary activities of fishermen household, by tapping the potential of the fisherwomen to process and market a substantial portion of the fish landed. Giving due consideration to the factors like relatively low level of formal education of the beneficiaries and the need to design a cost-conscious configuration of processing equipment, Integrated Fisheries Project has developed and popularized low cost technologies that could be adopted by the coastal fisherwomen for self-employment.
152. Nair, M. (1998), Women in fisheries - Emancipation through co-operatives in Proceedings of the national symposium on technological advancements in fisheries and its impact on rural development held at Cochin by School of Industrial Fisheries, Cochin University of Science and Technology 5-7 December 1995, Hameed, M.S. (ed), Kurup, B.M.(ed), CUSAT, Cochin (India): 566-571.
Rural women in our country have always contributed substantially to productivity and rural economy, yet their condition remains unenviable. This paper aims at identifying the multi-faceted role of women in fisheries and their social status in the community. The paradoxical situation of women viz., contributing to higher productivity but living in deplorable condition, is ripe for change. And what better change can we think of other than strengthening the fisherwomen to take up the reins of their lives in their own hands by organising them through co-operatives.
153. Nandeesha, M.C. (1994), National workshop on women in Cambodian fisheries, 7-9 November, 1994, in Conference national workshop on women in Cambodian fisheries, [np], 7-9 Nov 1994, PADEK (Cambodia), 8 pp.
An account is given of the discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted to help in the understanding of the status and contribution of women to the Cambodian fisheries. The following areas were covered: women in aquaculture, women in capture fisheries, women in fish processing, women in fish marketing, women in fisheries development, research and education.
154. Ndiaye, O. (1996), Le rôle des femmes dans les communautés de pêche: Le cas de MBour (Sénégal), Report of the working group on womens key role and issues related to gender in fishing communities 9th-12th October 1995. Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries(IDAF) Cotonou, Benin, Satia B.P. and Wétohossou C.Z (eds.), DIPA/WP/79: 10-12.
Details are given of a workshop conducted in Senegal to train and assist women of the fishing communities in improving their living and working conditions, as well as their income.
155. Ndiaye,Y.D. (1997), Synthèse des données socio-économiques relatives au secteur de la pêche artisanale, Report-of-the-first-session-of-the-multidisciplinary-working-group-on-artisanal-fisheries-planning-in-Senegal,-26-27-June-1997,-Hotel-Savana-Koumba-Saly,-Mbour,-Senegal, Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa (IDAF), Cotonou, Benin, DIPA/WP/114: 45-53.
A brief examination is made of socio-economic data relevant to the artisanal fishery sector of Senegal. The following topics are covered: 1) the effects of the devaluation of the CFA franc; 2) Needs and availability of capital in the artisanal fishery; 3) Utilization of capital income in the artisanal fishery; and, 4) Fiscal policy and the fishery sector: the case of Senegal.
156. Nepomuceno, D.N. (1994), Improving the status of disadvantaged women in small-scale fishing communities of Capiz and Pangasinan, Philippines. Consultancy report (credit), FAO, Rome (Italy), FAO PHI/89/P16, 22 pp.
Details are given of the findings and recommendations of a consultancy conducted in the framework of the Project Improving the status of disadvantaged women in small-scale fishing communities of Capiz and Pangasinan, in the Philippines. The report summarises project proposals prepared for 10 womens groups in Pangasinan for credit extension by the Land Bank. It also highlights new and larger-scale income-generating projects identified for women associations and provides an analysis of the use of loan funds.
157. Ngahe, M. (1995), Country Report - Kingdom of Tonga in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 199, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Mentions on the role of women in Tonga and on the Women Development Programme aimed at creating a group of women dealing with the marketing of fish.
158. Ngo Som, J. (1996), Rôle des femmes dans les communautés de pêcheurs. Une étude de cas dElmina au Ghana in Report of the working group on womens key role and issues related to gender in fishing communities. Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa (IDAF) Cotonou, Benin, Satia B.P. and Wétohossou C.Z (eds.), DIPA/WP/79: 13-15.
The artisanal fishery sector is an important socio-economic activity in Cameroon and women play a leading role in the processing and marketing of fishery products, as smokers or as fishmongers. A description is given of the activities of women in the fishing communities of Limbe and Kribi. Direct marketing and smoking provide a source of income which enables women of these communities to satisfy both their personal and family needs.
159. Ngo Som, J. (1997), Situation nutritionelle, sécurité alimentaire, hygiène et salubrité dans la communauté de pêche de Limbé, Cameroun, in Report workshop on gender roles and issues in artisanal fisheries in West Africa, Lomé, Togo, 11-13 December 1996. Horemans, B.W., and Jallow, A., M. (eds.), Cotonou, Benin, Programme for the Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, DIPA/WP/97: 23 - 25.
Study on households in Limbe, the aim is to provide basic information necessary to design efficient intervention strategies to improve their living conditions.
160. Nguyen The Cong, Formulation and implementation of OSH action programme for female workers in the fish processing industry in Vietnam, in Case study - Improving OSH service for female workers, International Labour Organisation (ILO), Asian-Pacific Regional Network on Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS). http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/asiaosh/country/vietnam/casestud/cong.htm
Analyses a project formulated by ILO in collaboration with the Vietnamese Ministry of Fisheries with the aim to improve occupational safety and health (OSH), working conditions and environment in the fisheries and construction industries in Viet Nam, targeting mainly female workers in the fish processing industry.
161. Nolasco, R.R. (2000), Situación de la mujer en la pesca y acuicultura en República Dominicana, in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 87-90.
The author explains the role of women in the Dominican Republic, the issues and the problems involved. She also lists some of the organizations that help women in the country.
162. Odotei, I. (1991),The migration of Ghanaian women in the canoe fishing industry, in Fishermens migrations in West Africa. Programme for Integrated Development for Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, Haakonsen, J.M., Diaw, M.C. (eds), IDAF/WP/36: 294-307.
In Ghana, fishing is one of the major occupations in which gender roles are clear-cut and specific: men go to sea and women stay on land to process and market the catch both in local and distant markets. One of the integral features of the fishing industry in Ghana is migration; the major cause of migration among the female migrants interviewed in Ivory Coast and Benin is to join their husbands. The interplay of dependence and interdependence results in the following roles of women in the fishing community: as wives and mothers; as business partners and associates; as employees, shareholders and agents; as independent or free-lance operators; as support services; and, also as boatowners.
163. Odotei, I. (1996), Rôle des femmes dans les communautés de pêcheurs. Une étude de cas dElmina au Ghana, in Report of the working group on womens key role and issues related to gender in fishing communities. Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa (IDAF) Cotonou, Benin, Satia B.P. and Wétohossou C.Z (eds.), DIPA/WP/79: 27-29.
An account is given of the activities of women in the fishing community of Elmina, one of the major Ghanaian fishing ports. Although women are encouraged by tradition to undertake various economic activities, in Elmina they are considered specialised in post-harvest activities. The main difficulties that these women face are financial; very often, they are obliged to sell their products on credit, while they are not able to enforce their customers to repay their debts, and consequently they lose money. It is thus thought necessary to persuade bankers to establish special credit granting dispositions for women fishmongers and processors, with reimbursement modalities adapted to their activities.
164. Osei-Opare, F. (1993), Report of consultancy to assist in the establishment of a correspondents network for the Core Group on Women in Fisheries, FAO, Rome (Italy) vp.
An account is given of the activities conducted by the consultant regarding the development of a network of correspondents to provide to the Core Group on Women in Fisheries current situations concerning womens activities, roles and needs from their respective countries.
165. Panuncio, A. (2000), El rol de la mujer como docente e investigador en el sector pesquero uruguayo in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 111-114.
Expands on the presence of women as professors and researchers in the fishery sector of Uruguay. Women slowly are opting for carriers which are not typically feminine, such as arts and humanities and shift to more scientific ones. The author calls for training and for a census on women in the fisheries sector.
166. Pascual, M. (2000), El papel que desempeña la mujer en el sector pesquero argentino: un panorama preliminar in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 15-23.
Analysis, through some interviews, of the role of women in the fishery sector of Argentina. The severe crisis in the traditional fishery sector of the country has brought negative effects for women who either see themselves expelled from the system or, by being the daughter or the wife of a fishermen, have to go and look for a job. The author has come to several conclusions and observations on the presence of women in this sector.
167. Pereira G. (2000), La Red Latinoamericana de las mujeres del sector pesquero-acuícola in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 9-14.
The author offers a brief analysis of the role of women in the fishery sector and highlights some of the issues involved. Announces the creation of La Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola and the signature of the statute.
168. Pérez Sisto, G. (2000), El papel que desempeña la mujer en el sector pesquero venezolano in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 115-130.
Analysis of the role of women in the fishery sector of Venezuela. The author takes three case-studies, the Estado Zulia where women are very present in processing plants, the Estado Sucre where their participation is involved with artisanal fisheries activities and the Estado Nueva Esparta where they process artisanal fisheries catches.
169. Pich Hatha, An, Narath, S. and Gregory, P. (1995), A study of the roles and responsibilities of Cambodian women and children in small-scale aquaculture in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Analyses the situation of women and children in Cambodia on the basis of interviews done through a questionnaire to a total of ten male and ten women headed households dealing with aquaculture.
170. Quintana, M. (2000), El papel que desempeña la mujer en el sector pesquero chileno in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay):48-56.
The author describes the role of women in the fishery sector of Chile. Women are more present in the sector as employees and workers in processing plants (canning, freezing). She also expands on the problems that women have to face in the sector and presents some of the organizations created for gender issues.
171. Ribalta Serrano, N. (2000), El papel que desempeña la mujer en el sector pesquero cubano in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 45-47.
The author explains the role of women in the fishery sector of Cuba: women are present in processing, quality insurance, research and development, fishing inspection. The author also introduces some organizations present in the country and helping women. She finally explains that training, although compulsory, is still necessary in some specific sectors.
172. Santos, E.K. (1991), Consultants report on process documentation of PHI/89/P16, Improving the status of disadvantaged women in small-scale fishing communities of Capiz and Pangasinan, Philippines, Manila (Philippines), FAO PHI/89/P16.
The first year in operation of the Project, Improving the status of disadvantaged women in small-scale fishing communities of Capiz and Pangasinan (Philippines) is documented. The processes described are of 2 kinds: 1) the organization of the Project staff in each province; and 2) the organization of the womens associations in the provinces. The projects experiences in Capiz and Pangasinan are documented separately, focussing on the experiences of selected womens groups, of field workers and women participants of each province and presenting them as case studies.
173. Satia, B.P. and Wétohossou, Z. (1997), Synthèse des études de cas sur le rôle des femmes dans les communautés de pêche, in Report workshop on gender roles and issues in artisanal fisheries in West Africa, Lomé, Togo, 11-13 December 1996. Horemans, B.W., and Jallow, A., M. (eds.), Cotonou, Benin, Programme for the Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, DIPA/WP/97:11-13.
Synthesis of ten case studies undertaken by IDAF Programme with the setting up of a Working Group on womens key role and issues related to gender in fishing communities.
174. Seki, E. and Maly, R. (1993), A pilot-socio-economic survey of aquaculture in Ruvuma region, Tanzania, Alcom Field Document no. 20, Harare (Zimbabwe) FAO-FI-GCP/INT/555/SWE; FAO-FI-GCP/RAF/273/JPN: 38-42.
Although the document examines the whole aquaculture sector in the Ruvuma region in Tanzania, it dedicates a section to Fishfarming from the standpoint of women. Few women usually own ponds, they mostly deal with feeding and fertilising.
175. Semesi, A.K. et al. (1999), Coastal resources of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania, in Conference on advances on marine sciences in Tanzania, Zanzibar, 28 Jun-1 Jul 1999: 56-57.
Major findings and lessons learned in a three years (from 1996-1999) interdisciplinary study on the coastal resources of Bagamoyo, Tanzania is presented. It shows that the coral reefs are the main fishing grounds by the artisanal fishermen and trawler compete and conflict with artisanal fishermen. Women in coastal villages in Bagamoyo are involved in fishing, processing and marketing.
176. Sen, S., Seki, E. and Van Der Mheen-Sluijer, J, (1991), Gender issues in fisheries and aquaculture including the proceedings of the workshop on enhanced womens participation in fisheries development. Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, 4-7 December, 1990, FAO/SIDA, Harare (Zambia), FAO/SIDA GCP/INT/436/SWE/REP/7, 132 pp.
The document reports on gender issues in fisheries and aquaculture and includes the proceedings of the Workshop on Enhanced Womens Participation in Fisheries Development, held in Zimbabwe in December 1990. For fisheries, the critical issues generally relate to enhancing womens roles in development activities, whereas for aquaculture, the critical issues relate to the participation of women in an activity which has been predominantly targeted at men.
177. Siason. I.M. (1995), Women in fishing communities in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Women are present in the three types of fisheries: in subsistence type, the semi-commercial type and the commercial type. The author highlights the negative effects of technology on the participation of women in fishing.
178. Sibounthong Dongdavanh (1995), speech delivered at the Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Explains the role of women in the fishery sector in Laos where women predominate in aquaculture and in post harvest activities, however the author calls for further programmes and policies that will address and include women.
179. Som, J. (1997), Report on the training and sensitization workshop for women in post-harvest artisanal fisheries, in Conference training and sensitization workshop for women in post-harvest artisanal fisheries, Limbe (Cameroon), 18-23 Aug 1997, FAO, Cotonou Benin, FAO IDAF/WP/111, 24 pp.
Details are given of a workshop conducted in Limbe, Cameroon, to assist women in fish processing, marketing and other income generating activities and also to improve the living condition in the fishing communities, including nutrition and health. The following topics were covered: 1) Basic information in food and nutrition; 2) Health, hygiene and sanitation; 3) Problems of processing and post-harvest; 4) Creation of and management of a community based organization; and, 5) How to manage small income generating activities. The conclusions and recommendations of the workshop are included.
180. Soumah, N. (1996), Womens role in the fishing community of Kaback in Guinea in Report of the working group on womens key role and issues related to gender in fishing communities. Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa (IDAF) Cotonou, Benin, Satia B.P. and Wétohossou C.Z (eds.), IDAF/WP/79: 7-9.
Women play a key role in the artisanal fisheries sector in Guinea, especially in Kaback island. They are very active in the processing and marketing of fish; they engage in other activities only when they are obliged to, either because the season is bad or because they lack financial means. It is impossible for women to engage, like men, directly in fishery production activities, since they are compelled to do household chores. Thus, people tend to put women on the fringe of society. It is therefore important to actively involve women at every level of identification, planning, implementation and evaluation of activities. This will arouse their entrepreneurship and enable them to contribute better to their own well-being and that of their communities.
181. Spinetti, M. and Fotti, R. (2000), El papel que desempeña la mujer en el sector pesquero uruguayo - El papel de la mujer en la acuicultura in Primera reunión de puntos focales de la Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres del Sector Pesquero-Acuícola, Final report 5-6 October 2000, INFOPESCA/FAO, Montevideo (Uruguay): 91-94.
The authors explain the gradual introduction of women in the aquaculture sector of Uruguay through a pilot project in the Department of Rivera. They highlight the positive effects on womens role, in particular their contribution towards the households income, and some of the steps that still need to be taken in order to improve their role in the sector.
182. Srinath, K. (1998), Technological empowerment of fisherfolk, Balachandran, K.K. (ed); Iyer, TSG(ed); Madhavan, P. (ed); Joseph, J. (ed); Perigreen, P.A. (ed); Raghunath, M.R. (ed); Varghese, M. D.(ed) in Advances and priorities in fisheries technology, Society of Fisheries Technologists (India), Society of Fisheries Technologists, Cochin (India): 506-510.
Development of fisheries sector in India depends to a great extent on the technological empowerment of small fishermen and farmers. Despite the efforts towards technology development and transfer, rural folk are not able to use them due to lack of organised effort and effective extension work. This paper discusses the role played by a womens organization in a fishing village in transfer of fisheries technologies which can serve as a role model.
183. Steele, S. (1993), Literature summary: Women in fisheries development in Workshop on people, society and Pacific islands fisheries development and management: selected papers, August 1991, South Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia): 39-48.
A brief review is made of the literature covering the topic of women in small-scale fisheries development in developing countries.
184. Steele, S. (1993), Women in fisheries development, in Workshop on people, society and Pacific islands fisheries development and management: selected papers, August 1991, South Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia): 35-38.
An examination is made of the role of women in fisheries development in the South Pacific, considering some of the mistakes that have been made with respect to the issue of women in development. Some concepts critical to the implementation of an integrated development programme that will enhance the quality of a fisherwomens life are discussed..
185. Surpris, M.J. (1996), The role of women in the artisanal fishery sector in the Republic of Cape Verde, Mission report for the preliminary phase of the project Développement des Pêches du Cap Vert, FAO, Midelo (Cape Verde), FAO-FI-GCP/CVI/033/NET, 39pp.
Proposals of actions and recommendations to be taken for making the project more effective and taking the role of women in artisanal fisheries in Cape Verde seriously into consideration.
186. Susilowati, I. (1998), The role of women in fishing household in Juwana, Paty regency, Central Java, Indonesia in Sosekima-proceedings-of-socio-economics,-innovation-and-management,-4-7-December-1995,-Bandungan Roch,-J.-(ed.), Nurhakim,-S-(ed.), Widodo,-J.-(ed.), Poernomo,-A.-(ed.) Jakarta-Indonesia CRIFI: 153-160.
The study determines some factors affecting the working participation of wife and/or women fisher in helping their family live in Juwana sub-district. Logic model is employed to analyse data. The results showed that occupation and position of husband, number of family members, and role of respondent in decision making process are statistically significantly influent to the working participation of wife/women to have additional income.
187. Sy, M.S., (1996), Womens role in fishing community of Joal in Senegal, Report of the working group on womens key role and issues related to gender in fishing communities. Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa (IDAF) Cotonou, Benin, Satia B.P. and Wétohossou C.Z (eds.), IDAF/WP/79:19-21.
Joal is one of the 190 artisanal fisheries landing sites; women are mainly engaged in fish processing and micro fish trading. They represent about 78% of the processors; some of them own the means of production, processing and transportation. The most common processing techniques are fermentation, smoking and drying. It is recommended that the access of women to credit be facilitated, that they should be provided with material more appropriate than the traditional trays processors use, and that they should be made sensitive to the use of healthier processing techniques).
188. Sy, M.S. (1996), Situation nutritionelle, sécurité alimentaire, hygiène et salubrité dans la communauté de pêche de Limbé, Cameroun in Workshop on gender roles and issues in artisanal fisheries in West Africa, Lomé, Togo, 11-13 December 1996, FAO/DANIDA/DIPA/ 97: 25
Study on the working conditions of women in the fishing community of Joal, where 79 percent of the women are involved in fishing particularly in processing and fish mongering, and on the nutritional condition in the house of the women involved in the fishing activities.
189. Tan, F.A. (1995), Some strategies on WID and poverty, in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Analyses the role of women in the Philippines whose responsibilities embraces activities from pre-harvesting and post-harvesting activities, to a certain extent capture fishing. Expands also on the Governments programmes addressed to women.
190. Tekinaiti, T. (1995), Kiribati report in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Reports briefly on the significant role of women role in the fishery sector in Kiribati, involved mainly in the marketing of fish and in filleting and packing.
191. Tietze, U. and Abbasi, A.S. (1994), Workshop on research and training on population and development dynamics of rural fishing communities in Asia and Africa, Dhaka 24-26 January 1994, 262 pp.
Workshop concluding the preparatory phase of the project Strengthening of Research and Training in Population and Development Dynamics of Rural Fishing Communities. It aimed at highlighting the socio-economic problems facing the artisanal fisherfolks and propose remedial action plans.
192. Tietze, U. (1995), FAOs role and experiences with improving the social and economic status of women in fishing communities in Asia and the Pacific in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Offers a full and comprehensive frame of FAOs major activities and projects aimed at improving the role of women in fishing communities in Asia and the Pacific.
193. Touray, I. (1996), Les questions liées aux rapports entre les hommes et les femmes dans les strategies de développement, in Report on gender awareness workshop for fisheries officials and extension agents, 13th-17th May 1996, Programme for the Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, Cotonou, Benin, DIPA/WP/93: 31.
A brief examination is made of development planning in the fisheries sector and the contribution of women to the development process. Economic growth, project efficiency, and social justice call for a new approach to development which systematically includes women. The need for an analytical framework for integrating women into project analysis is noted.
194. Touray, I. (1997), Gender issues in the fisheries sector and effective participation, in Report workshop on gender roles and issues in artisanal fisheries in West Africa, Lomé, Togo, 11-13 December 1996. Horemans, B.W., and Jallow, A., M. (eds.), Cotonou, Benin, Programme for the Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, IDAF/WP/97: 42-47.
The participation and involvement of women in the coastal fisheries sector of the Gambia is discussed. Women play a central and crucial role in both the industrial and artisanal fisheries. Women fish smokers, fish unloaders and fish dryers are examined. The major concern in development issues is the emancipation of women, and their involvement as partners in development strategy. The emancipation of women in fisheries will require looking into the issues of means of production, gender relationships and positions to create equalities, development strategies and policy treatment, organizations, institutionalized credit and finance systems, all to be centred around the sustainability of actions and initiatives in the sector.
195. Touray, I. (1997), Study on womens organizations in Brufut and Gunjur communities and the factors that favour or impede their sustainability in the Gambia, in Report workshop on gender roles and issues in artisanal fisheries in West Africa, Lomé, Togo, 11-13 December 1996. Horemans, B.W., and Jallow, A., M. (eds.), Cotonou, Benin, Programme for the integrated development of artisanal fisheries in West Africa, IDAF/WP/97: 14-16.
Details are given of a study conducted to examine womens organizations in the Brufut and Gunjur communities of the Gambia, with the aim of determining their objectives, the relationship between and problems within the groups, technical assistance needs of the groups, their credit needs and associated problems, their access to equipment and the utilization of their revenue. Findings indicate that women organise themselves in various groups to address their needs and aspirations.
196. Tuara, P.N. (1995), Le rôle des femmes dans la gestion des ressources halieutiques côtières des Iles du Pacifique, in South Pacific Commission and forum fisheries agency workshop on the management of south pacific inshore fisheries. Manuscript collection of country statements and background papers, volume 2, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, (New Caledonia), Dalzell, P., Adams, TJH (comp), no 2: 227-233.
Following the definition of the fishing activities of women in the South Pacific, a discussion is presented on the importance of womens fishing to subsistence in the South Pacific. It is concluded that any attempt by government to achieve sustainable management of inshore fisheries resources must acknowledge the role played by women in all aspects of fisheries. Within the South Pacific, a number of countries have come to this realization and are leading the way in incorporating women in the planning and management of resources.
197. Tuara, P. (1998), An assessment of the role of women in fisheries in the Republic of the Marshall islands , Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia), 31 pp.
The author through a series of interviews to women working in fisheries activities, government agencies and non-government agencies, reports on the participation of Marshallese women in the fishery sector. Women are involved in harvesting, processing and marketing. However, lack of, or limited provision of support services prevent women from participating in the fisheries sector. The author lists some recommendations to support and improve their participation.
198. Tuara, P. (1998), An assessment of the role of women in fisheries in the Republic of Nauru Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia), 27 pp.
The author through a series of interviews to women working in fisheries activities, government agencies and non-government agencies, reports on the participation of Nauruan women in the fishery sector. Their participation differs on the ethnic background of woman (i.e Nauruan women, I-Kiribati women and Chinese women). Womens participation in fisheries is constrained not only by the society but also the limited reef resources. The author presents some recommendations.
199. Tuara, P. (2000), An assessment of the role of women in fisheries in Niue, Field report no.1, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea (New Caledonia), 29 pp.
The report, through interviews to women, government agencies, non-government agencies, reviews the social and economic role played by women in the fisheries sector. Women participate in harvesting, processing and depending on the type of fishery, to marketing of marine resources. However, womens activities are influenced by cultural and traditional bearers. The author presents some recommendations to support womens participation on fisheries.
200. Tungpalan, M.T.V, Mangahas, M.F. and Palis, M.P.E. (1991), Women in fishing villages: roles and potential for coastal resources management, in Proceedings of the ASEAN/US technical workshop on integrated coastal zone management, 28-31 October 1988, Temasak hall, National University of Singapore, Singapore, ICLARM, Manila (Philippines), Chou, Loke Ming; Chua, Thia-Eng; Khoo, Hong Woo; Lim, Poh Eng; Paw, JN; Silvestre, GT; Valencia, MJ; White, AT; Wong, Poh Kam (eds): 237-243.
This study focuses on women: their contributions in sustaining fishing households, the extent of their involvement in economic-political activities in fishing communities, how they attempt to handle their traditional gender roles and increasing economic activities, and the implications of these situations for a community-based coastal resources management scheme. Results of the study reveal that the economic-political life in the fishing villages continue to be male-dominated.
201. UNDP/Technical Cooperation among Developing countries (1995), Workshop on the role of women in fisheries
The workshop promoted awareness among the participants of the many different issues confronting women as they engage in fishery activities as a form of livelihood.
202. Van der Mheen-Sluijer, J. and Sen, S. (1994), Meeting information needs on gender issues in inland and small water body fisheries, Alcom Field Document no. 33, Harare Zimbabwe, FAO, FAO-FI-GCP/INT/555/SWE, and RAF/237/JPN, 36 pp.
Guidelines on the information required and the methods to acquire in order to incorporate gender issue into inland fisheries development planning and project formulation.
203. Vereivalu, T. (1995), The role of women in fisheries development in Fiji in Regional workshop on the role of women in fisheries development, 17-21 July 1995, Iloilo City (Philippines).
Womens role in Fiji embraces a whole range of activities from subsistence fishery to industrial fisheries, and to artisanal fishery. The author calls for a shift from subsistence level fisheries to a more market oriented through training of women to improve skills, thus enhancing production.
204. Verstralen, K. and Isebor, C. (1997), Costs, earnings and expenditure structures of fisherwomen, fish processors, and fish traders in Ogheye, Delta State, Nigeria, FAO, Cotonou, Benin, FAO IDAF/WP/108, 36 pp.
The findings are presented of a study carried out in Ogheye, Delta State, Nigeria to develop and implement cheap and viable research methods to study costs, earnings and expenditure structures of women involved in the artisanal fisheries sub-sector. Information was collected on the following issues: investment costs, operational costs and sources of funds; womens income; the profitability of womens activities; social obligations and the structure of expenses; marketing channels; and, the role and structure of socio-professional organizations. The survey showed that women are involved in three combinations of activities: fishing-processing-marketing; fishing-marketing; and, processing-marketing.
205. Villareal, L.V. (1996), Strategic plan for women in fisheries development, in Main report of the second national fisheries workshop on policy planning and industry development, Philippines, 6-9 February 1996, FAO: 229.
The situation of women is conditioned and influenced by the socio-economic, political and cultural context. Men generally carry out fish production activities while women market and process the fish catch, but women are not primary target of the government efforts. The author has highlighted the goals, objectives and specific action to be taken, and offers a project idea for the improvement of the status of women in selected fishing communities.
206. Vuichard, L., Roch, J. and Clignet, R. (1995), An overview of the gender differences: Javanese fish traders and processors, in Proceedings of socio-economics, innovation and management, 4-7 December 1995, Bandungan., Roch, J (ed), Nurhakim, S (ed), Widodo, J. (ed), Poernomo, A. (ed), CRIFI, Jakarta (Indonesia): 229-241.
The world of trading and processing fish continues to be differentiated along gender lines. While women present in the sector originate from a narrower and more specific social environment than their male counterparts, their educational level is also lower. Yet, contrasts between men and women in this regard vary both across seasons and in function of the specific profile of the trading or the processing (drying, smoking, salting) activities considered.
207. Vunisea, A. (1997),Womens changing fishing participation, in1997 the Year of the coral reef-save Fijis coral reefs. Symposium on sustainable harvest of Fijis marine resources, March 20th 1997, Suva, South, G.R.-(ed.) (8): 9-13.
Women in Fiji dominate in the subsistence sector with a substantial proportion of their catches supporting household dietary needs. Currently, women are increasingly involved in the local commercial or village artisanal fishery through their harvesting, processing, preservation and marketing activities. Their fishing activities are constrained by the lack of more appropriate transportation to the markets, limited preservation facilities, poor marketing facilities, lack of finance and credit support systems and limited access to and use of modern technology. A list of recommendations is given to overcome problems that may arise as a result of a lack of proper monitoring of womens fishing activities.
208. Williams, S. (1997), Economic role of women in fishing communities: a case study of Koko, Nigeria, in Report workshop on gender roles and issues in artisanal fisheries in West Africa, Lomé, Togo, 11-13 December 1996. Horemans, B.W., and Jallow, A.M. (eds.), Cotonou, Benin, Programme for the Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa, IDAF/WP/97: 29-31.
Overview of the role of women in the fishing community of Koko where women, besides fishing, distribute their time between household work, agriculture, petty trading, hairdressing, soap making, mat weaving and working in the civil service.
209. Williams, S. (2000), Economic potentials of women in small-scale fisheries in Africa http://www.orst.edu/dept/IIFET/2000/papers/williams.pdf Oregon State University/International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade - IIFFT 2000 Microbehavior and Macroresults.
Development and support systems have paid much less attention to the economic potentials of women in small-scale fisheries in West Africa. Women in developing economies, especially in Africa lack access to services such as credit, fisheries extension, technology, information and basic education which are critical for shifting patterns of fisheries production or increasing output, all these are limited. There is therefore need for the support systems to be organized in a way that should bring about social changes that may be resisted at first, but will eventually promote the role of women in the economy.
210. Zabala, P.T. (1990), An annotated bibliography on women in fisheries in the Asian region, ASEAN/UNDP/FAP regional small-scale coastal fisheries development project, Manila (Philippines) ASEAN/SF/90/GEN/14), 26 pp.
The bibliography covers reports written on the participation of women in fisheries; the 112 citations are arranged alphabetically by author or publisher as appropriate. Subject and geographical indexes are also included.
211. Zanou, E. (1995), Womens role in fishing communities: the case of Benin, in Report of the working group on womens key role and issues related to gender in fishing communities. Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa (IDAF) Cotonou, Benin, Satia B.P. and Wétohossou C.Z (eds.), IDAF/WP/79: 4-6.
Women represent a significant labour force in the Benin economy development. An examination is made of womens activities in the Ayiguinnou and Aguegeus fishing communities, which concern mainly the processing and marketing of fishery products. It is concluded that, despite the difficulties they meet, women in the Aguegues and Ayiguinnou fishing communities are the heart of the artisanal fishery sector. Due to their contribution to the family budget, they are partners that men cannot get away from. Therefore, they deserve a more constant attention from development organizations, such as the IDAF programme.
212. International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF)
Yemaya newsletter on gender and fisheries.
ICSF is an international NGO working on issues that concern fishworkers the world over. As a global network of community organisers, teachers, technicians, researchers and scientists, ICSFs activities encompass monitoring and research, exchange and training, campaigns and action programmes, and communications. Samudra Report and Samudra Online, the Report publishes articles of contemporary interest in the artisanal fisheries sector.
213. The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
The Japan International Cooperation Agency funds several development projects. Among the projects implemented and/or financed by JICA listed there is the Marine Product Processing (WID) in Chile.
214. La Red Latinoamericana de las Mujeres en el Sector Pesquero
Network created by INFOPESCA gathering all women and men working in the fishery sector and willing to exchange experiences, information, know-how, and to develop projects targeting women. The aim is to identify the needs of women working in the fishery sector, to provide training and all information that they may need.
215. Women Watch - The United Nations Internet Gateway on the Advancement and Empowerment of Women
WomenWatch is a joint UN project to create a core Internet space on global womens issues. It was created to monitor the results of the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995. It was founded in March 1997 by the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW).
216. The Womens Fisheries Network
The MIT Sea Grant - Research and Outreach for Coastal Economic Growth and the Sustainability of Marine Resources.
The Womens Fisheries Network is a national non profit network of women and men dedicated to educating members and non-members alike about issues confronting the commercial fishing and seafood industry. WFN opens doors for women in the seafood industry, helps foster understanding among participants of many industry-related fields, and provides a forum for current fisheries issues.
217. Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin
The Secretariat of the Pacific Community - Coastal Fisheries Programme.
Offers an overview of the activities of the SPC Community Fisheries Section and news from the Pacific Region.
218. Womens Fisheries Development Section (WFDP)
The Secretariat of the Pacific Community - Coastal Fisheries Programme.
The Section among other activities, is also involved in carrying out women-in fisheries work as part of the Integrated Coastal Fisheries Management Project (ICFMaP). The Section is funded by the Government of Canada. In addition, the main objectives of the WFDS are to promote the increased involvement of women from coastal fishing communities in regional and national fisheries development activities and enhance income-earning opportunities for women.
219. Womens Coalition for Pacific Fisheries
http://wcpf.orst.edu/ (Oregon, USA)
The Womens Coalition for Pacific Fisheries is a group
of people connected to Pacific Coast fishing communities. WCPF is a coastwide
forum where people of all gear types and fisheries can educate and be educated,
in the true spirit of fishing community. WCPF serves as a coastwide
connection for information sharing and education for the fishing industry. It is
a non-profit corporation.