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DEGRADATION

1. A decline to a lower condition, quality, or level.
http://www.dictionary.com/cgi-bin/dict.pl?term=degradation

2. A decrease in value for a designated use.
http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/texaswater/rivers/glossaryleft.htm

3. A worsening of quality or condition.
http://www.sitesalive.com/admin/glossary/sectD.html

4. Changing to a lower state (a less respected state).
http://lookwayup.com/lwu.exe/lwu/d?s=f&w=degradation

5. Diminution or reduction of strength, efficacy, or value; degeneration; deterioration.
http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/~ralph/OPTED/v003/wb1913_d.html

6. The act or process of degrading (lowering to an inferior level) WWWebster Dictionary.

7. The process by which something is made worse, especially the quality of land.
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?key=degradation*1+0

8. The process of degeneration.
http://www.gn.apc.org/LivingEarth/RainforestDB/glossary.a-e.html#climax_forest

9. The reduction in grade, quality, yield, etc.
http://www.forestry.utoronto.ca/ac_staff/emeritus/My%20Webs/english.htm

10. To spoil or destroy the beauty or quality of.
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?key=degrade*2+0

11. (Biological) - A type of soil degradation consisting of the mineralization of humus and an increase in the activity of micro-organisms responsible for organic decay, resulting in an overall decrease in organic matter.
http://www.unu.edu/env/plec/l-degrade/index-toc.html

12. (Biological) - The diminution of biological productivity or diversity. (Sargent and Lowcock 1991)

13. (Chemical) - A number of types of soil degradation that may involve one or more of the following processes: leaching of nutritive elements; acidification; toxicities, other than excess of salts.
http://www.unu.edu/env/plec/l-degrade/index-toc.html

14. (Ecosystem) - Any process or activity that removes or lessens the viability of ecosystem functions and processes, and hence biodiversity. Dunster & Dunster 1996.

15. (Ecosystem) - Processes or activities that weaken an ecosystem, adversely affecting biological diversity.
http://www.nature.nps.gov/nrbib/HTML%20files/32.htm#3152

16. (Environmental) - Exhaustion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource such as air, water, forest, or wildlife by consuming it at a rate faster than it is naturally renewed. If such use continues, the resource can become nonrenewable or nonexistent on a human time scale. Also see sustainable yield. http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/conted/onlinecourses/enviroglos/e.html

17. (Environmental) - The process by which the environment is progressively contaminated overexploited and destroyed. (Source: RRDA)
http://oaspub.epa.gov/trs/trs_proc_qry.alphabet?p_term_nm=D

18. (Forest - Semi-natural) - A subset of semi-natural forests with some of the principle characteristics and key components of native ecosystems; a return to a semi-natural forest is unlikely to occur in a reasonable amount of time (i.e., decades) without human intervention. http://www.fscus.org/html/about_fsc/who_we_are/glossary_of_terms.html#d

19. (Forest) - A long-term reduction of tree crown cover towards but not exceeding the minimum accepted `forest' threshold. IPCC (draft version developed by a Task Force) FAO. 2002. Draft Analytical Framework on Forest-Related Definitions.

20. (Forest) - A reduction of the canopy cover or stocking within the forest. Explanatory note: For the purpose of having a harmonized set of forest and forest change definitions, that also is measurable with conventional techniques, forest degradation is assumed to be indicated by the reduction of canopy cover and/or stocking of the forest through logging, fire, windfelling or other events, provided that the canopy cover stays above 10% (cf. definition of forest). FAO 2000

21. (Forest) - A reduction of the canopy cover or stocking within the forest through logging, fire, windfelling or other events, provided that the canopy cover stays above 10%. In a more general sense, forest degradation is the long-term reduction of the overall potential supply of benefits from the forest, which includes wood, biodiversity and any other product or service. FRA 2000. FAO. 2002. Draft Analytical Framework on Forest-Related Definitions.

22. (Forest) - Biological, chemical or physical processes which result in the loss of the productive potential of natural resources in areas covered by forests and/or used by agriculture. Degradation may be permanent, although some forest areas may recover naturally or with human assistance
http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg08/forests/en/en4_6.htm and http://yahwood.com/glossary_uk.htm

23. (Forest) - Change of forest class (from closed to open forest) which negatively affects the stand or site and lowers production capacity. Degradation is not reflected in the estimates of deforestation
http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg08/forests/en/en4_6.htm

24. (Forest) - Changes within the forest class which negatively affect the stand or site and, in particular, lower the production capacity. Thus degradation is not reflected in the estimates of deforestation.
http://faov02.fao.org:70/0gopher_root%3a[fao.fra]def_uk.txt

25. (Forest) - Changes within the forest class, for example, from closed to open forest, which negatively affect the stand or site and, in particular, lower the production capacity. These lands are considered apart from deforestation. FAO 1997.

26. (Forest) - Generally defined as a reduction in tree density and/or increased disturbance to the forest that results in the loss of forest products and forest-derived ecological services.
http://www.wri.org/pdf/indoforest_glossary.pdf

27. (Forest) - Temporary or permanent reduction in the density, structure, species composition or productivity of vegetation cover. Grainger 1996.

28. (Forest) - The degradation of forest environments, through processes such as destructive logging, burning, or invasion of disturbed habitats by weedy or less useful exotic species.
http://www.spcforests.org/Library/usestatus/usestatus.htm

29. (Forest) - The degradation or impoverishment of forests, measured in terms of loss of biodiversity (which includes genetic, species and ecosystem diversity) and economic, cultural and ecological utility and stability, resulting from the selective removal of trees or other forest plant and animal species.
http://www.spcforests.org/Library/usestatus/usestatus.htm

30. (Forest) - The ecologically deleterious depletion by human activity of standing woody biomass and organic matter in forests, often associated with over-utilization of the forest for fuel or timber.
http://www.usask.ca/agriculture/caedac/dbases/glossary.htm,
http://www.climateservices.com/glossary.htm,
http://www.undp.org/seed/forest/pdf/InnovatForesFinanc.pdf,
http://www.teleport.com/~taa/glossary.htm

31. (Forest) - The long-term reduction of the overall potential supply of benefits from the forest, which includes wood, biodiversity and any other product or service. FAO 2000

32. (Forest) (Bolivia) -Degradación: Proceso que consiste la transformación de un sistema, orden, estructura o sustancia compleja, a un nivel inferior. así tenemos la degradación biológica, de los bosques. Source: Luis Castello faopaf@caoba.entelnet.bo Adjunto sírvase encontrar la versión no oficial y premilinar del Glosario Forestal elaborado por el Proyecto de Apoyo a la Coordinación e Implementación del Plan de Acción Forestal para Bolivia.

33. (Forest) (Canada - BC) - The diminution of biological productivity or diversity.
http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/pab/publctns/glossary/glossary.htm

34. (Forest) (Italy) -Degradation concerns only human induced damages or site alterations. The origin of these damages become by ongoing or made in the past human actions and refers to irrational forest harvesting, fire, grazing, etc., which usually reduce permanently the site index and may negatively affect the stand. Castellani, C., et al 1983.

35. (Forest) (Morocco and Yemen) - An aggression on the forest as ecosystem, leading to a negative change in all its biotope (fauna, flora, soil, micro/meso climate). The productivity of the whole ecosystem is lower. Degradation could lead to erosion, drought, desertification and other calamities. Mohammed Ellatifi,
m.ellatifi@ellatifi.8m.com

36. (Genetic) - Deleterious change in a native taxon's gene pool due to addition of non-local genes. The gene source can be plants of a) the same genus or species, but a non-local Californian taxon, ecotype or cultivar; b) the same genus, but a foreign taxon.
http://www.cnps.org/archives/landscaping.htm

37. (Land) - A human induced or natural process which negatively affects the land to function effectively within an ecosystem, by accepting, storing and recycling water, energy, and nutrients.
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/worldsoils/landdeg/degredation.html

38. (Land) - Any form of deterioration of the natural potential of land that affect ecosystem integrity either in terms of reducing its sustainable ecological productivity or in terms of its native biological richness and maintenance of resilience.
www.gefweb.org/COUNCIL/GEF_C14/gef_c14_inf15.doc

39. (Land) - Reduction or loss of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rain-fed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture, forest or woodlands resulting from natural processes, land uses or other human activities and habitation patterns such as land contamination, soil erosion and the destruction of the vegetation cover.
http://www.nscb.gov.ph/peenra/Publications/Compendium/glossary.PDF

40. (Land) - The decline in condition or quality of the land as a consequence of misuse or overuse, involving changes to soil, flora, fauna, water quality and quantity, visual quality and production levels by humans.
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/soe/95/28.htm

41. (Land) - The decline in condition or quality of the land as a consequence of human activities.
http://www.emrc.org.au/res/glossary.html#terms

42. (Land) - The deterioration or total loss of the productive capacity of land for present and future use. Such loss occurs mainly because of various forms of soil erosion (by wind and water) and of chemical and physical deterioration.
http://www.adb.org/projects/PRC_GEF_Partnership/LD_definition.pdf

43. (Land) - The erosional removal of materials from one place to another, which lowers the elevation of streambeds and floodplains. Dunster & Dunster. 1996.

44. (Land) - The temporary or permanent lowering of the productive capacity of land.
http://www.unu.edu/env/plec/l-degrade/index-toc.html

45. (Land) -The "reduction or loss, in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rainfed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture, forest and woodlands resulting from land uses or from a process or combination of processes, including processes arising from human activities and habitation patterns, such as: (i) soil erosion caused by wind and/or water; (ii) deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil; and (iii) long-term loss of natural vegetation."
http://yahwood.com/glossary_uk.htm

46. (Log) - Any defect that lowers the grade or quality of a log.
http://forestry.about.com/library/glossary/blforgld.htm and http://www.pfmt.org/glossary/d.htm .

47. (Natural Habitat) - Modifications which substantially reduce a habitat's ability to maintain viable populations of its native species.
http://www.ifc.org/enviro/enviro/Review_Procedure_Main/Review_Procedure/Glossary_of_Ter ms/glossary.htm

48. (Natural Resources) - Any decline in the quality of natural resources commonly caused by human activities.
http://www.emrc.org.au/res/glossary.html#terms and http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/soe/95/28.htm

49. (Natural Resources) - Any decline in the quality of natural resources or the viability of ecosystems, caused directly or indirectly by human activities.
http://www.contacttrust.org.za/BiodiversityNetwork/webpage/docs/glossary.htm

50. (Natural Resources) - The result of the cumulative activities of farmers, households, and industries, all trying to improve their socio-economic well being.
http://oaspub.epa.gov/trs/trs_proc_qry.alphabet?p_term_nm=D

51. (Range) - The degeneration of a site caused by biotic or abiotic factors, which results in a lowered successional status to the point that ecological potential is changed.
www.plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/pubs/idpmctn280101.pdf
http://www.roseworthy.adelaide.edu.au/~icooper/glossary/r.htm

52. (Soil) - A decrease in soil quality as measured by changes in soil properties and processes, and the consequent decline in productivity in terms of immediate and future production.
http://www.unu.edu/env/plec/l-degrade/index-toc.html

53. (Soil) - A set of types of soil degradation involving one or more of the following processes: loss of soil physical structure; sealing and crusting of soil surface; reduction in permeability; compaction of depth; increase in macroporosity; limitations to rooting.
http://www.unu.edu/env/plec/l-degrade/index-toc.html

54. (Soil) - Any significant reduction in the fertility of a soil.
http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/rhgiles/appendices/glossd.htm

55. (Soil) - General lowering of land surfaces by erosion.
http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/rhgiles/appendices/glossd.htm

56. (Soil) - Loss of friability or fertility of soil resulting from leaching
http://glossary.gardenweb.com/glossary/nphind.cgi?scrug=16677&k=degradation&b=and&r=wh ole&s=terms

57. (Soil) - The decline in a soil's fertility as a result of loss of organic matter, erosion by wind or water, compaction, salinization, contamination, or acidification.
http://museum.gov.ns.ca/mnh/nature/nhns2/glossary.htm

58. (Soil) -The changing of a soil to a more highly leached and weathered state, usually accompanied by morphological changes such as the development of an eluviated, light-coloured A (Ae) horizon.
http://sis.agr.gc.ca/cansis/glossary/degradation.html

59. (Species) - The state or condition of a species or group which exhibits degraded forms; degeneration. http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/~ralph/OPTED/v003/wb1913_d.html

60. (Streambed) - A progressive lowering of the channel bed due to scour. Degradation is an indicator that the stream's discharge and/or sediment load is changing. The opposite of aggradation.
http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/texaswater/rivers/glossaryleft.htm

61. (Streambed) - The general lowing of the streambed by erosive processes, such as scouring by flowing water. http://www.orst.edu/Dept/owrri/directory/glossary.htm#~D~

62. (Water) - Deterioration in water quality due to contamination or pollution; makes water unsuitable for other desirable purposes.
http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/pae/glossary/glossaryd.mhtml

63. (Wood) - Reduction in wood quality resulting from insect damage, fungal decay or fungal staining.
http://216.239.51.100/search?q=cache:GlSJPPoeSDUC:www.nre.vic.gov.au/web/root/domino/inf.series/infsheet.nsf/ec560317440956e24a2568e3000bb3d9/5d033a7c16fbff3c4a25679c002137f4/%24FILE/AG0798.pdf+degrade+forest+glossary&hl=en

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