1. Future old growth forest: Forests contiguous to old growth forests that: (1) exhibits some but not all old growth characteristics, (2) occurs in direct association with and as an integral part of an old growth forest, and (3) has the capacity to protect old growth forest areas because of their forest characteristics and location.
2. (Canada - BC) - Forests
on the coast > 250 years old; and forests in the interior > 140 years old
for most tree species, and > 120 years old for lodgepole pine and deciduous
3. (Canada - BC) Forest that contains live and dead trees of various sizes, species composition and age class structure that are part of a slowly changing but dynamic ecosystem. Old growth forests include climax forests, but do not exclude sub-climax or even mid-seral forests. The age and structure of old growth varies significantly by forest type and from one biogeoclimatic zone to another. (Wells, et al. 1998)
4. (Canada) A stand
dominated by mature or overmature trees that has not been significantly
influenced by human activity. The stand can contain various ages and species of
5. (Finland) A forest stand exceeding the regular cycle by 20 years. Lauri Karvonen 24.4.2000. Guidelines for Landscape Ecological Planning.
6. (Foret ancienne, rodal maduro). A forest dominated by mature organisms that have originated naturally from those endemic to the forest or its surrounds, in which the genetic, species and structural diversity have not been significantly changed by human activity. Forestry Chronicle 70(6):669 1994.
7. (Philippines) Forest
predominantly stocked with mature trees with less than 25 percent of the mature
stand volume removed by cutting.
8. (Primary, Original) Forests that have never been clear cut and that have little or no evidence of past human activity. Such forests may have been grazed, experienced limited exploitation of valuable tree species, and their floors may have been burned by Amerindians and European colonists (Duffy and Meier 1992).
9. (Timber) - Timber from a mature, naturally established forest (Georgia Forestry Commission).
10. (USA - USFS - Monongahela NF) - Stands with large, mature, or overmature trees comprising a plurality
of the stocking... usually having a multi-layered canopy in trees of various age
classes... includ[ing] dead trees and relatively large amounts of decaying
material on the forest floor. USDA FS Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia
11. (USA-Massachusetts) - An area of contiguous forest that (1) shows no evidence of significant human, post-European disturbance that originated on site, (2) has a significant component of older trees that are greater than fifty percent of the maximum longevity for that particular species, (3) is at least five acres in size, and (4) has the capacity for self-perpetuation, or (5) has the characteristics of a forest which, when found in combination together, are indicative of an old growth forest and which otherwise meets the criteria established by regulation by the Secretary.
12. (USA-Nevada) "Old growth" refers to stands of essentially undisturbed virgin timber on which less than 25 percent of the volume has been removed by cutting, fire or other causes. Source: NRS 528.019
13. (USA-USFS) The USFS has developed Old-Growth definitions for each of the major forest types found in the United States. These are available from the Regional Offices of the US Forest Service. A generic definition is as follows: Ecosystems distinguished by old trees and related structural attributes. Old growth encompasses the later stages of stand development that typically differ from earlier stages in a variety of characteristics which may include tree size, accumulations of large dead woody material, number of canopy layers, species composition, and ecosystem function. Description - The age at which old-growth develops and the specific structural attributes that characterize old growth will vary widely according to forest type, climate, site conditions, and disturbance regime. For example, old-growth in fire-dependent forest types may not differ from younger forests in the number of canopy layers or accumulation of down woody material. However, old-growth is typically distinguished from younger growth by several of the following attributes: 1) large trees for species and site, 2) wide variation in tree sizes and spacing, 3) accumulations of large-size dead standing and fallen trees that are high relative to earlier stages, 4) decadence in the form of broken or deformed tops or bole and root decay, 5) multiple canopy layers, and 6) canopy gaps and understory patchiness. Old-growth is not necessarily "virgin" or "primeval." Old-growth could develop following human disturbances. USFS 1989.
14. (USA-Vermont) A forest stand in which natural processes and succession have occurred over time undisturbed by human intervention http://www.state.vt.us/anr/fpr/forestry/ucf/glossary.htm Vermont Forest Resource Plan.
15. (Russia) Old-growth forests are forests originated through natural successions and have not experienced significant human impact over a long period of time. Under significant human impact we understand: clearcutting or intensive selective logging; large scale human-induced fires; intensive and regular application of chemicals such as pesticides, herbicide, fertilizers, etc.; severe industrial pollution; forest reclamation; intensive recreation, etc. Under the long period of time we understand the time, which exceeds the lifetime of the dominant tree species for a particular forest type.
16. (Victorian forests) - Forest which contains significant amounts of its oldest growth stage in its upper stratum and has been subjected to any disturbance, the effect of which is now negligible.
http://www.rfa.gov.au/documents/oldgrowth/oldgrow.html#E11E3 (Woodgate et al. (1994).
17. A classification of forest stands that describes an ecologically mature ecosystem. Where information is not available for ecological classification, age or size of dominant trees, or both, are used. (Bolsinger and Waddell 1993)
18. A climax forest that has never been disturbed by
man. The old growth forests can be classified as per the age and disturbance
19. A forest characterized by growth displaying successional stages that occur only after a relatively long period of time without a catastrophic disturbance. In Minnesota, old-growth forests probably develop after 125-150 years without a catastrophic disturbance (adapted from Old-growth Forests in Minnesota. A Preliminary Report,
Minnesota DNR Natural Heritage Program).
20. A forest dominated by mature organisms that have
originated naturally from those endemic to the forest or its surrounds, in which
the genetic, species and structural diversity have not been significantly
changed by human activity.
21. A forest dominated by mature trees that has not been
significantly influenced by human activity" (CCFM 1997: 124).
22. A forest or stand that (1) contains at least one,
preferably several, tree species that have attained an average age of 150 years
or more in the mature specimens; (2) has gone undisturbed by human activity for
a time interval sufficient for the establishment of old-growth characteristics,
and; (3) contains a density of at least 8 mature trees in the 150 year-old age
bracket per acre. Leverett (1991).
23. A forest relatively old and relatively undisturbed.
NOTE: (1) The term "old" varies by the species or group of species in a stand.
(2) Some individuals believe old growth to be an uncut, virgin forest with very
little man-made disturbance, while other individuals believe an old growth
forest can be created by limiting future disturbance and creating certain
characteristics evident in uncut virgin stands and thus termed a managed old
24. A forest stand usually at least 180-220 years old with moderate to high canopy closure; a multi-layered, multi-species canopy dominated by large overstory trees; high incidence of large trees, some with broken tops and other indications of old and decaying wood ("decadence"); numerous large snags; and heavy accumulations of wood, including large logs on the ground. From: Kathy_Jope@nps.gov (Kathy Jope) also http://www.studyweb.com/Agriculture/
25. A forest that contains live and dead trees of
various sizes, species, composition, and age class structure. Old-growth
forests, as part of a slowly changing but dynamic ecosystem, include climax
forests but not sub-climax or mid-seral forests. The age and structure of old
growth varies significantly by forest type and from one biogeoclimatic zone to
26. A forest that contains live and dead trees of various sizes, species, composition and age-class structure. The age and structure of old growth varies significantly by forest type and from one biogeoclimatic zone to another.
27. A forest that has not undergone a stand-replacing
disturbance such as logging or fire, such that succession has not occurred.
28. A forest that is ecologically mature and has been
subjected to negligible unnatural disturbance such as logging, roading or
29. A late stage of forest succession. Although the
specific characteristics of old-growth stands vary with species composition and
history, some commonly expected attributes in mesic forests on productive sites
include-an abundance of large trees at least 180 to 200 years old; a
multi-layered, multi-species canopy dominated by large overstory trees with
moderate to high closure; numerous trees with broken tops, snags, and large
30. A mature forest which has not been disturbed by
human activity. Also known as virgin forest. An increasingly rare, and
increasingly valued, element of the wilderness. The lumbermen see it as
something else, as evidenced in this not-so-subtle definition from an industry
web site: Old Growth Forest: Forest stands in which the dominant cover types are
mature or over-mature trees that have reached their maximum size. No harvest has
occurred among these large, old trees and dead and fallen trees are as common as
standing trees. Boundary Waters Compendium Glossary.
31. A natural progression of forest growth without evidence of man's influence. Sydney Haskell, Carmanah Forestry Society. (Wells, et al. 1998)
32. A post-rotational forest http://www.ameteam.ca/glossary.htm
33. A primary or a secondary forest which has achieved an age at which structures and species normally associated with old primary forests of that type have sufficiently accumulated to act as a forest ecosystem distinct from any younger age class. UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA 2001
34. A stand of mature or overmature trees relatively
uninfluenced by human activity. The stand can contain multiple layers of tree
canopies, and various ages and species of vegetation.
35. A very old and complex forest community, usually at least 200 years old, characterized by a mixture of species, trees of varied size and age, snags, and extensive amounts of wood on the forest floor.
36. An ecosystem distinguished by the presence of populations of old trees that is not necessarily in late successional condition or tree from evidence of human activity (Spies 1997).
37. An undisturbed forest with trees that are more than
200 years old. It is characterized by fallen trees, trees with broken tops and
mature and dying trees.
38. Ancient forests. http://www.nrdc.org/sitings/lookup/teraa.html
39. Any ecosystem composed of dominant and codominant
trees that are mature.
40. Ecologically mature and have been subjected to
negligible human-induced disturbance such as logging, roading and clearing or,
if subject to any disturbance, the effect of which is now negligible. Oldgrowth
forests are usually dominated by trees which exhibit late-mature or senescent
growth stages in the upper stratum.
41. Ecologically mature forest that has been subject to
negligible levels of disturbance such as logging, roading and clearing. The
definition focuses on forest in which the upper stratum or overstorey is in the
late mature or overmature growth phase.
42. Ecologically mature forest where the effects of
disturbances are now negligible.
43. Ecosystems distinguished by old trees and related
structural attributes. Specific attributes vary according to forest type,
climate, site conditions, and disturbance regime.
44. Ecosystems distinguish by old trees and related
structural attributes. Old-growth forests are characterized by larger tree size,
high accumulations of large dead woody material, multiple canopy layers, species
composition, and ecosystem function. The structure and function of an old-growth
ecosystem will be influenced by its stand size and landscape position and
45. Forest conditions often including multiple canopy
layers, variety in tree sizes and species, variety of tree ages including mature
trees, and standing and dead woody material.
46. Forest having the following structural characteristics: 1. An abundance of old trees, recognizable by the asymmetrical shapes, relatively long trunks free of low branches (i.e., in-forest as opposed to open-grown shapes), deeply furrowed or plated bark, signs of heartwood decay, large prominent root structures, flattened crowns with protruding dead limbs, large thick limbs, and trunks often showing a twist that develops with age; 2. Fallen logs in all stages of decomposition, crisscrossing the forest floor and lying in and across stream beds, covered by moss and lichens; 3. Plentiful snags (standing dead trees); 4. Canopy gaps, large and small, formed from trees that have fallen; 5. Undulating forest floor, expressed in randomly scattered pits and mounds where trees have fallen over and decomposed; 6. Majority of tree species that fall into the late successional class and a conspicuous absence of multiple-stemed trees; 7. Minimal of signs of human disturbance. http://www.canadian-forests.com/fsc-glossary.html and Eastern Old-Growth Forests: Prospects for Rediscovery and Recovery (M.B. Davis (Ed.) 1996. Island Press, Washington, DC).
47. Forest in which the upper stratum is ecologically
mature and has been subjected to negligible unnatural disturbance such as
logging, road-building and clearing.
48. Forest stand dominated by trees reaching natural death; the last stage in forest succession.
49. Forest stand dominated by trees reaching natural senescence; the last stage in forest succession.
50. Forest stands well beyond the rotation age for managed forests. Canadian Pacific Forest Products Ltd. (Wells, et al. 1998).
51. Forest that contains live and dead trees of various
sizes, species, composition and age class structures. Old growth forests, as
part of a slowly changing but dynamic ecosystem, including climax forests but
not sub-climax or mid-seral forests.
52. Forest that has a significant proportion of the
oldest discernible growth stage(s) in its overstory and negligible structural
evidence of disturbances.
53. Forest that is ecologically mature and has been
subjected to negligible unnatural disturbance such as logging, roading and
clearing. The definition focuses on forest in which the upper stratum or
overstory is in the late mature to overmature growth phases. (The National
Forest Policy Statement (Commonwealth of Australia 1992) identified.
54. Forest which has not had significant unnatural
disturbances altering its content or structure since European settlement.
55. Forest with uninterrupted growth of more than 175 years (mid-latitudes).
56. Forests having a long, uninterrupted period of
development...substantially free of human influences or natural disturbances...
57. Forests that either have never been cut or have not
been cut for many decades. Forests characterized by a large percentage of mature
58. Forests which have never been logged or developed.
59. Forests with some very old trees. These forests have
not been disturbed by major hurricanes, fires, or human actions in the last 200
to 250 year.
60. Generally, a forest stand that has reached a stage
of extreme maturity.
61. Individual trees that are beyond the age of
biological maturity, or stands that contain old growth trees as well as some
large snags, and logs on the ground.
62. Later stages in forest development that are often compositionally and always structurally distinct from earlier successional stages. Franklin and Spies 1991.
63. Later stages of forest development that are often compositionally and always structurally distinct from earlier stages. Old-growth forests contain trees that are large for their species on a site. In addition, old growth is usually charactertized by a variety of tree sizes, abundant large snags and logs, and a developed, but patchy understory. Old-growth typically exhibits high diversity in structural attributes due to varied stand disturbance histories, variable plant species mixes among sites, and interactions with adjacent stands. Structural characteristics are dynamic and old-growth stands do not always contain all of the attributes used to describe them. However, forests that most clearly match the full range of structural features for old-growth will most likely provide the full array of associated functional characteristics. (Mike Chapel, California Board of Forestry) Source: Beardsley_Debbyfirstname.lastname@example.org
64. Mixed-mesophytic old-growth, includes large trees,
basal area, diverse (native) understories, windthrow mounds, snags, woody
debris, etc. Martin (1992).
65. Old forests often containing several canopy layers,
variety in tree sizes and species, trees at least 180 to 220 years old, and
standing and dead woody material.
66. Old forests valuable in nature conservation terms have usually greatly exceeded the regeneration ages stipulated in forestry data. The trees are normally of varying sizes and species, and form multiple canopy layers, although spruce forest at a late successional stage also qualifies. Old stumps or other minor traces of human activity do not necessarily reduce the conservation value of a forest. Old age and competition have increased the amount of natural removal, and often also the amount of damage naturally suffered by the trees. The Working Group on the Protection of Old Forests on State Lands in Southern Finland
67. Old forests which often contain several canopy
layers, variety in tree sizes and species, decadent old trees, and standing and
dead woody material.
68. Old growth and ancient forests are essentially the same thing. "Ron Muir" email@example.com
69. Old growth forests can be loosely described as forests that look largely as they would appear if Europeans had not settled North America. They are forests that have suffered little or no logging or grazing.
70. Old growth, virgin forest -- (forest or woodland
having a mature or overmature ecosystem more or less uninfluenced by human
Forests which have never been logged or developed.
71. Old multi-story forest - a forest stand with
moderate to high canopy closure-a multi-leveled and multi-species canopy
dominated by large overstory trees; high incidence of large trees, some with
broken tops and other indications of old and decaying wood; numerous large
snags; and heavy accumulations of wood, including large logs on the
72. Old-growth forests are ecologically mature and have
been roading and clearing or, if subject to any disturbance, the effect of which
is now negligible. Oldgrowth forests are usually dominated by trees which
exhibit late-mature or senescent growth stages in the upper stratum.
73. Old single story forest - single canopy layer
consisting of large or old trees. Understory trees are often absent, or present
in randomly spaced patches. It generally consists of widely spaced,
shade-intolerant species, such as ponderosa pine and western larch, and high
frequency fire regimes.
74. Old-growth forest i.e. ancient forest means a natural-state (or close) forest where the amount of dead wood is tens of cubic meters per hectare. Ilkka Hanski (1999) Helsingin Sanomat
75. Old-growth forests are natural forests with pronounced variations in the ages of the trees, multiple-layered vegetation, and a great abundance of old trees and large pieces of dead wood in different stages of decay. Swedish FSC standard
76. Old-growth forests contain threatened ecosystems and species, or endemic species. They can also be large landscape-level forests capable of supporting natural ecological patterns. The Taiga Rescue Network
77. Old-growth stands must include at least six trees
per acre that are more than 30 to 32" in diameter and more than 200 years in
age. The stands must have multilayered canopies (except within mixed evergreen
forests) and hold minimal amounts of large standing snags more than 20 " in
diameter and fallen logs at least 24" in diameter. 1986 Old-Growth Definition
Task Force of the Forest Service interim definition.
78. Old-growth tree. The closest scientific description
is that it's a tree that is beyond its pathological rotation age--or simply a
tree living beyond its maturity.
79. Original, intact forest land that has not yet been
significantly degraded by people.
80. Relatively old and relatively undisturbed by humans.
81. Stands in primary or secondary forests that have
developed the structures and species normally associated with old primary forest
of that type have sufficiently accumulated to act as a forest ecosystem distinct
from any younger age class.
82. Stands in which the relic trees have died and which consist entirely of trees which grew from beneath the canopy. Oliver and Larson 1996.
83. Stands in which the relic trees have died and which
consist entirely of trees which grew from beneath... and which have developed in
the absence of allogenic processes". Transition old-growth "contains some trees
which began after the initial disturbance and also large and numerous younger
trees of allogenic origin". Oliver and Larson (1996) and Leverett (1996).
84. Stands regenerated by natural succession, with a
substantial amount of old trees and deadwood, and often with an uneven age
85. Stands that are "overmature, past the point of maximum growth, etc. Leverett (1996). http://wvnvm.wvnet.edu/~rlanden/oldgrth.htm
86. Stands with a high percentage (>50%) of the
canopy trees over half of the maximum life span of the representative trees, a
few trees near the maximum life span, no recorded history or discernible signs
of human disturbance, a "late successionary" species composition, and a set of
characteristics associated with mature, nature-managed forests. Leverett (1996).
87. Stands with canopy trees usually 150 years old or
older but no fixed percentage, trees need not be near maximum life span, but
forest must possess a set of characteristics associated with mature forest.
88. The (usually) late successional stage of forest development. note 1 - old-growth forests are defined in many ways; generally, structural characteristics used to describe old-growth forests include (a) live trees; number and minimum size of both seral and climax dominants, (b) canopy conditions: commonly including multilayering, (c) snags: minimum number of specific size, and (d) down logs and coarse woody debris: minimum tonnage and numbers of pieces of specific size. note 2 - old-growth forests generally contain trees that are large for their species and site and sometimes decadent (overmature) with broken tops, often a variety of tree sizes, large snags and logs, and a developed and often patchy understory. note 3 - stand age, although a useful indicator of old growth, is often considered less important than structure because (a) the rate of stand development depends more on environment and stand history than age alone, and (b) dominants are often multiaged. note 4 - due to large differences in forest type, climate, site quality, and natural disturbance history (e.g. fire, wind, and disease and insect epidemics), old-growth forests vary extensively in tree size, age classes, presence and abundance of structural elements, stability and presence of understory. note 5 - the minimum area needed for an old-growth forest to be a functional ecological unit depends on the nature and management of surrounding areas; small areas often do not contain all old-growth elements. note 6 - an old-growth forest is commonly perceived as an uncut, virgin forest with very little human-caused disturbance; some believe that the time taken for stands to develop old-growth structure can be shortened by silvicultural treatments which the area occupied by each species per unit area is estimated by eye. note - this method is contrasted with the weight method - synonym ocular plot estimate, plot estimate method, square-foot method (Helms 1998). From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Harold T Nygren)
89. The forest-state that stretches from the time of dominant stand height growth cessation, through to and including the stable forest climax. Western Canada Wilderness Committee. (Wells, et al. 1998).
90. The old growth forests have been described by the
adjective primeval, ancient, wilderness, virgin, pristine while in forester's
terminology they are called as over-matured, decadent, and senescent, old
growth. The old growth forests may be defined as a climax forest that has never
been disturbed by man. The old growth forests can be classified as per the age
and disturbance criteria.
91. The seral stage after mature, which is the potential
plant community capable of existing on a site, given the frequency of natural
disturbance events. In forests of the Pacific region, old growth often begins
around age 200 and continues until a stand replacing event takes place.
Depending on the frequency and intensity of disturbances, and site conditions,
old-growth forest will have different structures, species compositions, and age
92. Those mature and over-mature forests which occupy sites which have not previously been impacted by the hand of man. Fletcher Challenge Ltd. (Wells, et al. 1998).
93. Timber stands with the following characteristics: large mature and over-mature trees in the overstory, snags, dead and decaying logs on the ground, and a multi-layered canopy with trees of several age classes.
94. To most people "old growth" means big trees. The U.S. Forest Service definition is "a forest with trees 200 years or older, snags (standing dead trees), and down woody debris on the forest floor."
95. Uncut virgin forest; a forest that has not undergone
a stand-replacing disturbance such as logging or a crown fire, such that
succession has not occurred.
96. Undisturbed primary forest, typically diverse in species and age of constituents, and is a result of competition and long-time natural selection International Dendrological Research Institute Glossary -
97. Virgin and old, second-growth forests containing
trees that are often hundreds, sometimes thousands, or years old.
http://www.gsu.edu/~mstnrhx/ecogloss.htm and http://ecology.org/biod/library/glos_NS.html
98. Virgin timber.