Dirección Nacional de Pesca Continental
Argentine in its large territory has many productive inland fishing waters due to the environment, which is appropriate for the development of inland fisheries. The resources may be divided into sections as follows:
The Del Plata Basin
This drainage basin is made by the great Paraná, Uruguay and de la Plata rivers and its brooks. The Paraná River ranks just behind the Amazon and Mississippi rivers in size with a basin of 2,8 millions km2, a length of 4 000 km and an annual discharge of 500 000 million m3.
In this basin there are over 300 species of fish, many with significant commercial and sport value, such as: patí (Luciopimelodus pati), surubí (Pseudoplatystoma coruscan), dorado (Salminus maxillosus), boga (Leporinus obtusidens), sábalo (Prochilodus platensis), pacú (Colossoma mitrei), manguruyú (Paulicea lutkeni), manduví (Ageneiosus valenciennesi), pejerrey lacustre (Basilichthys bonariensis), salmón del Paraná (Brycon orbygnianus), etc.
The Patagonic Lakes and Rivers
The Patagonic region of Southern Argentine is characterized by large lakes of the Los Andes mountains with their tributary and outflow rivers and streams. These waters, over 900 000 ha, are populated with highly sought sport species including several salmonids such as: salmón en cerrado (Salmo salar sebago), trucha marrón (Salmo fario), trucha arco iris (Salmo gairdneri), trucha de arroyo (Salvelinus fontinalis), pejerrey patagónico (Basilichthys microlepidoptus), perca o trucha criolla (Percichthys sp.).
Lagoons of the Pampas
There are approximately 95 000 ha of water in the central plain. Most of these lakes and lowlands are populated with much sought fish species such as: pejerrey lacustre, tararira (Hoplias malabaricus malabaricus), lisa (Mugil platanus), bagre sapo (Rhamdia sapo) and (Rhamdia quelen).
Basins without Drainages
This region, which is formed by the center, west and northwest provinces, has about 65 000 ha of closed basin waters populated with pejerrey lacustre, as well as 3 600 km of mountain rivers filled with trucha arco iris.
The possibilities of development of this area are big due to the projected hydraulic works, and the existing ecological conditions which favor the development of native species.
Lakes Formed by Hydraulic Works
Significant among the large water reservoirs of the country are: El Chocón (area of Comahue), Los Molinos, San Roque, La Viña, Cruz del Eje, 2° and 3° Embalse (Córdoba), Cruz de Piedra, San Felipe, Potrero de Funes (San Luis), Escaba y El Cadillal (Tucumán), Río Hondo (Santiago del Estero), Cabra Corral (Salta), Anzulón and Los Sauces (La Rioja), La Ciénaga (Jujuy), Lago Pellegrini (Río Negro), Lago Ameghino (Chubut), Lago Nihuil (Mendoza), etc.
All these are important water areas populated with valuable fish species such as: pejerrey, perca o trucha criolla, etc.
The reservoir area will be enlarged in a short time by the creation of new artificial lakes due to the hydraulic works, and the fish production will be increased by means of hatcheries.
Sport fishing is practised all over the country and many people find it a very attractive and important recreational activity.
There are over 1 000 fishing clubs, grouped in 48 regional federations and one general confederation. Together they have more than 500 000 members, which represent about half the recreational fishermen in the country.
Table 1. Freshwater production (tons) in Argentina.
|Río Paraná||4 670,6||3 774,8||3 731,5|
|Río de la Plata||2 427,9||4 587,4||5 972,0|
|Río Uruguay||2 114,5||1 519,6||4 723,8|
|Lagunas de la Pampasia||504,8||240,5||577,2|
|Lagos del Sur||121,4||287,5||40,1|
|Total||9 847,2||10 436,6||15 077,0|
|Main species caught|
|Sábalo||6 376,0||6 871,2||12 036,9|
|Total||9 847,2||10 436,6||15 077,0|
To give an idea of the magnitude of these activities, each of those clubs organizes yearly four competitions of various categories: international, national, provincial and private.
Among the international contests, we must mention the Fiesta del Dorado, which takes place yearly on the Paraná River, in the provinces of Corrientes and Chaco; its purpose is to capture a carnivorous fish of great size, called Dorado, which weighs 10 to 25 kg and is a great fighter, difficult to capture.
Another important recreational fishery is practiced in lakes and rivers of Patagonia, especially in areas of the National Parks, for the capture of salmon and trout. We must also mention the Fiesta de la Trucha, which takes place alternatively in waters of the provinces of Chubut, Neuquén and Rio Negro.
Encouraged by these competitions and by the natural beauties, the sport fishermen and their families promote tourism, regional economies and the development of commerce and industries connected with fishing articles, camping, boats, etc.
Commercial Freshwater Fisheries
These activities take place mainly in the Paraná, Uruguay and de la Plata rivers and on a smaller scale in areas of the central region.
The main species captured is the sábalo (Table 1) because it is very abundant and has ample distribution in the basin. A high percentage is used for the production of fish meal and oil, and the rest is consumed fresh with other species.
In general these activities have artisanal characteristics with low economic rent for the fishermen, who have to increase their income with other occupations.
Conflicts between Sport and Commercial Fisheries
Like in other countries, both fisheries frequently conflict because anglers request limitations on commercial fishing which is difficult to consider.
Both activities must be compatible and coexist under control by the application of regulations based on the knowledge of the biology of species and the production of the environment. In this action the control of water pollution is very important.
Comprehensive data pertaining to the importance of recreational fisheries within this country are not readily available. However, current trends indicate that inland fishing must be regarded as having a significant contribution to the Australian economy.
DESCRIPTION OF THE RESOURCE AND THE ROLE OF THE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES
Australian sport fisheries utilize both native species, e.g., barramundi (Lates calcarifer), and introduced species, e.g., the trouts (Salmo gairdneri, S. trutta, and Salvelinus fontinalis) and redfin (Perca fluviatilis).
Native species are predominant in a number of coastal stream fisheries, particularly in estuarine areas. Only a few species are commercially exploited, in particular the barramundi which forms a valuable resource in both the Northern Territory and Queensland. For example, commercial production of barramundi for the Northern Territory reached a peak in 1976/77 with over 1 160 ton liveweight landed, valued at $1,36 million. Inland commercial fisheries are based on the common carp (Carassius auratus), redfin and freshwater eels (Auguilla sp.).
Sports fishing is a very popular recreational activity and is the most important use of the nation's inland fisheries resource.
Within each state and territory the recreational fisheries are under direct control of the appropriate State Fisheries Authority. Freshwater fish are therefore a common property resource managed by the State Fisheries Authority under the powers vested in the organisation by the appropriate state fisheries act.
Private Sector Involvement
Throughout southern and southeastern Australia there are commercial fish farms producing both trout and native species for domestic consumption and stocking of privately owned waters (see Appendix A for list of commercial fish farming organisations in Australia).
Angling clubs constitute the basic organizational unit at the local level. Many clubs are affiliated with regional associations, and these in turn are linked with state and national bodies.
RANKING RECREATIONAL FISHERIES PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES
Trout and redfin constitute the basis of the sport fishery in most cooler inland waters, possibly to the detriment of some native species (Murray cod, trout cod, Macquarie perch), which have declined dramatically over the last 50 years or so.
If the current trend towards increased leisure time persists, demand can be expected to increase to a point where limitations on fishing effort may be justified in some cases, e.g., the Northern Territory has recently instituted closed season on the barramundi. Similarly New South Wales has a closed season on trout during the breeding season.
Fishery management is hampered by a lack of basic data from the amateur segment of the fishery, particularly in relation to catch/effort statistics, and by our current lack of resources to produce native fishes for management purposes. In addition, there is little doubt that man-induced modifications of the aquatic environment constitute a potential threat to many species of native fish.
KEY AGENCIES AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED IN THE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES
Government: Department of Primary Industry, Fisheries Division, State Fisheries Departments.
Private Sector: Inland Fish Farmers Association of Australia.
Licence requirements and their subsequent costs vary from state to state. Special entitlements may also be given to a number of operators using specialized equipment, e.g., electofishing, fyke or drum nets.
REFERENCE SOURCES AND PUBLICATIONS
State Fisheries Department Newsletters.
Scientific papers published in a variety of journals, e.g., Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res.; Aust. Fish Farmer; Australian Fisheries.
“Freshwater Fishes and Rivers of Australia,” by John S. Lake, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1978.
“The Marine and Freshwater Fishes of South Australia,” by T. D. Scott, C. J. M. Glover and R. V. Southcott, Govt. Printer, South Australia, 1973.
“Guide to Fishes,” by E. M. Grant, 4th Edition, Queensland Government, 1978.
“Potential for Aquaculture in Australia,” Department of Agriculture, Australian Fisheries Paper No. 21, AGPS, Canberra, 1975.
APPENDIX A: LIST OF COMMERCIAL FISH FARMING ORGANISATIONS IN AUSTRALIA
List of Trout Farms in Australia (Not Guaranteed Complete)
New South Wales
There exists in Western Australia a Marron Farmers Association which I have been advised as having a membership of 150 members some two years back. Membership could easily have increased since then. Details of this Association can be procured from: Dr. Noel Morrissy, Senior Research Officer, Department of Fisheries and Fauna, Western Australian Marine Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 20, North Beach, W.A. 6020.
Members of Inland Fish Farmers Association of Australia
|L. Parker||Goolgowi, N.S.W. 2677.||Golden perch|
|K. Moss||Tumblong, N.S.W. 2728.||Yabbies|
|D. Day||Junee, N.S.W. 2593.||Yabbies|
|Alpine Trout Farms||Khankoban, N.S.W. 2642.||Trout|
|Murray cod Hatcheries of Aust. Pty. Ltd., —Pat McLaren, aquaculture consultant, specialist in yabby culture and farming of Australian native warm water fish.||Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. 2650.||Fresh-water fish of Murray-Darling River system, barramundi (Saratoga) bass, yabbies, trout and river blackfish|
|J. Moorhouse||Deneliquin, N.S.W. 2710.||Yellowbelly, cod, yabbies|
|D. & E. Bate||Tocumwal, N.S.W. 2714.||Warm-water fish|
|J. Wingate (Rural Chemical Ind)||Glenorie, N.S.W. 2157.||Trout, salmon, goldfish, yabbies, Murray cod|
|N. Douglas (Hume Dam Trout Farm)||Albury, N.S.W. 2640.||Trout|
|Snowy Mountains Trout||Tumut, N.S.W. 2720.||Trout|
|Triton Trout Pty. Ltd., B. Cooke.||Tumut, N.S.W. 2720.||Trout|
|QLD. Freshwater Fisheries||QLD.||Yabbies|
|R.J. Harvey||Gilgai, N.S.W. 2360.||Murray cod, silver perch|
|J. Gamble||Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. 2650.||Yabbies|
|B. Malcolm||Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. 2650||Warm-water fish|
|D. Hough||Frenchs Forest, N.S.W. 2650.||Murray cod, yellowbelly, catfish|
|A. Husain||Pakistan.||Trout, carp, murrell, ornamental|
|Wyangala Trout||Wyangala Dam, N.S.W.||Trout|
|I.J. & D. Richards||Red Hill, A.C.T. 2603.||Yabbies, fresh-water fish|
|Russell Falls Trout||Blackmans Bay, TAS. 7152.||Trout|
|N. V. Ruello||Chatswood, N.S.W. 2067.||Yabbies|
|Mulguthrie Pastoral Co.||Camperdown, N.S.W. 2050.||Yabbies|
|R. Wilmot||Canterbury, Vic. 3126.||Trout|
|West Coast Aquaculture||Margaret River, W.A. 6285.||Marron|
|B. Simson||Ardmona, Vic. 3629.||Warm-water fish|
|M.L. & J. Makeham||Koondrook, Vic. 3580.||Yabbies, European carp|
|R. G. Smith||Adaminaby, N.S.W. 2630.||Trout|
|P. D. O'Brien||Newcastle, N.S.W. 2300.||Yabbies|
|E. Williams||The Rock, N.S.W. 2655.||Trout|
|K. Mc Intosh||Katoomba, N.S.W. 2780.||Yabbies|
|R.M. Hay||Eugowra, N.S.W. 2806.||Yabbies|
|J. & G. Allen||Strathalbyn, S.A. 5255.||Yabbies|
|J. Sayers||Grassy, Tas. 7256.||Yabbies|
|R.Q.M.S. Pty. Ltd.||Menangle, N.S.W. 2568.||Yabbies|
|B.W. Stokes||Stanmore, N.S.W. 2048.||Trout|
|Dr. J.R. Joyce||Churchill, Vic. 3842.||Freshwater crayfish, prawns|
|Creighton Hoey||Forbes, N.S.W. 2871.||Production fish diets and fish farming equip.|
Others Engaged in Fish Farming
Victoria State Fisheries, Lake Charligrark (Victorian warm-water fish.)
N.S.W. State Fisheries, Narrandera, N.S.W. (warm-water fish)
Gerald Cooke, Bli Bli via Nambour QLD. (warm-water fish)
Ken Lightburn (South Australia and Ord River giant perch, Macrobracium rosenbergii)
The total annual sport fishing catch in Belgium is estimated at 485 000 kg. The catch, composed predominantly of cyprinids, has an estimated value of 73 million Belgian francs. There are 220 000 licensed fishermen out of a total population of almost 10 million so more than one in 50 residents owns a license.
The economic importance of river sport fishing is mostly through the businesses it supports such as manufacturers or wholesale distributors of fishing gear. There are approximately 800 such companies in Belgium. Ocean sport fishing provides a large fraction of the hotel clientele along the coast. Many commercial campgrounds are visited by rod and reel fishermen.
DESCRIPTION OF SPORTS FISHING ROLE AND RESOURCE
The capture of freshwater fishes in Belgium is essentially done using a hand line with a dead or live natural bait or an artificial bait. Fishermen may operate from the shore, from a boat, or by wading. In addition to hand lines, a number of other devices are authorized such as bow nets, eel pots, crayfish traps, etc.
Sports fishing in freshwater is considered by the agencies in charge and by the public at large as a respected hobby contributing a source of income, sometimes indirectly, for retail businesses and tourism.
At the present stage of a socio-economic study currently in progress at the Administration des eaux et forêts (Agency for Water and Forest Resources), the average annual expenditure of the Belgian fisherman for fishing gear and equipment is estimated to be 5 227 Belgian francs.
In navigable streams and canals, the fishing rights belong to the state. Any fisherman with a fishing license may fish there when the season is opened.
In all other streams (non-navigable class 1, 2 and 3; 10 646 ha) the fishing right belongs to the riparian owner. His authorization is therefore required in addition to a fishing license and the observance of the season schedule.
From a legislative and regulatory point of view, sports fishing in rivers is controlled by the appropriate ministers or regional state secretaries.
The enforcement, watch and conservation of river fishing are the responsibility of the Administration des eaux et forêts (Article 10 of the July 1st 1954 law on river fishing).
Fishing in running waters of Belgium is exclusively for the so-called sports fishermen and is not commercial.
Participation of the Private Sector
The private sector impact on river fishing is little or nothing. The same sector, however, has significant influence exploiting impoundments (ponds, etc.). It is estimated, for example, that 48% (representing ± 2 000 tons) of the trout production is stocked into impoundments.
Participation of the Sports Fishermen
About 40 000 fishermen are grouped in local fishing societies, forming parties of several individuals placed under a common regulation, to improve the protection and utilization of the fishery resources. There are about 600 fishermen societies in the country. These societies often form regional, provincial or interprovincial federations among themselves. The federations represent the fishermen in the fisheries provincial commissions discussed hereafter. Most of the federations belong to the Confédèration belge des sociétés de pêcheurs à la ligne (Belgium Confederation of the Sports Fishermen Societies).
The share of the trout market which is used in stocking streams is estimated to be 2,42% (or ± 100 tons). The share of the cyprinid market used in stocking streams is 47% (± 705 tons).
Fishery Management, Coordination Measures and Mechanisms
In 1954 Belgian legislation created the Fisheries Fund. The purpose of this fund is to insure restocking of the waters to which this legislation applies, to strengthen surveillance, to control pollution and to improve fishing in general.
The appropriate ministers and state secretaries are responsible for the management of the Fisheries Fund. The Administration des eaux et forêts controls the fund.
To insure optimum collaboration between the fishermen's associations and the government ministries and agencies, nine fisheries commissions at the provincial level and a national central committee have been appointed.
The nine provincial fisheries commissions, located in the chief town of each province under the presidency of the governor or his delegate, coordinate the efforts of the local or regional fishery societies to pursue a common action in the interest of fishing and aquaculture. They propose and implement projects to improve stream productivity, especially by appropriate restocking and fry production.
In addition to the above, the Conseil supérieur de la pêche fluviale et de la pisiculture (Superior Council for River Fishing and Aquaculture) was established in 1946. It is composed of 18 members appointed by the King. The Council gives its advice on questions related to river fishing and aquaculture at the request of the ministry.
SPORTS FISHING PROBLEMS AND PRIORITIES
Theoretically, the supply and demand of fish in the coming years should not pose any serious problem. However, it has become obvious that the progressive degradation of the rivers due to pollution and to a lesser extent alterations or obstructions in the channels threaten the very existence of fisheries in the rivers.
In addition to the above mentioned problems, ever increasing number of fishermen and the development of other activities related to the water (water skiing, sailing …) are more and more difficult to conciliate.
Before being able to practice his art, the fisherman has to comply with the following general conditions:
A person must have a fishing license valid for the current year. Presently, there are three types of fishing licenses costing 250 Bf, 750 Bf or 100 Bf that allow a person to fish with two hand lines from the shore, from a boat, or wading, respectively. These licenses are exclusively issued by the Post Office and are personal.
In the case of a non-navigable stream, the angler must have an authorization by the holder of the fishing right. This holder may be the riparian owner or a fishing society. The authorization of the holder may be given as a verbal or written warrant or it may require the purchase of a card valid for one day, one month, one year, etc.
An angler must comply with the hours and dates of the opening and closing of the fishing season. Dates vary with fish species and type of river.
Only authorized gear may be used and other regulations must be respected.
1 Translated from a paper prepared by the Administration des eaux et forêts, Division chasse et pêche.
A. L. W. Tuomi
Economic Development Directorate, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0E6 Canada
The commercial fishery is Canada's oldest industry. As an industry, it has been buffeted by events and overshadowed by the growth of other sectors of the economy and now accounts for less than 1% of the gross national product. Nevertheless, the ocean commercial fisheries have never lost their regional importance and, specifically on the Atlantic coast, the fishery is now regarded as one of the leading growth sectors of the region's economy. This stems from improved markets as well as measures taken relating to the extension of fishery economic zone jurisdiction in 1977.
Key events involving Canada's recreational fisheries can be traced back well over a century. But beside being likewise overshadowed by other developments—or more simply, taken for granted—most of the history of the growth of Canada's recreational fishery industry has been benignly neglected and the few estimates of the industry's size were for a long time regarded as fanciful expressions of advocacy. However, doubts on this score came to an end in 1978 when the results of a cooperatively mounted federal-provincial survey of sport fishing in Canada for 1975 showed that the gross value of Canada's recreational fishing exceeded $1 billion.
At this level of economic activity, Canada's recreational fishery is on many counts just as big and important as the commercial fisheries. At the same time, the dimensions of the sport fishery are so big and its implications so different and far-reaching, that much more in the way of economic analyses and interpretations are required to put the socio-economic contribution of Canada's combined recreational and commercial fisheries into a national perspective.
While such analyses are needed to clarify its status and relationships within the economy, the basic dimensions of Canada's recreational fisheries are no longer in doubt. This leaves Canada in the fortunate position of having two different industries of about the same size, sport and commercial, based on the same resource. Added together, it now means that the fisheries contribution to national welfare is at least twice previous totals based solely on the commercial fishery.
THE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES ROLE AND USE OF THE RESOURCE
Depending on the basis of calculation, Canada has between a seventh and a quarter of the world's freshwater. While its extent is revealed in Fig. 1 in relation to the comparative size of Canada's fishery zones, it must be remembered that high costs of transportation and the lower fishery productivity of northern waters limit fishery development. Countering this, however, is the attraction wilderness fishing for trophysized fish has for recreational fishermen who are willing to pay for just that kind of opportunity.
In terms of distribution, all provinces, with the exception of Alberta, are comparatively well endowed with fresh water or have an ocean coastline (Fig. 2).
There were 6,1 million anglers in Canada in 1975. Of this total, 4,9 million were Canadians and 1,2 million were tourist anglers from other countries, mostly from the U.S. Resource rents paid by anglers are, with a few exceptions, either nominal or nonexistent. In 1975, anglers paid $14,5 million in license fees (as compared with some $2,5 million in commercial licenses). Ocean anglers fishing Pacific salmon in British Colombia are not licensed, nor are Ontario resident anglers; the licensing of both, which has been proposed, would add another $12 million to the preceding angler license fee total.
In 1975, anglers accounted for about 8% of Canada's combined commercial and sport landings of finfish. While the ocean sport catch was comparatively small (Fig. 3), almost two-thirds of the inland catch was by anglers. Because Canada exports about 70% of its commercial catch, the catch taken by anglers represents an estimated 44% of the domestically produced finfish consumed in Canada in 1975.
Fig. 1. Area and percentage distribution of Canada's inland and ocean waters (000's of square kilometers, drawn to approximate scale with the land area shown). The estimated total “area” of Canada is 9 922 330 km2 of land (63,34%) and 5 743 066 km2 of ocean waters (36,66%) inside the outer limits of the fisheries zones, for a total area of 15 665 396 km2. Fresh waters represent 11,62% of the combined inland and ocean water area of 6 498 235 km2 and 7,6% of the land area. Sources—Ocean areas: Canadian Hydrographic Service estimate (1/10/79); Pacific includes Zones 3 and 5; Atlantic includes Zones 1, 2 and 4; Arctic includes Zone 6 (north of 66), Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay, Hudson Bay and other internal waters. Territorial waters are included in all instances. Freshwater area: Canada Yearbook, 1978–79, p. 23.
Fig. 2. Percentage distribution of Canada's inland waters (drawn to approximate scale with land area shown). Total freshwater area is 755 165 km2. Source—Canada Yearbook 1978–79, p. 23.
Anglers accounted for over half of total landings in two provinces, Ontario and Alberta. The percentage share of the sport catch across Canada is shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 3. Summary of catches by region, 1975 (000's of metric tonnes), exclusive of molluscs, crustaceans and “other items” (e.g., seals). Source—Ann. Stat. Review 1955–76 and Survey of Sportfishing 1975.
Anglers spent $1,1 billion in direct expenditures and on wholly attributable related investment in Canada in 1975. Most of this occured in inland waters (Fig. 5) and is regionally important because of the economic activity generated and the jobs produced in every province and many sectors of the economy. The marketed value of the commercial fisheries for the same year was $694,3 million.
By the Act of Confederation of 1865 (British North America Act), the federal government was given legislative powers over “sea coast and inland fisheries”. This federal authority over inland fisheries was challenged, however, in the case of a 9-year lease made in 1874 for Atlantic salmon fly fishing purposes on a stretch of the Miramichi River. This led to court decisions in 1882 and 1898 which confirmed continued federal legislative jurisdiction over fisheries while at the same time establishing that fishery proprietary rights in freshwaters were vested in the provinces.
These court interpretations left federal-provincial legislative overlaps in freshwater fishery jurisdiction. This was further complicated by the decisions taken over time by all provinces, except New Brunswick and Quebec, to convert their freshwater fisheries into common property. There is thus riparian ownership of fisheries in New Brunswick, for instance, where angling can be treated as a divisible, measurable and marketable private good. In the other 8 provinces and the territories, the fisheries are common property. Tidal (ocean) waters were not affected by these court rulings and remain, with one exception, as common property under exclusive federal jurisdiction.
Within this framework, all provinces exercise their proprietary authority in fresh waters, for example, by licensing fishermen, sport and commercial. At the same time, all Canadian legislation regarding fisheries per se (e.g., regulations), is federally enacted, though usually based on provincial recommendations. These jurisdictional aspects have been operationally facilitated through a mosaic of federal-provincial “arrangments.” Specifically, various forms of agreement prevail whereby, at one extreme, provinces administer federal regulations, to the other, where such regulations are federally administered.
Fig. 4. Sport fisheries percentage of combined commercial and sport catches, 1975 (000's of metric tonnes), exclusive of molluscs, crustaceans and “other items” (e.g., seals). Source—Ann. Stat. Review 1955–76 and Survey of Sportfishing 1975.
There is no common pattern in provincial fishery administration. Ontario and westward, both sport and commercial fisheries are grouped together, but are administratively located in tourism, recreation and/or natural resource departments. Quebec and eastward, sport and commercial fishery management is vested in separate departments. Nationally, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans is exclusively responsible for both commercial and recreational fisheries in ocean waters.
There is, however, one fundamental factor which has profoundly shaped both the economic and institutional aspects of fishery management in Canada.
Ninety-five percent of the entire commercial catch is taken from Canada's ocean waters which are under exclusive federal authority. Conversely, 95% of the sport fishery takes place in fresh water under the proprietary authority of the respective provinces. In the face of increasing fishery demand, costs and conflicts, there is a continuing interest in the implications of these institutional relationships.
Several developments have facilitated this institutional review process. Chief among these was the establishment of the Canadian Sport Fisheries Conferences (CSF Conferences). Held every two years since 1970, these conferences provided the national forum where all provincial and federal fishery interests successfully worked out both the plans and the cost-sharing for the 1975 survey of sport fishing in Canada. Conduct of the survey was recognized as only the first step toward improving fishery management and informing all Canadians and decision-makers regarding the size, value and potential of Canada's sport fisheries. But it has been an all-important first step in several ways.
Fig. 5. Economic activity generated by the recreational fisheries by province and territory, 1975 (millions of dollars). Source—Survey of Sportfishing 1975.
First, it has given Canada's 5 million anglers, and especially organized groups like the Canadian Wildlife Federation and its affiliated provincial fish and game federations, the first authoritative data regarding sport fishing and its economic role and contribution to the economy. Specifically, organized anglers have been represented at the CSF Conferences since 1976. At the provincial level, some organized anglers, federations and interests have, however, been playing a significant role vis-a-vis fishery management for many years. Included are submissions to governments, serving on fishery advisory and management councils, and the conduct of a wide array of fishery-related activities that extend their services well beyond their own direct angler membership.
Second, the survey results have enabled a start to be made toward a similar definition of the private sector role in the sport fish industry. Lumped together, 46% of what anglers spent in 1975 was, for example, spent on food and lodging, 33% on transportation, and 16% on fishing services and gear. In short, these represent revenues to major economic sectors and respective private and public interests. When these expenditures are by visiting anglers, they come under the purview of the tourist industry (e.g., visiting anglers spent some $240 million in Canada in 1975, representing 12,4% of total foreign tourism gross revenues). Because most of these monies are spent in more outlying areas, they provide a major focus for regional economic endeavours. The fact that resident anglers had 1,6 million boats with a market value of $1,8 billion which were used 46% of the time for sport fishing represents revenues to both the manufacturing and marine service sectors. All these aspects have not as yet been fully recognized by the sectoral interests involved, but key representatives of fly-in-fishing lodge operators and governmental tourism and economic development agencies attended the 1978 CSF conference.
The coordination of all of these diverse interests is an evolutionary process. The CSF Conferences provide the obvious national focus and forum, but, as already suggested, there are numerous other fishery committees (e.g., the deputy level federal-provincial fishery committees), councils and groups. Included under this heading but operating at another level are the various international fishery commissions, some of which, like the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, have a profound bearing on the predominately recreational fisheries found in these freshwater “oceans.”
RECREATIONAL FISHERIES PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES
Canada is, despite the extent of its fishing waters, confronted with some major fishery supply problems. The “long range transport of acidic pollutants” (LRTAP) poses a threat of international dimensions, not only to fishing waters already being used, but also on a certain but as yet unquantified scale to all northern wilderness potential. Insidious, but equally devastating is the continuing erosion of fishery habitat by both known as well as new chemicals and other pollutants. Coupled with all this is the continuing inflationary rise confronting all governments by way of the costs of both fishery protection and provision.
Increasing demand for fishing can be viewed as either a problem or an opportunity. Angler numbers are increasing at 4% a year, anglers are spending more days fishing and increasingly have the equipment (e.g., better boats) to travel further and put more pressure on stocks. If providing such opportunity is viewed as an obligation, it points to inexorably rising costs. If viewed from a marketing and/or tourism viewpoint, these demands translate into a many-faceted economic resource development opportunity because of the anglers' general willingness to pay for value received. However, the costs of large-scale development and competitive and conflicting demands on fisheries and their habitat have raised the benefit-cost level of fishery economic decision-making drastically upward in dollar terms. Opening up new areas, rehabilitating old or creating new fisheries all have mounting costs, and as was the case with energy, all signs point to the passing of the era of either cheap fish or fishing.
The policy question of who should pay and who should benefit ranks as one of the key questions of fishery management. Relating to this is the need for a comprehensively understood definition of fishery economic values, backed on the one hand by relevant ongoing statistics and on the other hand by improved economic theory for “best use” fishery management and development. Specifically, there is a need for pragmatic guidelines for the integrated operational management and development of fisheries used for both sport and commercial purposes.
Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Nicosia, Cyprus
The fishing industry presently has only a relatively minor direct impact on the economy of Cyprus, being particularly significant as a source of fish for the tourist industry. The Cyprus Sea, like the rest of the eastern Mediterranean, is rather poor and the fishing grounds are almost fully exploited. In certain communities fishing is of importance as a means of livelihood or as a secondary, seasonal occupation. Boatbuilding is well established.
The possibilities for increasing production from freshwater fish culture are good, though again somewhat limited as the available water is used mainly for irrigation and drinking; besides that there are no rivers of perennial flow with the exception of some mountain streams. The utilization of the water of the large reservoirs now under construction for fish culture is under study. Particular attention is now being paid to marine aquaculture; the prospects for which are very promising.
Sport fishing, in reservoirs and the sea, is considered a leisure time activity and a new hobby that offers enjoyment of nature and simple pleasures. Sport fishing equally attracts the inhabitants of the urban centers as well as the villagers but for different reasons. The latter fish primarily for fish to eat and to a lesser extent to simply catch and release. Freshwater fishing enriches the diet with animal protein for villagers who live near the reservoirs, while for those living in towns fishing provides the excuse for an opportunity for excursions and relaxation. Sport fishing not only has useful social values but contributes considerably to the attraction of tourists to the area of the reservoirs.
This report is concerned with the status of recreational fisheries in Cyprus and mainly the situation regarding angling in freshwater.
According to the relevant existing laws the terms fish, freshwater fish and professional fisherman are defined as follows:
Fish means any aquatic animal whether mammalian or not and shellfish, but does not include sponges.
Freshwater fish means all kind of fish found in rivers, natural streams and other fresh waters.
Professional fisherman: there is no legal definition of this term. The law, however, states that no fishing for profit will take place from a boat without a license.
Fish production from the sea lies in the range of 1 200 tons per annum valued at about U.S. $2,7 million. This is the yield of about 330 inshore fishing boats and 10 trawlers that fish mostly on the narrow continental shelf of the island. About 423 people are regarded as full time fishermen and 116 as part time, i.e., spending 100% and 75% of their time respectively in fishing. Every year 3 500 tons of fish and fish products valued at about U.S. $2,8 million have to be imported to cover the increasing demand. In 1977–1978 about 30 tons of swordfish and 3–4 tons of sponges were exported, valued at about U.S. $100 000 and U.S. $140 000 respectively.
There are four private fish farms engaged in the culture of rainbow trout. The farms are situated on Troodos Mountain and are fed by the water of some streams and springs. They produce 30 tons annually valued at $75 000. Twelve people are occupied in fish culture.
There are as yet no legal definitions for such terms as sport fishermen, game fish and coarse fish.
In the last few years sport fishing at sea and angling in reservoirs, especially the latter, have become very popular.
Angling in reservoirs is considered a new sport for Cyprus which started about 10 years ago with the expansion of the water development projects and the introduction of freshwater fish. Now there are 36 reservoirs totalling 39 million m3 of water storage and about 600 ha. Several larger reservoirs (about 50 million m3 each) are under construction, have been approved or are proposed for construction. These will increase considerably the area covered by freshwater bodies. At present about 20 reservoirs totalling 38 million m3 and about 300 ha are available to the public for angling of both game and coarse fishes (Fig. 1).
It is estimated that the number of people fishing in reservoirs is now about 3 000.
Sport fishing in the sea is quite popular and $2 million are invested in gear and boats by about 300 people. These numbers refer to sport fishing practiced from a boat. Data refering to fishing with rod and line from the seashore are missing, although this is the most popular mode of sport fishing among the lower paid class and several thousands of people are practicing it.
Aquatic resources are governmental property and no riparian rights exist. The Department of Fisheries is the responsible governmental body which, in exercising its powers under the relevant laws, is formulating bylaws and regulations for the development, exploitation, management, protection, etc. of fisheries (recreational fisheries included) whenever the need arises. Law enforcement is carried out by the Preventive Service of the Department of Fisheries.
Key Agencies Involved in the Recreational Fisheries
The Department of Fisheries is the main governmental body engaged in the recreational fisheries as regards provision, management and allocation (licensing) of stocks. It also provides to the public navigation charts and builds fishing shelters (harbours) providing shelter and facilities to fishermen. Boats used for recreational purposes are also sheltered in the marinas which are under the control of the Cyprus Tourism Organization. The Department of Fisheries cooperates with the latter for the encouragement of angling and the attraction of visitors to the reservoir areas. Release of relevant information is generally practiced. Tourists agencies organize angling tours for foreigners. The local angling clubs also take active part in the recreational fisheries.
The Role of the Department of Fisheries
The management of Inland Waters and Fisheries is carried out by the Department of Fisheries. A project was started about 10 years ago aimed at the establishment of a local fauna of selected freshwater species. The fishes had to be imported as, with the exception of eel Anguilla anguilla, no freshwater fish existed on the island. Now a thriving community consisting of about 17 species is well established in most of the reservoirs creating some excellent fisheries. A small trout population exists in some mountain brooks.
Fig. 1. Cyprus reservoirs stocked with fish.
The lowland dams are stocked with warmwater fish, mostly cyprinids. In addition to them largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, perch Perca fluviatilis and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus are used as police fish. The high mountain reservoirs above 250 m elevation are stocked with trout; about 60 000 fingerlings are used every year for this purpose. Rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri irideus was found the most suitable salmonid for still water bodies and the ideal fish for stocking reservoirs where angling depends largely on 1-year-old fish. Carp Cyprinus carpio and roach Rutilus rutilus are present in lowland and highland reservoirs. The bleak Alburnus alburnus and the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis are used as forage fish. Several other species were also imported and stocked experimentally like silver carp Hypopthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, tilapia Tilapia nilotica, T. aurea.
The crayfish Astacus fluviatilis and Pasifastacus leniusculus were used to fill vacant niches.
Fishing licenses are required for fishing in reservoirs. These are issued by the Department of Fisheries according to the Fisheries Law Cap. 135 and Law 21 of 1951—Regulation 8 of the Fisheries Regulations 1952 according to which, “No person shall kill, take, pursue or attempt to kill, take, pursue or possess or sell any trout or other non-native species of fish introduced by the Government of Cyprus into any fresh water in the Republic without the authority in writing of the ‘Fisheries Office’.”
The Law provides for on-the-spot compensation fines. Offenders are, on a first conviction, liable to a fine not exceeding £C500 (about $1 400) and on subsequent conviction to imprisonment not exceeding 6 months or to a fine not exceeding £C500 or to both such penalties.
Angling is not allowed in the mountain streams.
The licenses are issued free of charge for each reservoir separately and are valid for a 3-month period. They can be obtained from the headquarters of the Department of Fisheries in Nicosia as well as the district offices and the Department's Experimental Fish Culture Station at Kalopanayiotis. They are not transferable, and allow fishing with a single rod and line only. There are no closed seasons, as such, although fishing may not be allowed for different reasons related either to the management of the fish stocks or to the smooth running of the irrigation projects.
Fishing regulations are being formulated and will be introduced soon. These will cover and regulate all aspects of angling in reservoirs and will allow for the better management and exploitation of the existing stocks (bag limit, size limit, methods of fishing, type of bait, time of fishing, closed seasons, anglers limit, availability of permit, etc.). A small fee will also be charged.
About 3 000 angling licenses were issued during 1978, although poaching is not uncommon.
There are as yet no regulations controlling sport fishing at sea. A license is required for professional fishing only.
The Role of Anglers
There exist six angling clubs run mainly by foreigners. The Department of Fisheries is in close contact with them. The release of any information or suggestions to the anglers is facilitated by the existence of the angling clubs. The opinion of anglers is taken into consideration on issues affecting sport fisheries.
The clubs often organize angling competitions, mostly in reservoirs. Their members collect data referring to the synthesis of fish populations, condition of fish and fisheries, etc. on special forms provided by the Department of Fisheries. The collection of statistics from non-organized anglers proved repeatedly insufficient, the response being lower than 5%. Fig. 2 represents the catch per rod per hour at Yermasoyia reservoir, the most heavily fished reservoir lake, according to data provided by the members of the angling clubs. The clubs also a) assist the Department of Fisheries with the collection of brood stock or fingerlings for restocking projects whenever shore seining proves inadequate; b) offer voluntary work for the creation of basic facilities for anglers, like paths, fishing sites, etc.; c) finance minor projects for the recreational use of reservoirs.
Fig. 2. Fish catch per rod per hour at Yermasoyia reservoir, 1975–1979.
Role of the Private Sector
The private sector does not take any active part in stocking reservoirs, not either in owning or marketing access to sport fishing. The area around the high water level of the reservoirs up to a certain level belongs to the government and is open to everyone. On the other hand the seashore is government property too.
Boats are not permitted in any of the inland waters and all fishing is done from the banks. Entry fees do not exist. Boats and/or guide services can be rented easily in all harbours, fishing stations, and most of the tourist installations along the seashore by those interested in trolling, sea angling, etc.
The fishing tackle can be easily obtained locally. Most of the worldwide famous angling equipment firms are represented in Cyprus, where a fair variety of tackle can be bought at reasonable prices.
An angling magazine called “The Cyprus Angler” is being published privately.
FUTURE OF RECREATIONAL FISHERIES
Recreational Use of Reservoirs
The use of the water of the reservoirs and the area around them for recreation is under study by several governmental departments under the coordination of the Department of Fisheries. The study includes all aspects referring to water and land use. Matters regarding the supply of facilities to fishermen and general public, like parking places and camping-picnic areas, are considered with fishery management aspects. The utilization of inland waters for water sports is being examined very carefully to avoid the creation of conflicts with anglers. It is expected that a relevant policy will soon be formulated providing for laws and for enforcement of regulations for the control of building and development programs, the protection of fauna and flora and the general conservation of nature in the area of reservoirs.
Present Problems—Future Opportunities
At present problems are connected with the use of the water behind the dams for agricultural and/or domestic purpose. Fishing is regarded as a secondary use of water. The small reservoirs usually dry up during summer months and besides that small-medium size reservoirs are periodically emptied during winter months for maintenance. This requires that fish be collected and stored for successive stocking which is rather difficult with the existing means and facilities. The problems are minimized because of the close cooperation among all groups involved and usually compromise solutions are reached. Because of these reasons the larger reservoirs are better suited to sport fishing.
Poaching is a serious problem which is expected to be reduced when public awareness, understanding, and acceptance of fishery work are better developed. Law enforcement will also help considerably.
There are as yet no problems arising from other organized water recreation like dinghy sailing, rowing, canoeing, paddling, swimming, etc., as these do not exist in reservoirs.
Pollution is not regarded a problem especially in mountain reservoirs, although sport fishing may be affected at several sites along the sea, mainly near factories. The Regulation 8B of 1971 made under the Fisheries Law Cap. 135 prohibits the pollution of the freshwater bodies and the sea with any substance which might be harmful to fish.
Generally the problems which now exist as regards the recreational fisheries in Cyprus can easily be solved. The formulation of a relevant governmental policy will help avoid conflicts which now exist in other countries. It is expected that the large reservoirs under construction will contribute positively to the number of anglers. Recreational fisheries in Cyprus, both in fresh water and in the sea, are expected to continue gaining supporters.
New possibilities for increasing food generally are being sought. Extraordinary importance is attached to produce provided by both sea and fresh waters because they can make a substantial contribution to the food supply. The sources of sea fishing are limited; this adds increasing importance to the role of freshwater fisheries that, as believed by experts, stand on a threshold of intensive development.
In Czechoslovakia the task of securing self-sufficiency in the nutrition of the population and tasks associated with the protection and formation of the living environment have necessitated a re-evaluation of the mission and importance of fisheries. Fisheries enjoy intensive support and encouragement because of the high dietetic and nutritive value of fish flesh, the high economic effectiveness of production, and other factors associated with the need for the qualitative and quantitative development of water resources including their recreational function.
In relation to the plans for the production of fish in ponds, new and high importance is now attached to the planned development of modern management of water courses and reservoirs also to obtain much higher fish crops from these sources. In Czechoslovakia as a country with advanced industrial production, this constitutes a very complicated problem because harsh regulatory interference with water courses still occurs. The population's requirements for the quantity of water is increasing. However, used water returns to the rivers in a very polluted condition and the eutrophication of flowing waters and reservoirs is increasing along with the intensification of agricultural production. However, even under such conditions, the number of organized sport fishermen is increasing, exerting an increasing fishing pressure upon the waters. This increase is due to the growth of the living standard resulting in more leisure time. The labour force is turning to angling for regeneration of mental potentials and mental health in general. For these reasons, recreational fisheries have a firm position in Czechoslovakia not only within the general scope of fisheries and in the national economy, but also in the formation of an advanced socialist society.
DESCRIPTION OF THE RESOURCE AND THE ROLE OF THE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES
Fisheries have a well established tradition in Czechoslovakia. At this time there are 132 000 ha of water, including 54 000 ha of ponds. The State Fisheries National Corporation provides pond management for fish farming and special fishing facilities. Fishing in rivers, canals, reservoirs and natural lakes is the domain of the special-interest social organizations of the Czech and Slovak Fishers' Unions.
On the whole, the organizations of the Fishers' Unions comprise 3 600 workers. The annual total fish production is above 17 000 tons and is worth 200 million crowns. The annual fish crop from open waters is about 3 000 tons, including above 100 tons of the fish crops harvested commercially by the mentioned organizations. The majority of the fish are caught by anglers.
The total consumption of fish per capita of population (excluding the angled fish) is 6,6 kg. The proportions of sea to freshwater fish is 5,50 to 1,10 kg.
The Fishers' Unions carry out their economic activities on more than 72 000 ha of open waters (water courses, lakes). The length of the river network, managed by these unions, is 100 000 km. In 3 550 ha of ponds, the unions produce fish stocks for releasing in the fishing districts. The districts are included in two classes: trout and coarse fishing water districts. The former are characterized by an ichthyomass of 100–300 kg per ha, in exceptional cases 1 000 kg per ha. In the coarse water districts, in the submontane zone, the fish stocks range from 300 to 800 kg per ha, exceptionally 1 500 kg. In the lowland zone, the river ichthyomass is between 100 and 400 kg per ha, and in the inundated arms of big rivers stocks of 800 kg are not exceptional.
The available annual fish production in rivers ranges between 30 and 60% of the ichthyomass.
The Fishers' Unions also systematically manage reservoirs, representing a total area of 25 000 ha. The sport-fishing and recreational interests have been concentrated on these lakes in recent years.
The number of organized anglers has exceeded 245 000. The annual increase is about 5%. One angler spends 1–70 days fishing. The total angling fish crop is 3 000 tons annually. The average catch is 10–12 kg per angler in trout waters and 18–23 kg in coarse waters. The sum of the annual fees (membership fee, fishing licence, the basic permit, administrative fee) is 65 million crowns (265 crowns per person annually). Besides this, an angler spends other money for fishing clothes, gear, small utensils, baits and feeds, special periodicals and literature, all worth about 500 crowns annually. In such a case the sum of expenditures is 122,5 million crowns annually. However, the total sum should also include the expenditures for fishers' food, transport and the like, estimated to be above 500 crowns per angler per annum. The value of boats and other facilities owned by anglers is 770 million crowns on the whole. The value of the fixed assets of the unions has reached 173 million crowns.
The output of fish stocks for stocking the fishing districts is as high as 23 million crowns per annum. The output of fish for market is worth 4 million crowns. Sport fishermen have worked 2 600 000 hours in the construction and maintenance of fish breeding facilities and in the improvement of breeding and fishing conditions in their districts.
Czechoslovakia, with its geographical position and with many submontane lakes, reservoirs and natural lakes, has many biotypes for the existence of many fish species attractive for sport fisheries: salmonids, cyprinids, percides, and others. The outstanding natural conditions and resources are not yet fully utilized and many reserves still remain. Support is given to the development of transport, communication, and services for fishermen and it is expected that remote resources will be also dynamically used. These activities are directed by the Governmental Office for Tourism of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
Sport fishing as an activity pursued mostly in free time is one of a number of the forms of the utilization of natural resources. The conception of recreation, mostly in connection with fisheries, is highly esteemed in modern planning in Czechoslovak recreational areas, like in other countries with a high living standard.
In compliance with the fisheries law, fisheries and the fishing right belong to the state (Table 1).
Fisheries are represented, first of all, by pond management by all enterprises of the State Fisheries. The stocking of fish in the various districts is the responsibility of the organizational units of the Fishers' Unions.
The right of fishing belongs to the state and can be applied only in fishing districts. It implies the right and duty to keep, breed, protect and catch fish and other water animals in fishing districts, and take possession of the catch, and to use for these purposes the littoral land to an absolutely necessary extent.
Most of the pond areas are managed by the State Fisheries enterprises through their subordinated organizations (establishments, farms). Their duties include modern management and efforts for maximum output of market fish.
The fishing districts and ponds in which stock fish are produced for stocking the districts are managed by the Czech Fishers' Union and Slovak Fishers' Union. The Czechoslovak Fishers' Union is a federal union body for the co-ordination of the national and international activities of the unions and for the co-ordination of the technical development of the unions.
The fishing licence is issued only to members of union organizations.
Fisheries in Czechoslovakia are directed by the Ministries of Agriculture and Food of the Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic.
The departments of these ministries approve and direct the projects of the development of fisheries, capital investments, technical development, production plans, scientific and research development, activity of special educational institutions and other forms of education. They see to it that the fishery law is respected. They approve the plans for fish stocking in both running and other open waters.
Much of the directing work in fisheries is done by separate sections of Environment Protection and Formation established at these ministries.
The Departments of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Regional National Committees direct fisheries in running and other open waters, control the adherence to laws and directives and the purity of waters. They have the right to make an exception to the fishery law and to establish protected landscape regions and reserves in the territories administered by them. The Departments of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the District National Committees have the right to approve, in their districts, fishery police, fishery managers from among union members, to make exceptions to the law and issue water-law decisions, and the like.
Table 1. Organization of fishery management and research in Czechoslavakia.
The Czechoslovak citizens who are actively interested in the development of fisheries and wish to be users under fishery law are organized in the Czech Fishers' Union or Slovak Fishers' Union. Membership in the unions is voluntary. Membership is accessible to all persons who are at least 18 years old and meet the requirements for becoming a regular member. Every member is obliged to take part in special courses and to pass examinations in basic fishery regulations and knowledge. The members are accepted by the local (basic) organizations of the unions on the basis of a written application. A person may belong to only one local organization that is in the one closest to his or her permanent neighbourhood or temporary residence.
The unions, in compliance with their mission, are interested in a continuous rise of their membership. In this sense, they create conditions for the widest possible range of citizens to be involved in fishing activities and in applying the fishery law.
Unions and Their Organizational Structure
The activities of the unions and their organizational units are directed by their rules. The rules constitute the basic document of the unions. They regulate the mission of the unions, their legal status, main tasks, organizational structure, and economic management.
The union is organizationally subdivided into:
basic organizations in communities or towns, as the basic organization units;
regional organizations, as higher organizational units;
central bodies of the union.
The territorial sphere of action of the basic (local, municipal) organizations covers a territory that is, as a rule, the same as the fishing districts that they use. The basic organizations have the following main tasks:
to organize persons who are actively interested in fisheries, to admit them as members of the basic union organizations, to keep records on them, and organize their special-interest activities for performing the union tasks;
to manage the fishing districts and fish breeding facilities in a proper manner, in particular, to take care of their fish stocking and adjustment for creating optimum conditions for applying the fishery law;
to protect fisheries in the fishing districts entrusted to them;
to manage, in an appropriate way, the union property;
to issue fishing permits according to directives of the superior union bodies;
to perform the tasks included in the plan of economic activities, in particular, to organize members' voluntary work brigades for the adjustment of the districts, building of ponds, and other activities of the organization;
to apply the decisions and measures of the superior union bodies and to perform the tasks with which they are entrusted by the state administration authorities in the over-all societal interest;
to provide for the education of their members by organizing training courses, seminars, and lectures;
to see to the education of young fishers and encourage their interest in sport fishing, in nature protection and in the protection of the natural environment;
to control water purity and sources of pollution in their respective districts, and to propose due measures for an improvement of water quality and present these recommendations to responsible water-management authorities;
to present to the superior authorities, proposals for giving awards and badges to members of merit;
to organize sport fishing contests, shows, excursions, according to the directives issued by superior union bodies;
to carry out and secure all other tasks ensuing from the organizational, directing, politico-educational, special-interest and sport activities.
Basic Organization Bodies
The superior body of a local organization is its Plenary Meeting. In a municipal organization, such a superior body is represented by the Municipal Conference. These authorities make decisions on the activity of their organizations, particularly on the important questions and the main tasks, as indicated in union rules.
In the period between the Plenary Meetings and Municipal Conferences, the activities of the basic organizations are directed, with full responsibility, by a committee, and between the committee sessions, by the Praesidium of the Committee. In keeping with the rules and according to the directives of the central bodies, the over-all activities and economic affairs of the basic organizations are supervised by the auditing bodies, elected by the Plenary Meeting.
Regional Union Organizations and Bodies
The task of the regional organizations is to direct, co-ordinate, and control the work and activity of the subordinated basic organizations and to secure the fulfillment of union tasks within its respective region.
The supreme body of the regional organization is the Regional Conference.
In the time that intervenes between the Regional Conferences, the tasks of the union are carried out by the Regional Committee, the Regional Committee Praesidium, and the Regional Auditing Commission.
The body directly superior to the basic organizations, is the respective regional committee that directs their activities organizationally, politically, and methodologically, and helps the basic organizations carry out their tasks.
The regional committees, besides exercising direct control over the basic organizations, have their own tasks ensuing from the rules, and secure the application of the decisions and directives of the central union bodies, and the performance of the tasks imposed upon them by the regional political and administrative authorities and bodies of the National Front within the territory of the region.
The regional committees carry out all these tasks and secure them through Regional Committee Secretariat as the operative executive body. The activity of the secretariat is directed by the Secretary of the Regional Committee of the Fishers' Union.
Supreme Union Bodies
The supreme authority of the union is the Congress.
In the period between union Congresses, the activity of the union and the performance of its main tasks are directed by the following central bodies: Central Committee, Central Committee Praesidium, and the Central Auditing Commission.
The task of the central union bodies is to direct, control and co-ordinate the activity of all subordinated organizational units, secure the fullfillment of the main union tasks, decisions and directives of the central political and state authorities. The Central Committee of the union secures all this through its Secretariat as an operative executive body; the main union tasks include:
The management and responsibility for the management of the entrusted fishing districts. This, in turn, includes:
elaboration of the plan of fishing district management;
securing and performing the release of fish in the districts according to the fish stocking plan;
protecting fish and other aquatic fauna and protecting fishery interests in the fishing districts;
proposing the appointment of fishery managers, members of fishery police, and activists for water purity;
involvement in water-law procedures and expressing the union's opinion of the project documentation of water-management buildings and structures;
securing the improvement of the living conditions of fish through the adjustment and regulation of water courses, weirs, and the like;
controlling the use and purity of waters and detecting the sources of water pollution from the view-point of fishery protection.
Securing due implementation of fishery law in fishing districts; this includes:
issuance and distribution of fishing licences and keeping records on the frequency of members' fishing activities and their catches;
keeping records on the survey of catches and analyzing these records for statistical purposes;
issuing fishing orders, schedules, prospectuses;
establishing special-purpose fishery facilities with the services needed for the implementation of fishery law.
Running productive and economic activity in ponds and fish-farming facilities. This includes:
production of stock fish of all economically important species as needed to meet the requirements for fish stocking;
distribution of stock fish for release in fishing waters;
suppling table fish to the market, and the export and import of fish and stock fish;
adaptation of the existing and construction of new production and fish-cultivation facilities for the production of fish stocks in compliance with the conception of the development of river fisheries;
introduction of new progressive methods in the production process in keeping with the emphasis on the introduction of scientific and technical progress and encouragement of the innovation movement;
provisions for the education of specialized workers and for the improvement of their qualification.
Establishing enterprises and facilities according to valid rules, together with the needed services and operations for the production, repairs and selling of fishing gear, treatment and selling of fish and fish products, with particular respect to the encouragement of fishing tourism and recreation.
Carrying out the tasks with which the union is entrusted by the state authorities in compliance with the fishery law or other regulations:
in the field of economic (production) activities;
in the field of natural and living environment protection and improvement.
Seeing to members' education. This includes:
creation of conditions for members' preparation to passing examinations in the basic fishery rules and fishery knowledge;
organization of courses, seminars, excursions, trips, competitions, shows and other such events;
issuance of special fishery periodicals, publications, etc., and co-operation in issuing special literature;
application, use, and popularization of the results of research and science in fisheries.
Co-operation with state authorities and organizations, fishery research institutes and schools:
in preparing and working out the basic documents, program objectives and legal standards;
in protecting nature and water purity and in water management;
in national and international events in the field of sports (with the Czechoslovak physical culture and sports organization).
Involvement in public events, seminars, symposiums and the like, as a representative of sport and river fisheries.
Publicity and popularization of the tasks of fisheries and their importance through mass communication media.
RANKING RECREATIONAL FISHERIES PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES
Nowadays there is practically no conflict in Czechoslovakia between commercial fisheries of state enterprises in open waters on the one hand, and sport fishery on the other, since the commercial fishery exploitation of these waters has decreased to a minimum. The reason is that the commercial fishing for controlling the stocks, mainly in reservoirs, failed to meet the original objective.
The results were adversely affected by the high proportion of economically less-preferred fish species whose purchase price was too low. Hence the importance of commercial fishing in open waters for supplies to the home market is negligible.
Sport fishing, water works, river regulation, and communal, industrial and agricultural pollution of water courses have led to a considerable imbalance in the biology of water courses, particularly in the ratio of non-predatory and predatory fishes (F/C = 10–30).
Thus the high population density of non-predatory, economically non-preferred, species limits the individual gains of fish and, therefore, also the A/T index.
Because of this, the state subsidizes capital investments in facilities for the production of predatory fish to be released in fishing districts.
Sport fishing in Czechoslovakia has the character of a recreational fishery, since the fishers keep their catch. An angler fishes just for his/her pleasure and own consumption, so that the catch does not get to the market. Sport fishers are members of the Fishers' Union. A person wanting to become a member of the union must pass a minimum-fishery knowledge examination. When fishing, he/she must have a fishing licence (issued by the District National Committee), fishing permit (issued by a respective organization of the union) and a catch record. The records include the date of fishing and the catch. Foreign visitors buy the permit in a travel bureau.
REFERENCE SOURCES AND PUBLICATIONS
—Scientific papers by researchers from:
Fisheries and Hydrobiology Laboratory, 829 68 Bratislava, Drieňová ul. 3, čSSR.
Vertebrates Research Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 603 65 Brno, Květná ul. 8, čSSR.
Fisheries Research Institute, Vodňany, Research Station Dol u Prahy, 252 66 Libčice n/Vlt.
—Říha, J.: “Fishery Guide,” Praha 1974.
—Pohunek, M.: “Sport Fishery,” Praha 1974.
—Prášil, O., and F. Reiser: “Dam Lake Management in the Czech Socialist Republic,” Praha 1976.
—Budaj, O., and L. Skácel: “Angler's Travels in the Central Slovakian Region,” Bratislava 1965.
—Lusk, S., and L. Skácel: “Grayling,” Bratislava 1978.