Hay and Straw Conservation - For Small-Scale Farming and Pastoral Conditions


by
J. M. Suttie

FAO Plant Production and Protection Series No. 29

Food and
Agriculture
Organization
of the
United
Nations

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2000


Table of Contents



The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The designations "developed" and "developing" economies are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country, country territory or area in the development process.

ISBN: 92-5-104458-9

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org

© FAO 2000


Table of Contents


FOREWORD

ACRONYMS USED IN THE TEXT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER II HAYMAKING

Types of hay
Principles
The main operations in haymaking
Losses in haymaking
Haymaking
Practice and equipment
Manual haymaking
Haymaking using draught animal power
Simple mechanization
Modern systems
Storage

CHAPTER III HAY CROPS - CULTIVATION METHODS

Land preparation
Seed and planting material
Irrigated hay

CHAPTER IV ESTABLISHMENT AND CULTIVATION OF SPECIALIZED CROPS FOR HAY

Establishing pasture grasses
Legume establishment and seed treatment

CHAPTER V HAY CROPS - CEREALS AND GRASSES

Cereals as hay crops

Small-grain cereals
Hay from coarse grains

Grasses for hay

CHAPTER VI HAY CROPS - LEGUMES AND PULSES

Legumes

Trefoils
Lucerne, alfalfa
Sweet clovers
Clovers

Other legumes
Pulse crops for hay

CHAPTER VII HAY FROM NATURAL PASTURE

Choice of land for haymaking
Communally managed hay-lands
The quality problem of tropical grasses
Types of natural hay
Natural hay in temperate areas
Hay from shrubs
Management of natural hay lands
Haymaking

CHAPTER VIII CHOICE OF HAY CROPS

Crops, cultivars and climate
Factors affecting crop choice
Lean season feeding strategies
Hay crops for different climates
Humid and sub-humid tropical and subtropical zones
Distinct wet-and-dry season zones
Mediterranean lands
Arid and semi-arid zones
Winter-cold zones

CHAPTER IX DRY CROP RESIDUES

Straw
Stover
Traditional storage and utilization systems
Better harvesting and storing
Straw treatment
Other field crops

CHAPTER X USING HAY AND DRY RESIDUES

Seasonal planning
Feeding values of some dried forages
Treatment of crop residues (and poor hay)

CHAPTER XI CASE STUDIES

Case Study 1. Haymaking in Ethiopia
Case Study 2. La production de foin au Sahel et en Savane en Afrique de l'Ouest [Hay in the Sahel and Savannah zones of West Africa]

English Summary

Case Study 3. Hay in Erzerum Province - Eastern Turkey
Case Study 4. Hay development in China - 1. Irrigated hay in Altai Khazak Prefecture, Xinjiang (A fully transhumant system adopting irrigated hay for winter use)
Case Study 5. Hay development in China - 2. Legume hay in Liaoning (A farming community fattening livestock)
Case Study 6. Hay development in China - 3. Fodder for environmental improvement on the Loess Plateau (Erosion control and development through forestry and pasture in Xiji County, Ningxia Autonomous Region)
Case Study 7. Hay and straw in Afghanistan (Fodder conservation for long winters)
Case Study 8. Hay from natural pasture in Mongolia (The change from cooperative to private stock-rearing in a purely pastoral economy)
Case Study 9. Hay and crop residues in Pakistan - 1. Hay and fodder in mixed systems and for sale
Case Study 10. Hay and crop residues in Pakistan - 2. Hay in the northern areas (A settled community with some transhumant stock)
Case Study 11. Hay and crop residues in India and Nepal

The situation in India
Hay in Nepal

Case Study 12. Alfalfa hay production by small-scale farmers in the Chaco - A semi-arid region in Santiago del Estero Province, NW Argentina
Case Study 13. Dry-season feeding: A case study from Nicaragua

CHAPTER XII SMALL-SCALE FARM HAY IN THE FUTURE

Hay
Crop residues
Technology transfer and training

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Part 1. General reading
Part 2. References cited in text

ANNEX 1 GLOSSARY OF CROPS MENTIONED IN THE TEXT

BACK COVER