SECTION I - OBJECTIVES
SECTION II - SCOPE, USE AND DEFINITION
SECTION III - PRIMARY PRODUCTION
SECTION IV - ESTABLISHMENT: DESIGN AND FACILITIES
SECTION V - CONTROL OF OPERATION
SECTION VI - ESTABLISHMENT: MAINTENANCE AND SANITATION
SECTION VII - ESTABLISHMENT: PERSONAL HYGIENE
SECTION VIII - TRANSPORTATION
SECTION IX - PRODUCT INFORMATION AND CONSUMER AWARENESS
SECTION X - TRAINING
CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 3 (1997), Amended 1999
People have the right to expect the food they eat to be safe and suitable for consumption. Foodborne illness and foodborne injury are at best unpleasant; at worst, they can be fatal. But there are also other consequences. Outbreaks of foodborne illness can damage trade and tourism, and lead to loss of earnings, unemployment and litigation. Food spoilage is wasteful, costly and can adversely affect trade and consumer confidence.
International food trade, and foreign travel, are increasing, bringing important social and economic benefits. But this also makes the spread of illness around the world easier. Eating habits too, have undergone major change in many countries over the last two decades and new food production, preparation and distribution techniques have developed to reflect this. Effective hygiene control, therefore, is vital to avoid the adverse human health and economic consequences of foodborne illness, foodborne injury, and food spoilage. Everyone, including farmers and growers, manufacturers and processors, food handlers and consumers, has a responsibility to assure that food is safe and suitable for consumption.
These General Principles lay a firm foundation for ensuring food hygiene and should be used in conjunction with each specific code of hygienic practice, where appropriate, and the guidelines on microbiological criteria. The document follows the food chain from primary production through to final consumption, highlighting the key hygiene controls at each stage. It recommends a HACCP-based approach wherever possible to enhance food safety as described in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) System and Guidelines for its Application (Annex).
The controls described in this General Principles document are internationally recognized as essential to ensure the safety and suitability of food for consumption. The General Principles are commended to Governments, industry (including individual primary producers, manufacturers, processors, food service operators and retailers) and consumers alike.
THE CODEX GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOOD HYGIENE
2.1.1 THE FOOD CHAIN
This document follows the food chain from primary production to the final consumer, setting out the necessary hygiene conditions for producing food which is safe and suitable for consumption. The document provides a base-line structure for other, more specific, codes applicable to particular sectors. Such specific codes and guidelines should be read in conjunction with this document and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) System and Guidelines for its Application (Annex).
2.1.2 ROLES OF GOVERNMENTS, INDUSTRY, AND CONSUMERS
Governments can consider the contents of this document and decide how best they should encourage the implementation of these general principles to:
Industry should apply the hygienic practices set out in this document to:
Consumers should recognize their role by following relevant instructions and applying appropriate food hygiene measures.
Each section in this document states both the objectives to be achieved and the rationale behind those objectives in terms of the safety and suitability of food.
Section III covers primary production and associated procedures. Although hygiene practices may differ considerably for the various food commodities and specific codes should be applied where appropriate, some general guidance is given in this section. Sections IV to X set down the general hygiene principles which apply throughout the food chain to the point of sale. Section IX also covers consumer information, recognizing the important role played by consumers in maintaining the safety and suitability of food.
There will inevitably be situations where some of the specific requirements contained in this document are not applicable. The fundamental question in every case is what is necessary and appropriate on the grounds of the safety and suitability of food for consumption?
The text indicates where such questions are likely to arise by using the phrases where necessary and where appropriate. In practice, this means that, although the requirement is generally appropriate and reasonable, there will nevertheless be some situations where it is neither necessary nor appropriate on the grounds of food safety and suitability. In deciding whether a requirement is necessary or appropriate, an assessment of the risk should be made, preferably within the framework of the HACCP approach. This approach allows the requirements in this document to be flexibly and sensibly applied with a proper regard for the overall objectives of producing food which is safe and suitable for consumption. In so doing it takes into account the wide diversity of activities and varying degrees of risk involved in producing food. Additional guidance is available in specific food codes.
For the purpose of this Code, the following expressions have the meaning stated:
Cleaning - the removal of soil, food residue, dirt, grease or other objectionable matter.
Contaminant - any biological or chemical agent, foreign matter, or other substances not intentionally added to food which may compromise food safety or suitability.
Contamination - the introduction or occurrence of a contaminant in food or food environment.
Disinfection - the reduction, by means of chemical agents and/or physical methods, of the number of micro-organisms in the environment, to a level that does not compromise food safety or suitability.
Establishment - any building or area in which food is handled and the surroundings under the control of the same management.
Food hygiene - all conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food chain.
Hazard - a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.
HACCP - a system which identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards which are significant for food safety.
Food handler - any person who directly handles packaged or unpackaged food, food equipment and utensils, or food contact surfaces and is therefore expected to comply with food hygiene requirements
Food safety - assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use.
Food suitability - assurance that food is acceptable for human consumption according to its intended use.
Primary production - those steps in the food chain up to and including, for example, harvesting, slaughter, milking, fishing.
3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE
3.2 HYGIENIC PRODUCTION OF FOOD SOURCES
3.3 HANDLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORT
3.4 CLEANING, MAINTENANCE AND PERSONNEL HYGIENE AT PRIMARY PRODUCTION
Primary production should be managed in a way that ensures that food is safe and suitable for its intended use. Where necessary, this will include:
To reduce the likelihood of introducing a hazard which may adversely
affect the safety of food, or its suitability for consumption, at later
stages of the food chain.
Potential sources of contamination from the environment should be considered. In particular, primary food production should not be carried on in areas where the presence of potentially harmful substances would lead to an unacceptable level of such substances in food.
The potential effects of primary production activities on the safety and suitability of food should be considered at all times. In particular, this includes identifying any specific points in such activities where a high probability of contamination may exist and taking specific measures to minimize that probability. The HACCP-based approach may assist in the taking of such measures - see Hazard Analysis and Critical Control (HACCP) Point System and Guidelines for its Application (Annex, page 33).
Producers should as far as practicable implement measures to:
In particular, care should be taken to manage wastes, and store harmful substances appropriately. On-farm programmes which achieve specific food safety goals are becoming an important part of primary production and should be encouraged.
Procedures should be in place to:
Care should be taken to prevent, so far as reasonably practicable, deterioration and spoilage through appropriate measures which may include controlling temperature, humidity, and/or other controls.
Appropriate facilities and procedures should be in place to ensure that:
4.2 PREMISES AND ROOMS
Depending on the nature of the operations, and the risks associated with them, premises, equipment and facilities should be located, designed and constructed to ensure that:
Attention to good hygienic design and construction, appropriate location,
and the provision of adequate facilities, is necessary to enable hazards
to be effectively controlled.
Potential sources of contamination need to be considered when deciding where to locate food establishments, as well as the effectiveness of any reasonable measures that might be taken to protect food. Establishments should not be located anywhere where, after considering such protective measures, it is clear that there will remain a threat to food safety or suitability. In particular, establishments should normally be located away from:
Equipment should be located so that it:
4.2.1 DESIGN AND LAYOUT
Where appropriate, the internal design and layout of food establishments should permit good food hygiene practices, including protection against cross-contamination between and during operations by foodstuffs.
4.2.2 INTERNAL STRUCTURES AND FITTINGS
Structures within food establishments should be soundly built of durable materials and be easy to maintain, clean and where appropriate, able to be disinfected. In particular the following specific conditions should be satisfied where necessary to protect the safety and suitability of food:
4.2.3 TEMPORARY/MOBILE PREMISES AND VENDING MACHINES
Premises and structures covered here include market stalls, mobile sales and street vending vehicles, temporary premises in which food is handled such as tents and marquees.
Such premises and structures should be sited, designed and constructed to avoid, as far as reasonably practicable, contaminating food and harbouring pests.
In applying these specific conditions and requirements, any food hygiene hazards associated with such facilities should be adequately controlled to ensure the safety and suitability of food.
Equipment and containers (other than once-only use containers and packaging) coming into contact with food, should be designed and constructed to ensure that, where necessary, they can be adequately cleaned, disinfected and maintained to avoid the contamination of food. Equipment and containers should be made of materials with no toxic effect in intended use. Where necessary, equipment should be durable and movable or capable of being disassembled to allow for maintenance, cleaning, disinfection, monitoring and, for example, to facilitate inspection for pests.
4.3.2 FOOD CONTROL AND MONITORING EQUIPMENT
In addition to the general requirements in paragraph 4.3.1, equipment used to cook, heat treat, cool, store or freeze food should be designed to achieve the required food temperatures as rapidly as necessary in the interests of food safety and suitability, and maintain them effectively. Such equipment should also be designed to allow temperatures to be monitored and controlled. Where necessary, such equipment should have effective means of controlling and monitoring humidity, air-flow and any other characteristic likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety or suitability of food. These requirements are intended to ensure that:
4.3.3 CONTAINERS FOR WASTE AND INEDIBLE SUBSTANCES
Containers for waste, by-products and inedible or dangerous substances, should be specifically identifiable, suitably constructed and, where appropriate, made of impervious material. Containers used to hold dangerous substances should be identified and, where appropriate, be lockable to prevent malicious or accidental contamination of food.
4.4.1 WATER SUPPLY
An adequate supply of potable water with appropriate facilities for its storage, distribution and temperature control, should be available whenever necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food.
Potable water should be as specified in the latest edition of WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, or water of a higher standard. Non-potable water (for use in, for example, fire control, steam production, refrigeration and other similar purposes where it would not contaminate food), shall have a separate system. Non-potable water systems shall be identified and shall not connect with, or allow reflux into, potable water systems.
4.4.2 DRAINAGE AND WASTE DISPOSAL
Adequate drainage and waste disposal systems and facilities should be provided. They should be designed and constructed so that the risk of contaminating food or the potable water supply is avoided.
Adequate facilities, suitably designated, should be provided for cleaning food, utensils and equipment. Such facilities should have an adequate supply of hot and cold potable water where appropriate.
4.4.4 PERSONNEL HYGIENE FACILITIES AND TOILETS
Personnel hygiene facilities should be available to ensure that an appropriate degree of personal hygiene can be maintained and to avoid contaminating food. Where appropriate, facilities should include:
Such facilities should be suitably located and designated.
4.4.5 TEMPERATURE CONTROL
Depending on the nature of the food operations undertaken, adequate facilities should be available for heating, cooling, cooking, refrigerating and freezing food, for storing refrigerated or frozen foods, monitoring food temperatures, and when necessary, controlling ambient temperatures to ensure the safety and suitability of food.
4.4.6 AIR QUALITY AND VENTILATION
Adequate means of natural or mechanical ventilation should be provided, in particular to:
Ventilation systems should be designed and constructed so that air does not flow from contaminated areas to clean areas and, where necessary, they can be adequately maintained and cleaned.
Adequate natural or artificial lighting should be provided to enable the undertaking to operate in a hygienic manner. Where necessary, lighting should not be such that the resulting colour is misleading. The intensity should be adequate to the nature of the operation. Lighting fixtures should, where appropriate, be protected to ensure that food is not contaminated by breakages.
Where necessary, adequate facilities for the storage of food, ingredients and non-food chemicals (e.g. cleaning materials, lubricants, fuels) should be provided.
Where appropriate, food storage facilities should be designed and constructed to:
The type of storage facilities required will depend on the nature of the food. Where necessary, separate, secure storage facilities for cleaning materials and hazardous substances should be provided.
5.1 CONTROL OF FOOD HAZARDS
5.2 KEY ASPECTS OF HYGIENE CONTROL SYSTEMS
5.3 INCOMING MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
5.6 MANAGEMENT AND SUPERVISION
5.7 DOCUMENTATION AND RECORDS
5.8 RECALL PROCEDURES
To produce food which is safe and suitable for human consumption by:
To reduce the risk of unsafe food by taking preventive measures to assure
the safety and suitability of food at an appropriate stage in the operation
by controlling food hazards.
Food business operators should control food hazards through the use of systems such as HACCP. They should:
These systems should be applied throughout the food chain to control food hygiene throughout the shelf-life of the product through proper product and process design.
Control procedures may be simple, such as checking stock rotation calibrating equipment, or correctly loading refrigerated display units. In some cases a system based on expert advice, and involving documentation, may be appropriate. A model of such a food safety system is described in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control (HACCP) System and Guidelines for its Application (Annex).
5.2.1 TIME AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL
Inadequate food temperature control is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness or food spoilage. Such controls include time and temperature of cooking, cooling, processing and storage. Systems should be in place to ensure that temperature is controlled effectively where it is critical to the safety and suitability of food.
Temperature control systems should take into account:
Such systems should also specify tolerable limits for time and temperature variations.
Temperature recording devices should be checked at regular intervals and tested for accuracy.
5.2.2 SPECIFIC PROCESS STEPS
Other steps which contribute to food hygiene may include, for example:
5.2.3 MICROBIOLOGICAL AND OTHER SPECIFICATIONS
Management systems described in paragraph 5.1 offer an effective way of ensuring the safety and suitability of food. Where microbiological, chemical or physical specifications are used in any food control system, such specifications should be based on sound scientific principles and state, where appropriate, monitoring procedures, analytical methods and action limits.
5.2.4 MICROBIOLOGICAL CROSS-CONTAMINATION
Pathogens can be transferred from one food to another, either by direct contact or by food handlers, contact surfaces or the air. Raw, unprocessed food should be effectively separated, either physically or by time, from ready-to-eat foods, with effective intermediate cleaning and where appropriate disinfection.
Access to processing areas may need to be restricted or controlled. Where risks are particularly high, access to processing areas should be only via a changing facility. Personnel may need to be required to put on clean protective clothing including footwear and wash their hands before entering.
Surfaces, utensils, equipment, fixtures and fittings should be thoroughly cleaned and where necessary disinfected after raw food, particularly meat and poultry, has been handled or processed.
5.2.5 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION
Systems should be in place to prevent contamination of foods by foreign bodies such as glass or metal shards from machinery, dust, harmful fumes and unwanted chemicals. In manufacturing and processing, suitable detection or screening devices should be used where necessary.
No raw material or ingredient should be accepted by an establishment if it is known to contain parasites, undesirable micro-organisms, pesticides, veterinary drugs or toxic, decomposed or extraneous substances which would not be reduced to an acceptable level by normal sorting and/or processing. Where appropriate, specifications for raw materials should be identified and applied.
Raw materials or ingredients should, where appropriate, be inspected and sorted before processing. Where necessary, laboratory tests should be made to establish fitness for use. Only sound, suitable raw materials or ingredients should be used.
Stocks of raw materials and ingredients should be subject to effective stock rotation.
Packaging design and materials should provide adequate protection for products to minimize contamination, prevent damage, and accommodate proper labelling. Packaging materials or gases where used must be non-toxic and not pose a threat to the safety and suitability of food under the specified conditions of storage and use. Where appropriate, reusable packaging should be suitably durable, easy to clean and, where necessary, disinfect.
5.5.1 IN CONTACT WITH FOOD
Only potable water, should be used in food handling and processing, with the following exceptions:
Water recirculated for reuse should be treated and maintained in such a condition that no risk to the safety and suitability of food results from its use. The treatment process should be effectively monitored. Recirculated water which has received no further treatment and water recovered from processing of food by evaporation or drying may be used, provided its use does not constitute a risk to the safety and suitability of food.
5.5.2 AS AN INGREDIENT
Potable water should be used wherever necessary to avoid food contamination.
5.5.3 ICE AND STEAM
Ice should be made from water that complies with section 4.4.1. Ice and steam should be produced, handled and stored to protect them from contamination.
Steam used in direct contact with food or food contact surfaces should not constitute a threat to the safety and suitability of food.
The type of control and supervision needed will depend on the size of the business, the nature of its activities and the types of food involved. Managers and supervisors should have enough knowledge of food hygiene principles and practices to be able to judge potential risks, take appropriate preventive and corrective action, and ensure that effective monitoring and supervision takes place.
Where necessary, appropriate records of processing, production and distribution should be kept and retained for a period that exceeds the shelf-life of the product. Documentation can enhance the credibility and effectiveness of the food safety control system.
Managers should ensure effective procedures are in place to deal with any food safety hazard and to enable the complete, rapid recall of any implicated lot of the finished food from the market. Where a product has been withdrawn because of an immediate health hazard, other products which are produced under similar conditions, and which may present a similar hazard to public health, should be evaluated for safety and may need to be withdrawn. The need for public warnings should be considered.
Recalled products should be held under supervision until they are destroyed, used for purposes other than human consumption, determined to be safe for human consumption, or reprocessed in a manner to ensure their safety.
6.1 MAINTENANCE AND CLEANING
6.2 CLEANING PROGRAMMES
6.3 PEST CONTROL SYSTEMS
6.4 WASTE MANAGEMENT
6.5 MONITORING EFFECTIVENESS
To establish effective systems to:
To facilitate the continuing effective control of food hazards, pests,
and other agents likely to contaminate food.
Establishments and equipment should be kept in an appropriate state of repair and condition to:
Cleaning should remove food residues and dirt which may be a source of contamination. The necessary cleaning methods and materials will depend on the nature of the food business. Disinfection may be necessary after cleaning.
Cleaning chemicals should be handled and used carefully and in accordance with manufacturers instructions and stored, where necessary, separated from food, in clearly identified containers to avoid the risk of contaminating food.
6.1.2 CLEANING PROCEDURES AND METHODS
Cleaning can be carried out by the separate or the combined use of physical methods, such as heat, scrubbing, turbulent flow, vacuum cleaning or other methods that avoid the use of water, and chemical methods using detergents, alkalis or acids.
Cleaning procedures will involve, where appropriate:
Cleaning and disinfection programmes should ensure that all parts of the establishment are appropriately clean, and should include the cleaning of cleaning equipment.
Cleaning and disinfection programmes should be continually and effectively monitored for their suitability and effectiveness and where necessary, documented.
Where written cleaning programmes are used, they should specify:
Where appropriate, programmes should be drawn up in consultation with relevant specialist expert advisors.
Pests pose a major threat to the safety and suitability of food. Pest infestations can occur where there are breeding sites and a supply of food. Good hygiene practices should be employed to avoid creating an environment conducive to pests. Good sanitation, inspection of incoming materials and good monitoring can minimize the likelihood of infestation and thereby limit the need for pesticides. [Insert reference to FAO document dealing with Integrated Pest Management].
6.3.2 PREVENTING ACCESS
Buildings should be kept in good repair and condition to prevent pest access and to eliminate potential breeding sites. Holes, drains and other places where pests are likely to gain access should be kept sealed. Wire mesh screens, for example on open windows, doors and ventilators, will reduce the problem of pest entry. Animals should, wherever possible, be excluded from the grounds of factories and food processing plants.
6.3.3 HARBOURAGE AND INFESTATION
The availability of food and water encourages pest harbourage and infestation. Potential food sources should be stored in pest-proof containers and/or stacked above the ground and away from walls. Areas both inside and outside food premises should be kept clean. Where appropriate, refuse should be stored in covered, pest-proof containers.
6.3.4 MONITORING AND DETECTION
Establishments and surrounding areas should be regularly examined for evidence of infestation.
Pest infestations should be dealt with immediately and without adversely affecting food safety or suitability. Treatment with chemical, physical or biological agents should be carried out without posing a threat to the safety or suitability of food.
Suitable provision must be made for the removal and storage of waste. Waste must not be allowed to accumulate in food handling, food storage, and other working areas and the adjoining environment except so far as is unavoidable for the proper functioning of the business.
Waste stores must be kept appropriately clean.
Sanitation systems should be monitored for effectiveness, periodically verified by means such as audit pre-operational inspections or, where appropriate, microbiological sampling of environment and food contact surfaces and regularly reviewed and adapted to reflect changed circumstances.
7.1 HEALTH STATUS
7.2 ILLNESS AND INJURIES
7.3 PERSONAL CLEANLINESS
7.4 PERSONAL BEHAVIOUR
To ensure that those who come directly or indirectly into contact with food are not likely to contaminate food by:
People who do not maintain an appropriate degree of personal cleanliness,
who have certain illnesses or conditions or who behave inappropriately,
can contaminate food and transmit illness to consumers.
People known, or suspected, to be suffering from, or to be a carrier of a disease or illness likely to be transmitted through food, should not be allowed to enter any food handling area if there is a likelihood of their contaminating food. Any person so affected should immediately report illness or symptoms of illness to the management.
Medical examination of a food handler should be carried out if clinically or epidemiologically indicated.
Conditions which should be reported to management so that any need for medical examination and/or possible exclusion from food handling can be considered, include:
Food handlers should maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness and, where appropriate, wear suitable protective clothing, head covering, and footwear. Cuts and wounds, where personnel are permitted to continue working, should be covered by suitable waterproof dressings.
Personnel should always wash their hands when personal cleanliness may affect food safety, for example:
People engaged in food handling activities should refrain from behaviour which could result in contamination of food, for example:
Personal effects such as jewellery, watches, pins or other items should not be worn or brought into food handling areas if they pose a threat to the safety and suitability of food.
Visitors to food manufacturing, processing or handling areas should, where appropriate, wear protective clothing and adhere to the other personal hygiene provisions in this section.
8.3 USE AND MAINTENANCE
Measures should be taken where necessary to:
Food may become contaminated, or may not reach its destination in a suitable
condition for consumption, unless effective control measures are taken
during transport, even where adequate hygiene control measures have been
taken earlier in the food chain.
Food must be adequately protected during transport. The type of conveyances or containers required depends on the nature of the food and the conditions under which it has to be transported.
Where necessary, conveyances and bulk containers should be designed and constructed so that they:
Conveyances and containers for transporting food should be kept in an appropriate state of cleanliness, repair and condition. Where the same conveyance or container is used for transporting different foods, or non-foods, effective cleaning and, where necessary, disinfection should take place between loads.
Where appropriate, particularly in bulk transport, containers and conveyances should be designated and marked for food use only and be used only for that purpose.
9.1 LOT IDENTIFICATION
9.2 PRODUCT INFORMATION
9.4 CONSUMER EDUCATION
Products should bear appropriate information to ensure that:
Consumers should have enough knowledge of food hygiene to enable them to:
Information for industry or trade users should be clearly distinguishable from consumer information, particularly on food labels.
Insufficient product information, and/or inadequate knowledge of general
food hygiene, can lead to products being mishandled at later stages in
the food chain. Such mishandling can result in illness, or products becoming
unsuitable for consumption, even where adequate hygiene control measures
have been taken earlier in the food chain.
Lot identification is essential in product recall and also helps effective stock rotation. Each container of food should be permanently marked to identify the producer and the lot. Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985) applies.
All food products should be accompanied by or bear adequate information to enable the next person in the food chain to handle, display, store and prepare and use the product safely and correctly.
Prepackaged foods should be labelled with clear instructions to enable the next person in the food chain to handle, display, store and use the product safely. Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985) applies.
Health education programmes should cover general food hygiene. Such programmes should enable consumers to understand the importance of any product information and to follow any instructions accompanying products, and make informed choices. In particular consumers should be informed of the relationship between time/temperature control and foodborne illness.
10.1 AWARENESS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
10.2 TRAINING PROGRAMMES
10.3 INSTRUCTION AND SUPERVISION
10.4 REFRESHER TRAINING
Those engaged in food operations who come directly or indirectly into contact with food should be trained, and/or instructed in food hygiene to a level appropriate to the operations they are to perform.
Training is fundamentally important to any food hygiene system.
Inadequate hygiene training, and/or instruction and
supervision of all people involved in food related activities pose a potential
threat to the safety of food and its suitability for consumption.
Food hygiene training is fundamentally important. All personnel should be aware of their role and responsibility in protecting food from contamination or deterioration. Food handlers should have the necessary knowledge and skills to enable them to handle food hygienically. Those who handle strong cleaning chemicals or other potentially hazardous chemicals should be instructed in safe handling techniques.
Factors to take into account in assessing the level of training required include:
Periodic assessments of the effectiveness of training and instruction programmes should be made, as well as routine supervision and checks to ensure that procedures are being carried out effectively.
Managers and supervisors of food processes should have the necessary knowledge of food hygiene principles and practices to be able to judge potential risks and take the necessary action to remedy deficiencies.
Training programmes should be routinely reviewed and updated where necessary. Systems should be in place to ensure that food handlers remain aware of all procedures necessary to maintain the safety and suitability of food.